10th edition of Systema Naturae
The 10th edition of Systema Naturae was a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature. In it, Linnaeus introduced binomial nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature
Binomial nomenclature is a formal system of naming species of living things by giving each a name composed of two parts, both of which use Latin grammatical forms, although they can be based on words from other languages...

 for animal
Animals are a major group of multicellular, eukaryotic organisms of the kingdom Animalia or Metazoa. Their body plan eventually becomes fixed as they develop, although some undergo a process of metamorphosis later on in their life. Most animals are motile, meaning they can move spontaneously and...

s, something he had already done for plants in his 1753 publication of
Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum was first published in 1753, as a two-volume work by Carl Linnaeus. Its prime importance is perhaps that it is the primary starting point of plant nomenclature as it exists today. This means that the first names to be considered validly published in botany are those that appear...


Starting point

Before 1758, most biological catalogues had used polynomial names for the taxa included, including earlier editions of
Systema Naturae. The first work to consistently apply binomial nomenclature across the animal kingdom was the 10th edition of Systema Naturae. The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature
The International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature is an organization dedicated to "achieving stability and sense in the scientific naming of animals". Founded in 1895, it currently comprises 28 members from 20 countries, mainly practicing zoological taxonomists...

 therefore chose the 1st of January 1758 as the "starting point" for zoological nomenclature, and asserted that the 10th edition of
Systema Naturae was to be treated as if published on that date. Names published before that date are unavailable, even if they would otherwise satisfy the rules. The only work which takes priority
Principle of Priority
thumb|270px|Boa manditraIn zoology, the scientific study of animals, the Principle of Priority is one of the guiding principles of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, defined by Article 23....

 over the 10th edition is Carl Alexander Clerck
Carl Alexander Clerck
Carl Alexander Clerck was a Swedish entomologist and arachnologist.Clerck came from a family in the petty nobility and entered the University of Uppsala in 1726. Little is known of his studies; although a contemporary of Linnaeus, it is unknown whether he had any contact with him during his time...

or , which was published in 1757, but is also to be treated as if published on January 1, 1758.


During Linnaeus' lifetime,
Systema Naturae was under continuous revision. Progress was incorporated into new and ever-expanding editions; for example, in his 1st edition (1735), whales and manatee
Manatees are large, fully aquatic, mostly herbivorous marine mammals sometimes known as sea cows...

s were originally classified as species of fish
Fish are a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic vertebrate animals that lack limbs with digits. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish, as well as various extinct related groups...

 (as was thought to be the case then), but in the 10th edition they were moved into the mammal
Mammals are members of a class of air-breathing vertebrate animals characterised by the possession of endothermy, hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands functional in mothers with young...



The Animal Kingdom (as described by Linnaeus):
Animals enjoy sensation by means of a living organization, animated by a medullary substance; perception by nerves; and motion by the exertion of the will. They have members for the different purposes of life; organs for their different senses; and faculties (or powers) for the application of their different perceptions. They all originate from an egg. Their external and internal structure; their comparative anatomy, habits, instincts, and various relations to each other, are detailed in authors who prosessedly treat on their subjects. 

The list has been broken down into the original six classes Linnaeus described for animals; Mammalia, Aves, Amphibia, Pisces, Insecta, & Vermes. These classes were ultimately created by studying the internal anatomy, as seen in his key:
  • Heart with 2 auricles, 2 ventricles. Warm, red blood
  • Viviparous: Mammalia
    Mammalia in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae
    In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus described the Mammalia as:Animals that suckle their young by means of lactiferous teats. In external and internal structure they resemble man: most of them are quadrupeds; and with man, their natural enemy, inhabit the surface of the Earth...

  • Oviparous: Aves
    Aves in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae
    In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus listed the 564 species of bird from around the world which were known to him at the time. There are now believed to be around 10,000 extant species...

  • Heart with 1 auricle, 1 ventricle. Cold, red blood
  • Lungs voluntary: Amphibia
    Amphibia in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae
    In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus described the Amphibia as:Animals that are distinguished by a body cold and generally naked; stern and expressive countenance; harsh voice; mostly lurid color; filthy odor; a few are furnished with a horrid poison; all have cartilaginous bones,...

  • External gills: Pisces
    Pisces in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae
    In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus described the Pisces as:Always inhabiting the waters; are swift in their motion and voracious in their appetites. They breathe by means of gills, which are generally united by a bony arch; swim by means of radiate fins, and are mostly covered...

  • Heart with 1 auricle, 0 ventricles. Cold, puss-like blood
  • Have antennae: Insecta
    Insecta in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae
    In the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, Carl Linnaeus classified the arthropods, including insects, arachnids and crustaceans, among his class "Insecta"...

  • Have tentacles: Vermes
    Vermes in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae
    In 1758, in the 10th edition of Systema Naturae, the Swedish scientist and taxonomist Carl Linnaeus described the class "Vermes" as:Animals of slow motion, soft substance, able to increase their bulk and restore parts which have been destroyed, extremely tenatious of life, and the inhabitants of...

By current standards Pisces and Vermes are informal groupings, Insecta also contained arachnid
Arachnids are a class of joint-legged invertebrate animals in the subphylum Chelicerata. All arachnids have eight legs, although in some species the front pair may convert to a sensory function. The term is derived from the Greek words , meaning "spider".Almost all extant arachnids are terrestrial...

s and crustacean
Crustaceans form a very large group of arthropods, usually treated as a subphylum, which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill and barnacles. The 50,000 described species range in size from Stygotantulus stocki at , to the Japanese spider crab with a leg span...

s, and one order of Amphibia comprised shark
Sharks are a type of fish with a full cartilaginous skeleton and a highly streamlined body. The earliest known sharks date from more than 420 million years ago....

s, lamprey
Lampreys are a family of jawless fish, whose adults are characterized by a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth. Translated from an admixture of Latin and Greek, lamprey means stone lickers...

s, and sturgeon
Sturgeon is the common name used for some 26 species of fish in the family Acipenseridae, including the genera Acipenser, Huso, Scaphirhynchus and Pseudoscaphirhynchus. The term includes over 20 species commonly referred to as sturgeon and several closely related species that have distinct common...



Linnaeus described mammal
Mammals are members of a class of air-breathing vertebrate animals characterised by the possession of endothermy, hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands functional in mothers with young...

s as: Animals that suckle their young by means of lactiferous treats. In external and internal structure they resemble man: most of them are quadrupeds; and with man, their natural enemy, inhabit the surface of the Earth. The largest, though fewest in number, inhabit the ocean. 

Linnaeus divided the mammals based upon the number, situation, and structure of their teeth, into the following orders and genera:
  • Primates: Homo
    Homo may refer to:*the Greek prefix ὅμο-, meaning "the same"*the Latin for man, human being*Homo, the taxonomical genus including modern humans...

    Humans are the only living species in the Homo genus...

    Simia (monkey
    A monkey is a primate, either an Old World monkey or a New World monkey. There are about 260 known living species of monkey. Many are arboreal, although there are species that live primarily on the ground, such as baboons. Monkeys are generally considered to be intelligent. Unlike apes, monkeys...

    s & ape
    Apes are Old World anthropoid mammals, more specifically a clade of tailless catarrhine primates, belonging to the biological superfamily Hominoidea. The apes are native to Africa and South-east Asia, although in relatively recent times humans have spread all over the world...

    Lemur (lemur
    Lemurs are a clade of strepsirrhine primates endemic to the island of Madagascar. They are named after the lemures of Roman mythology due to the ghostly vocalizations, reflective eyes, and the nocturnal habits of some species...

    s & colugo
    Colugos are arboreal gliding mammals found in South-east Asia. There are just two extant species, which make up the entire family Cynocephalidae and order Dermoptera. They are the most capable of all gliding mammals, using flaps of extra skin between their legs to glide from higher to lower...

    s) &
    Vespertilio (bat
    Bats are mammals of the order Chiroptera "hand" and pteron "wing") whose forelimbs form webbed wings, making them the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight. By contrast, other mammals said to fly, such as flying squirrels, gliding possums, and colugos, glide rather than fly,...

  • Bruta: Elephas (elephant
    Elephants are large land mammals in two extant genera of the family Elephantidae: Elephas and Loxodonta, with the third genus Mammuthus extinct...

    Trichechus (manatee
    Manatees are large, fully aquatic, mostly herbivorous marine mammals sometimes known as sea cows...

    Bradypus (sloth
    Sloths are the six species of medium-sized mammals belonging to the families Megalonychidae and Bradypodidae , part of the order Pilosa and therefore related to armadillos and anteaters, which sport a similar set of specialized claws.They are arboreal residents of the jungles of Central and South...

    Myrmecophaga (anteater
    Anteaters, also known as antbear, are the four mammal species of the suborder Vermilingua commonly known for eating ants and termites. Together with the sloths, they compose the order Pilosa...

    s) &
    Manis (pangolin
    A pangolin , also scaly anteater or Trenggiling, is a mammal of the order Pholidota. There is only one extant family and one genus of pangolins, comprising eight species. There are also a number of extinct taxa. Pangolins have large keratin scales covering their skin and are the only mammals with...

  • Ferae: Phoca (seal
    Pinnipeds or fin-footed mammals are a widely distributed and diverse group of semiaquatic marine mammals comprising the families Odobenidae , Otariidae , and Phocidae .-Overview: Pinnipeds are typically sleek-bodied and barrel-shaped...

    Canis (dog
    The domestic dog is a domesticated form of the gray wolf, a member of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. The term is used for both feral and pet varieties. The dog may have been the first animal to be domesticated, and has been the most widely kept working, hunting, and companion animal in...

    s & hyena
    Hyenas or Hyaenas are the animals of the family Hyaenidae of suborder feliforms of the Carnivora. It is the fourth smallest biological family in the Carnivora , and one of the smallest in the mammalia...

    Felis (cat
    The cat , also known as the domestic cat or housecat to distinguish it from other felids and felines, is a small, usually furry, domesticated, carnivorous mammal that is valued by humans for its companionship and for its ability to hunt vermin and household pests...

    Viverra (mongoose
    Mongoose are a family of 33 living species of small carnivorans from southern Eurasia and mainland Africa. Four additional species from Madagascar in the subfamily Galidiinae, which were previously classified in this family, are also referred to as "mongooses" or "mongoose-like"...

    s & civet
    The family Viverridae is made up of around 30 species of medium-sized mammal, including all of the genets, the binturong, most of the civets, and the two African linsangs....

    Mustela (weasel
    Weasels are mammals forming the genus Mustela of the Mustelidae family. They are small, active predators, long and slender with short legs....

    s & kin) &
    Ursus (bear
    Bears are mammals of the family Ursidae. Bears are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans, with the pinnipeds being their closest living relatives. Although there are only eight living species of bear, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the Northern...

  • Bestiae: Sus (pigs), Dasypus (armadillo
    Armadillos are New World placental mammals, known for having a leathery armor shell. Dasypodidae is the only surviving family in the order Cingulata, part of the superorder Xenarthra along with the anteaters and sloths. The word armadillo is Spanish for "little armored one"...

    Erinaceus (hedgehog
    A hedgehog is any of the spiny mammals of the subfamily Erinaceinae and the order Erinaceomorpha. There are 17 species of hedgehog in five genera, found through parts of Europe, Asia, Africa, and New Zealand . There are no hedgehogs native to Australia, and no living species native to the Americas...

    Talpa (mole
    Mole (animal)
    Moles are small cylindrical mammals adapted to a subterranean lifestyle. They have velvety fur; tiny or invisible ears and eyes; and short, powerful limbs with large paws oriented for digging. The term is especially and most properly used for the true moles, those of the Talpidae family in the...

    Sorex (shrew
    A shrew or shrew mouse is a small molelike mammal classified in the order Soricomorpha. True shrews are also not to be confused with West Indies shrews, treeshrews, otter shrews, or elephant shrews, which belong to different families or orders.Although its external appearance is generally that of...

    s) &
    Didelphis (opossums)
  • Glires: Rhinoceros (rhinoceros
    Rhinoceros , also known as rhino, is a group of five extant species of odd-toed ungulates in the family Rhinocerotidae. Two of these species are native to Africa and three to southern Asia....

    Hystrix (porcupine
    Porcupines are rodents with a coat of sharp spines, or quills, that defend or camouflage them from predators. They are indigenous to the Americas, southern Asia, and Africa. Porcupines are the third largest of the rodents, behind the capybara and the beaver. Most porcupines are about long, with...

    Lepus (rabbit
    Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world...

    s & hare
    Hares and jackrabbits are leporids belonging to the genus Lepus. Hares less than one year old are called leverets. Four species commonly known as types of hare are classified outside of Lepus: the hispid hare , and three species known as red rock hares .Hares are very fast-moving...

    Castor (beaver
    The beaver is a primarily nocturnal, large, semi-aquatic rodent. Castor includes two extant species, North American Beaver and Eurasian Beaver . Beavers are known for building dams, canals, and lodges . They are the second-largest rodent in the world...

    Mus (mice
    -Fiction:*Mice , alien species in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy*The Mice -Acronyms:* "Meetings, Incentives, Conferencing, Exhibitions", facilities terminology for events...

     & kin) &
    Sciurus (squirrel
    Squirrels belong to a large family of small or medium-sized rodents called the Sciuridae. The family includes tree squirrels, ground squirrels, chipmunks, marmots , flying squirrels, and prairie dogs. Squirrels are indigenous to the Americas, Eurasia, and Africa and have been introduced to Australia...

  • Pecora: Camelus (camel
    A camel is an even-toed ungulate within the genus Camelus, bearing distinctive fatty deposits known as humps on its back. There are two species of camels: the dromedary or Arabian camel has a single hump, and the bactrian has two humps. Dromedaries are native to the dry desert areas of West Asia,...

    Moschus (musk deer
    Musk deer
    Musk deer are artiodactyls of the genus Moschus, the only genus of family Moschidae. They are more primitive than the cervids, or true deer, in not having antlers or facial glands, in having only a single pair of teats, and in possessing a gall bladder, a caudal gland, a pair of tusk-like teeth...

    Cervus (deer
    Deer are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae. Species in the Cervidae family include white-tailed deer, elk, moose, red deer, reindeer, fallow deer, roe deer and chital. Male deer of all species and female reindeer grow and shed new antlers each year...

     & giraffe
    The giraffe is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all extant land-living animal species, and the largest ruminant...

    Capra (goat
    The domestic goat is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the Bovidae family and is closely related to the sheep as both are in the goat-antelope subfamily Caprinae. There are over three hundred distinct breeds of...

    s & antelope
    Antelope is a term referring to many even-toed ungulate species indigenous to various regions in Africa and Eurasia. Antelopes comprise a miscellaneous group within the family Bovidae, encompassing those old-world species that are neither cattle, sheep, buffalo, bison, nor goats...

    Ovis (sheep) & Bos (cattle
    Cattle are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, and are most commonly classified collectively as Bos primigenius...

  • Belluae: Equus (horse
    The horse is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus, or the wild horse. It is a single-hooved mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae. The horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature into the large, single-toed animal of today...

    s) &
    Hippopotamus (hippopotamus
    The hippopotamus , or hippo, from the ancient Greek for "river horse" , is a large, mostly herbivorous mammal in sub-Saharan Africa, and one of only two extant species in the family Hippopotamidae After the elephant and rhinoceros, the hippopotamus is the third largest land mammal and the heaviest...

  • Cete: Monodon (narwhal
    The narwhal, Monodon monoceros, is a medium-sized toothed whale that lives year-round in the Arctic. One of two living species of whale in the Monodontidae family, along with the beluga whale, the narwhal males are distinguished by a characteristic long, straight, helical tusk extending from their...

    Balaena (rorqual
    Rorquals are the largest group of baleen whales, with nine species in two genera. They include the largest animal that has ever lived, the Blue Whale, which can reach , and another that easily reaches ; even the smallest of the group, the Northern Minke Whale, reaches .-Characteristics:Rorquals...

    Physeter (sperm whales
    Sperm Whale
    The sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus, is a marine mammal species, order Cetacea, a toothed whale having the largest brain of any animal. The name comes from the milky-white waxy substance, spermaceti, found in the animal's head. The sperm whale is the only living member of genus Physeter...

    ) &
    Delphinus (dolphin
    Dolphins are marine mammals that are closely related to whales and porpoises. There are almost forty species of dolphin in 17 genera. They vary in size from and , up to and . They are found worldwide, mostly in the shallower seas of the continental shelves, and are carnivores, mostly eating...

    s & porpoise
    Porpoises are small cetaceans of the family Phocoenidae; they are related to whales and dolphins. They are distinct from dolphins, although the word "porpoise" has been used to refer to any small dolphin, especially by sailors and fishermen...



Linnaeus described bird
Birds are feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic , egg-laying, vertebrate animals. Around 10,000 living species and 188 families makes them the most speciose class of tetrapod vertebrates. They inhabit ecosystems across the globe, from the Arctic to the Antarctic. Extant birds range in size from...

s as:
A beautiful and cheerful portion of created nature consisting of animals having a body covered with feathers and down; protracted and naked jaws (the beak), two wings formed for flight, and two feet. They are areal, vocal, swift and light, and destitute of external ears, lips, teeth, scrotum, womb, bladder, epiglottis, corpus callosum and its arch, and diaphragm.

Linnaeus divided the birds based upon the characters of the bill and feet, into the following orders and genera:
  • Accipitres: Vultur (vulture
    Vulture is the name given to two groups of convergently evolved scavenging birds, the New World Vultures including the well-known Californian and Andean Condors, and the Old World Vultures including the birds which are seen scavenging on carcasses of dead animals on African plains...

    s & condor
    Condor is the name for two species of New World vultures, each in a monotypic genus. They are the largest flying land birds in the Western Hemisphere.They are:* The Andean Condor which inhabits the Andean mountains....

    Falco (falcon
    A falcon is any species of raptor in the genus Falco. The genus contains 37 species, widely distributed throughout Europe, Asia, and North America....

    s, eagle
    Eagles are members of the bird family Accipitridae, and belong to several genera which are not necessarily closely related to each other. Most of the more than 60 species occur in Eurasia and Africa. Outside this area, just two species can be found in the United States and Canada, nine more in...

    s, & kin),
    Strix (owl
    Owls are a group of birds that belong to the order Strigiformes, constituting 200 bird of prey species. Most are solitary and nocturnal, with some exceptions . Owls hunt mostly small mammals, insects, and other birds, although a few species specialize in hunting fish...

    s) &
    Lanius (shrikes
    Lanius, the typical shrikes, are a genus of passerine birds in the shrike family. The majority of the family's species are placed in this genus. African species are known as fiscals...

  • Picae: Psittacus (parrot
    Parrots, also known as psittacines , are birds of the roughly 372 species in 86 genera that make up the order Psittaciformes, found in most tropical and subtropical regions. The order is subdivided into three families: the Psittacidae , the Cacatuidae and the Strigopidae...

    Ramphastos (toucan
    Toucans are members of the family Ramphastidae of near passerine birds from the Neotropics. The family is most closely related to the American barbets. They are brightly marked and have large, often colorful bills. The family includes five genera and about forty different species...

    Buceros (hornbill
    Hornbills are a family of bird found in tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia and Melanesia. They are characterized by a long, down-curved bill which is frequently brightly-colored and sometimes has a casque on the upper mandible. Both the common English and the scientific name of the family...

    Crotophaga (anis
    Ani (bird)
    The anis are the three species of near-passerine birds in the genus Crotophaga of the cuckoo family. They are essentially tropical New world birds, although the range of two species just reaches the United States...

    Corvus (crow
    Crows form the genus Corvus in the family Corvidae. Ranging in size from the relatively small pigeon-size jackdaws to the Common Raven of the Holarctic region and Thick-billed Raven of the highlands of Ethiopia, the 40 or so members of this genus occur on all temperate continents and several...

    s & raven
    Raven is the common name given to several larger-bodied members of the genus Corvus—but in Europe and North America the Common Raven is normally implied...

    Coracias (roller
    The rollers are an Old World family, Coraciidae, of near passerine birds. The group gets its name from the aerial acrobatics some of these birds perform during courtship or territorial flights. Rollers resemble crows in size and build, and share the colourful appearance of kingfishers and...

    s & oriole
    Orioles are colourful Old World passerine birds in the genus Oriolus, the namesake of the corvoidean family Oriolidae. They are not related to the New World orioles, which are icterids and, belonging to the superfamily Passeroidea songbirds, are quite unrelated to the true orioles.The orioles are...

    Gracula (myna
    The myna is a bird of the starling family . This is a group of passerine birds which occur naturally only in southern and eastern Asia...

    Paradisea (birds-of-paradise), Cuculus (cuckoo
    The cuckoos are a family, Cuculidae, of near passerine birds. The order Cuculiformes, in addition to the cuckoos, also includes the turacos . Some zoologists and taxonomists have also included the unique Hoatzin in the Cuculiformes, but its taxonomy remains in dispute...

    Jynx (wryneck
    The wrynecks are a small but distinctive group of small Old World woodpeckers.Like the true woodpeckers, wrynecks have large heads, long tongues which they use to extract their insect prey and zygodactyl feet, with two toes pointing forward, and two backwards...

    Picus (woodpecker
    Woodpeckers are near passerine birds of the order Piciformes. They are one subfamily in the family Picidae, which also includes the piculets and wrynecks. They are found worldwide and include about 180 species....

    Sitta (nuthatch
    The nuthatches are a genus, Sitta, of small passerine birds belonging to the family Sittidae. Characterised by large heads, short tails, and powerful bills and feet, nuthatches advertise their territory using loud, simple songs...

    Alcedo (kingfisher
    Kingfishers are a group of small to medium sized brightly coloured birds in the order Coraciiformes. They have a cosmopolitan distribution, with most species being found in the Old World and Australia...

    Merops (bee-eaters), Upupa (hoopoe
    The Hoopoe is a colourful bird that is found across Afro-Eurasia, notable for its distinctive 'crown' of feathers. It is the only extant species in the family Upupidae. One insular species, the Giant Hoopoe of Saint Helena, is extinct, and the Madagascar subspecies of the Hoopoe is sometimes...

    Certhia (treecreepers
    Certhia is the genus of birds containing the typical treecreepers, which together with the Spotted Creeper make up the family Certhiidae.The typical treecreepers occur in many wooded parts of the North Temperate Zone...

    ) &
    Trochilus (hummingbird
    Hummingbirds are birds that comprise the family Trochilidae. They are among the smallest of birds, most species measuring in the 7.5–13 cm range. Indeed, the smallest extant bird species is a hummingbird, the 5-cm Bee Hummingbird. They can hover in mid-air by rapidly flapping their wings...

  • Anseres: Anas (duck
    Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the Anatidae family of birds, which also includes swans and geese. The ducks are divided among several subfamilies in the Anatidae family; they do not represent a monophyletic group but a form taxon, since swans and geese are not considered...

    s, geese
    The word goose is the English name for a group of waterfowl, belonging to the family Anatidae. This family also includes swans, most of which are larger than true geese, and ducks, which are smaller....

    , & swan
    Swans, genus Cygnus, are birds of the family Anatidae, which also includes geese and ducks. Swans are grouped with the closely related geese in the subfamily Anserinae where they form the tribe Cygnini. Sometimes, they are considered a distinct subfamily, Cygninae...

    Mergus (mergansers
    Mergus is the genus of the typical mergansers, fish-eating ducks in the seaduck subfamily . The Hooded Merganser, often termed Mergus cucullatus, is not of this genus but closely related...

    Alca (auk
    An auk is a bird of the family Alcidae in the order Charadriiformes. Auks are superficially similar to penguins due to their black-and-white colours, their upright posture and some of their habits...

    s & puffin
    Puffins are any of three small species of auk in the bird genus Fratercula with a brightly coloured beak during the breeding season. These are pelagic seabirds that feed primarily by diving in the water. They breed in large colonies on coastal cliffs or offshore islands, nesting in crevices among...

    Procellaria (petrel
    Petrels are tube-nosed seabirds in the bird order Procellariiformes. The common name does not indicate relationship beyond that point, as "petrels" occur in three of the four families within that group...

    Diomedea (albatross
    Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds allied to the procellariids, storm-petrels and diving-petrels in the order Procellariiformes . They range widely in the Southern Ocean and the North Pacific...

    es & penguin
    Penguins are a group of aquatic, flightless birds living almost exclusively in the southern hemisphere, especially in Antarctica. Highly adapted for life in the water, penguins have countershaded dark and white plumage, and their wings have become flippers...

    Pelecanus (pelican
    A pelican, derived from the Greek word πελεκυς pelekys is a large water bird with a large throat pouch, belonging to the bird family Pelecanidae....

    s & kin),
    Phaethon (tropicbird
    Tropicbirds are a family, Phaethontidae, of tropical pelagic seabirds now classified in their own order Phaethontiformes. Their relationship to other living birds is unclear, and they appear to have no close relatives. There are three species in one genus, Phaethon...

    Columbus (grebe
    A grebe is a member of the Podicipediformes order, a widely distributed order of freshwater diving birds, some of which visit the sea when migrating and in winter...

    s & loon
    The loons or divers are a group of aquatic birds found in many parts of North America and northern Eurasia...

    Larus (gull
    Gulls are birds in the family Laridae. They are most closely related to the terns and only distantly related to auks, skimmers, and more distantly to the waders...

    Sterna (tern
    Terns are seabirds in the family Sternidae, previously considered a subfamily of the gull family Laridae . They form a lineage with the gulls and skimmers which in turn is related to skuas and auks...

    s) &
    Rhyncops (skimmer
    The Skimmers, Rynchopidae, are a small family of tern-like birds in the order Charadriiformes, which also includes the waders, gulls and auks. The family comprises three species found in South Asia, Africa, and the Americas....

  • Grallae: Phoenicopterus (flamingo
    Flamingos or flamingoes are gregarious wading birds in the genus Phoenicopterus , the only genus in the family Phoenicopteridae...

    Platalea (spoonbill
    Spoonbills are a group of large, long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae, which also includes the Ibises.All have large, flat, spatulate bills and feed by wading through shallow water, sweeping the partly opened bill from side to side...

    Mycteria & Tantulus (stork
    Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long, stout bills. They belong to the family Ciconiidae. They are the only family in the biological order Ciconiiformes, which was once much larger and held a number of families....

    Ardea (heron
    The herons are long-legged freshwater and coastal birds in the family Ardeidae. There are 64 recognised species in this family. Some are called "egrets" or "bitterns" instead of "heron"....

    s, crane
    Crane (bird)
    Cranes are a family, Gruidae, of large, long-legged and long-necked birds in the order Gruiformes. There are fifteen species of crane in four genera. Unlike the similar-looking but unrelated herons, cranes fly with necks outstretched, not pulled back...

    s, & kin),
    Scolopax (godwit
    The godwits are a group of large, long-billed, long-legged and strongly migratory wading birds of the genus Limosa. They form large flocks on coasts and estuaries in winter....

    s, ibis
    The ibises are a group of long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae....

    es, & kin),
    Tringa (phalarope
    A phalarope or wadepiper is any of three living species of slender-necked shorebirds in the genus Phalaropus of the bird family Scolopacidae. They are close relatives of the shanks and tattlers, the Actitis and Terek Sandpipers, and also of the turnstones and calidrids...

    s and sandpipers),
    Charadrius (plover
    Plovers are a widely distributed group of wading birds belonging to the subfamily Charadriinae. There are about 40 species in the subfamily, most of them called "plover" or "dotterel". The closely related lapwing subfamily, Vanellinae, comprises another 20-odd species.Plovers are found throughout...

    Recurvirostra (avocet
    The four species of Avocets are a genus, Recurvirostra, of waders in the same avian family as the stilts.Avocets have long legs and long, thin, upcurved bills which they sweep from side to side when feeding in the brackish or saline wetlands they prefer...

    Haematopus (oystercatcher
    The oystercatchers are a group of waders; they form the family Haematopodidae, which has a single genus, Haematopus. They are found on coasts worldwide apart from the polar regions and some tropical regions of Africa and South East Asia...

    Fulica (coot
    Coots are medium-sized water birds that are members of the rail family Rallidae. They constitute the genus Fulica. Coots have predominantly black plumage, and, unlike many of the rails, they are usually easy to see, often swimming in open water...

    s & kin),
    Rallus (rails
    The rails, or Rallidae, are a large cosmopolitan family of small to medium-sized birds. The family exhibits considerable diversity and the family also includes the crakes, coots, and gallinules...

    Psophia (trumpeters
    Trumpeter (bird)
    The trumpeters are a family of birds restricted to the humid forests of the Amazon and Guiana Shield in South America. They are named for the trumpeting or cackling threat call of the males. The three species resemble chickens in size; they measure 45 to 52 centimetres long and weigh 1 to 1.5...

    Otis (bustard
    Bustards, including floricans and korhaans, are large terrestrial birds mainly associated with dry open country and steppes in the Old World...

    s) &
    Struthio (ostrich
    The Ostrich is one or two species of large flightless birds native to Africa, the only living member of the genus Struthio. Some analyses indicate that the Somali Ostrich may be better considered a full species apart from the Common Ostrich, but most taxonomists consider it to be a...

  • Gallinae: Pavo (peafowl
    Peafowl are two Asiatic species of flying birds in the genus Pavo of the pheasant family, Phasianidae, best known for the male's extravagant eye-spotted tail, which it displays as part of courtship. The male is called a peacock, the female a peahen, and the offspring peachicks. The adult female...

    Meleagris (turkeys
    Turkey (bird)
    A turkey is a large bird in the genus Meleagris. One species, Meleagris gallopavo, commonly known as the Wild Turkey, is native to the forests of North America. The domestic turkey is a descendant of this species...

    Crax (curassow
    Curassows are one of the three major groups of cracid birds. Three of the four genera are restricted to tropical South America; a single species of Crax ranges north to Mexico...

    Phasianus (pheasant
    Pheasants refer to some members of the Phasianinae subfamily of Phasianidae in the order Galliformes.Pheasants are characterised by strong sexual dimorphism, males being highly ornate with bright colours and adornments such as wattles and long tails. Males are usually larger than females and have...

    s & chicken
    The chicken is a domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the Red Junglefowl. As one of the most common and widespread domestic animals, and with a population of more than 24 billion in 2003, there are more chickens in the world than any other species of bird...

    s) &
    Tetrao (grouse
    Grouse are a group of birds from the order Galliformes. They are sometimes considered a family Tetraonidae, though the American Ornithologists' Union and many others include grouse as a subfamily Tetraoninae in the family Phasianidae...

     & kin)
  • Passeres: Columba (pigeons & dove
    Pigeons and doves constitute the bird family Columbidae within the order Columbiformes, which include some 300 species of near passerines. In general terms "dove" and "pigeon" are used somewhat interchangeably...

    Alauda (lark
    Larks are passerine birds of the family Alaudidae. All species occur in the Old World, and in northern and eastern Australia; only one, the Shore Lark, has spread to North America, where it is called the Horned Lark...

    s & pipit
    The pipits are a cosmopolitan genus, Anthus, of small passerine birds with medium to long tails. Along with the wagtails and longclaws, the pipits make up the family Motacillidae...

    Sturnus (starling
    Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds in the family Sturnidae. The name "Sturnidae" comes from the Latin word for starling, sturnus. Many Asian species, particularly the larger ones, are called mynas, and many African species are known as glossy starlings because of their iridescent...

    Turdus (thrush
    Thrush (bird)
    The thrushes, family Turdidae, are a group of passerine birds that occur worldwide.-Characteristics:Thrushes are plump, soft-plumaged, small to medium-sized birds, inhabiting wooded areas, and often feed on the ground or eat small fruit. The smallest thrush may be the Forest Rock-thrush, at and...

    Loxia (cardinals
    Cardinal (bird)
    The Cardinals or Cardinalidae are a family of passerine birds found in North and South America. The South American cardinals in the genus Paroaria are placed in another family, the Thraupidae ....

    , bullfinches
    Pyrrhula is a small genus of passerine birds, commonly called Bullfinches, belonging to the finch family .The genus has a palearctic distribution. All species occur in Asia with two species exclusively in the Himalayas and one species, P. pyrrhula, also occurring in Europe. The Azores Bullfinch...

    , & kin),
    Emberiza (bunting
    Bunting can refer to:* Bunting , a group of birds* An infant sleeping bag* The act of laying down a bunt, a type of offensive play in baseball* Bunting , a lightweight cloth material often used for flags and festive decorations...

    Fringilla (finch
    The true finches are passerine birds in the family Fringillidae. They are predominantly seed-eating songbirds. Most are native to the Northern Hemisphere, but one subfamily is endemic to the Neotropics, one to the Hawaiian Islands, and one subfamily – monotypic at genus level – is found...

    Motacilla (wagtail
    The wagtails form the passerine bird genus Motacilla. They are small birds with long tails which they wag frequently. Motacilla, the root of the family and genus name, means moving tail...

    Parus (tits & chickadees), Hirundo (swallows & swift
    The swifts are a family, Apodidae, of highly aerial birds. They are superficially similar to swallows, but are actually not closely related to passerine species at all; swifts are in the separate order Apodiformes, which they share with hummingbirds...

    s) &
    Caprimulgus (nightjars)


Linnaeus described his "Amphibia" (comprising reptile
Reptiles are members of a class of air-breathing, ectothermic vertebrates which are characterized by laying shelled eggs , and having skin covered in scales and/or scutes. They are tetrapods, either having four limbs or being descended from four-limbed ancestors...

s and amphibian
Amphibians , are a class of vertebrate animals including animals such as toads, frogs, caecilians, and salamanders. They are characterized as non-amniote ectothermic tetrapods...

s) as:
Animals that are distinguished by a body cold and generally naked; stern and expressive countenance; harsh voice; mostly lurid color; filthy odor; a few are furnished with a horrid poison; all have cartilaginous bones, slow circulation, exquisite sight and hearing, large pulmonary vessels, lobate liver, oblong thick stomach, and cystic, hepatic, and pancreatic ducts: they are deficient in diaphragm, do not transpire (sweat), can live a long time without food, are tenacious of life, and have the power of reproducing parts which have been destroyed or lost; some undergo a metamorphosis; some cast (shed) their skin; some appear to live promiscuously on land or in the water, and some are torpid during the winter. 

Linnaeus divided the amphibians based upon the limb structures and the way they breathed, into the following orders and genera:
  • Reptiles: Testudo (turtle
    Turtles are reptiles of the order Testudines , characterised by a special bony or cartilaginous shell developed from their ribs that acts as a shield...

    s & tortoise
    Tortoises are a family of land-dwelling reptiles of the order of turtles . Like their marine cousins, the sea turtles, tortoises are shielded from predators by a shell. The top part of the shell is the carapace, the underside is the plastron, and the two are connected by the bridge. The tortoise...

    Draco (gliding lizards), Lacerta (terrestrial lizards
    Lizards are a widespread group of squamate reptiles, with nearly 3800 species, ranging across all continents except Antarctica as well as most oceanic island chains...

    , salamander
    Salamander is a common name of approximately 500 species of amphibians. They are typically characterized by a superficially lizard-like appearance, with their slender bodies, short noses, and long tails. All known fossils and extinct species fall under the order Caudata, while sometimes the extant...

    s, & crocodilians) &
    Rana (frog
    Frogs are amphibians in the order Anura , formerly referred to as Salientia . Most frogs are characterized by a short body, webbed digits , protruding eyes and the absence of a tail...

    s & toad
    A toad is any of a number of species of amphibians in the order Anura characterized by dry, leathery skin , short legs, and snoat-like parotoid glands...

  • Serpentes: Crotalus (rattlesnake
    Rattlesnakes are a group of venomous snakes of the genera Crotalus and Sistrurus of the subfamily Crotalinae . There are 32 known species of rattlesnake, with between 65-70 subspecies, all native to the Americas, ranging from southern Alberta and southern British Columbia in Canada to Central...

    Boa (boas
    Boa (genus)
    Boa is a genus of non-venomous boas found in Mexico, Central and South America, Madagascar and on Reunion Island. Four species are currently recognized.The largest member of this group, B...

    Coluber (racers
    Coluber is a genus of thin bodied, fast moving, colubrid snakes commonly known as racers. They are widespread around the world and vary greatly in habitat and behaviour. In the past, Coluber was a catch-all genus which included almost all snake species known at the time...

     & cobras),
    Anguis (slowworms
    Anguis, or the slow worm, is a small genus of lizard in the family Anguidae. It has two described species.Although they are lizards, slow worms have lost their limbs completely and are often mistaken as snakes. Slow-worms typically grow to between , with the females slightly larger than the males...

     & worm snakes
    Typhlops is a genus of blind snakes found in Europe, Africa, Asia and Central and South America. Currently, 120 species are recognized.-Geographic range:...

    Amphisbaena (worm lizards
    The Amphisbaenia are a usually legless suborder of squamates closely related to lizards and snakes. As many species possess a pink body coloration and scales arranged in rings, they have a superficial resemblance to earthworms. They are very poorly understood, due to their burrowing lifestyle...

    ) &
    Coecilia (caecilians)
  • Nantes: Petromyzon (lamprey
    Lampreys are a family of jawless fish, whose adults are characterized by a toothed, funnel-like sucking mouth. Translated from an admixture of Latin and Greek, lamprey means stone lickers...

    Raja (rays), Squalus (shark
    Sharks are a type of fish with a full cartilaginous skeleton and a highly streamlined body. The earliest known sharks date from more than 420 million years ago....

    Chimaera (ratfishes), Lophius (anglerfish
    Anglerfishes are members of the teleost order Lophiiformes . They are bony fishes named for their characteristic mode of predation, wherein a fleshy growth from the fish's head acts as a lure; this is considered analogous to angling.Some anglerfishes are pelagic , while others are benthic...

    es) &
    Acipenser (sturgeon
    Sturgeon is the common name used for some 26 species of fish in the family Acipenseridae, including the genera Acipenser, Huso, Scaphirhynchus and Pseudoscaphirhynchus. The term includes over 20 species commonly referred to as sturgeon and several closely related species that have distinct common...



Linnaeus described fish
Fish are a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic vertebrate animals that lack limbs with digits. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish, as well as various extinct related groups...

Always inhabiting the waters; are swift in their motion and voracious in their appetites. They breathe by means of gills, which are generally united by a bony arch; swim by means of radiate fins, and are mostly covered over with cartilaginous scales. Besides they parts they have in common with other animals, they are furnished with a nictitant membrane, and most of them with an swim-blader, by the contraction or dilatation of which, they can raise or sink themselves in their element at pleasure. 

Linnaeus divided the fishes based upon the position of the ventral and pectoral fins, into the following orders and genera:
  • Apodes: Muraena (eel
    Eels are an order of fish, which consists of four suborders, 20 families, 111 genera and approximately 800 species. Most eels are predators...

    s), Gymnotus (electric knifefishes
    Gymnotus is the among the most species-rich group of electric knifefishes found in the Amazon. Some Gymnotus species live in the leaf litter and root tangles of river banks. Other species are specialized to live on floodplains within the rootmats of floating meadows. Several species are broadly...

    ), Trichiurus (cutlassfish
    The cutlassfishes are about 40 species of predatory fish in the family Trichiuridae found in seas throughout the world. Fish of this family are long, slender, and generally steely blue or silver in colour, giving rise to their name...

    es), Anarhichas (wolffishes), Ammodytes (sand eels
    Sand lance
    A sand lance or sandlance is a fish belonging to the family Ammodytidae. Several species of sand lance are commonly known as "sand eels" or "sandeels", though they are not related to true eels. Another variant name is launce, and all names of the fish are references to its slender body and...

    ), Stromateus (butterfishes
    The family Stromateidae of butterfishes contains 17 species of fish in 3 genera. Butterfishes live in coastal waters off the Americas, western Africa and in the Indo-Pacific.-Species:* Genus Pampus...

    ) & Xiphias (swordfish
    Swordfish , also known as broadbill in some countries, are large, highly migratory, predatory fish characterized by a long, flat bill. They are a popular sport fish of the billfish category, though elusive. Swordfish are elongated, round-bodied, and lose all teeth and scales by adulthood...

  • Jugulares: Callionymus (dragonet
    Dragonets are small, perciform, marine fish of the diverse family Callionymidae . Found mainly in the tropical waters of the western Indo-Pacific, the family contains approximately 186 species in 18 genera. The Draconettidae may be considered a sister family, whose members are very much alike,...

    s), Uranoscopus (stargazer
    The stargazers are a family Uranoscopidae of perciform fish that have eyes on top of their heads . The family includes about 50 species in 8 genera, all marine and found worldwide in shallow waters....

    s), Trachinus (weever
    Weevers are nine species of fish of family Trachinidae, order Perciformes. They are long , mainly brown and have poisonous spines on their first dorsal fin and gills. During the day, weevers bury themselves in sand, just showing their eyes, and snatch prey as it comes past, which consists of...

    s), Gadus (cod
    Cod is the common name for genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae, and is also used in the common name for various other fishes. Cod is a popular food with a mild flavor, low fat content and a dense, flaky white flesh. Cod livers are processed to make cod liver oil, an important source of...

     & kin) & Ophidion (cusk-wels
    The cusk-eels family are a group of marine bony fishes in the order Ophidiiformes. The scientific name is from Greek ophis meaning "snake", and refers to their eel-like appearance...

  • Thoracici: Cyclopterus (lumpfishes
    Lumpsuckers or lumpfish are mostly small scorpaeniform marine fish of the family Cyclopteridae. They are found in the cold waters of the Arctic, North Atlantic, and North Pacific oceans...

    ), Echeneis (remora
    The remora , sometimes called a suckerfish or sharksucker, is an elongated, brown fish in the order Perciformes and family Echeneidae...

    s), Coryphaena (dolphinfishes
    The Coryphaenidae are a family of marine ray-finned fish belonging to the Order Perciformes. The family contains only one genus, Coryphaena, which contains two species, both of which have compressed heads and single dorsal fins that run the entire length of the fish's bodies...

    ), Gobius (gobies
    The gobies form the family Gobiidae, which is one of the largest families of fish, with more than 2,000 species in more than 200 genera. Most are relatively small, typically less than 10 cm in length...

    ), Cottus (sculpins
    The Cottidae is a family of demersal fish in the order Scorpaeniformes, suborder Cottoidei . There are about 300 species in 70 genera of Cottidae that are mostly marine and found in shallow coastal waters in the northern and arctic regions...

    ), Scorpaena (scorpionfishes), Zeus (john dories
    John Dory
    John Dory, also known as St Pierre or Peter's Fish, refers to fish of the genus Zeus, especially Zeus faber, of widespread distribution. It is an edible benthic coastal marine fish with a laterally compressed olive-yellow body which has a large dark spot, and long spines on the dorsal fin...

    ), Pleuronectes (flatfish
    The flatfish are an order of ray-finned fish, also called the Heterosomata, sometimes classified as a suborder of Perciformes. In many species, both eyes lie on one side of the head, one or the other migrating through and around the head during development...

    es), Chaetodon (butterflyfish
    The butterflyfish are a group of conspicuous tropical marine fish of the family Chaetodontidae; the bannerfish and coralfish are also included in this group. Found mostly on the reefs of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans, there are approximately 120 species in 10 genera...

    es), Sparus (breams & porgies
    The Sparidae is a family of fish, included in the order Perciformes. The fish of the family are commonly called sea breams and porgies . The sheepshead, scup, and red sea bream are species in this family. They are found in shallow temperate and tropical waters and are bottom-dwelling carnivores....

    ), Labrus (wrasse
    The wrasses are a family, Labridae, of marine fish, many of which are brightly colored. The family is large and diverse, with over 600 species in 82 genera, which are divided into nine subgroups or tribes....

    s), Sciaena (Snappers
    Snappers are a family of perciform fish, mainly marine but with some members inhabiting estuaries, feeding in freshwater. Some are important food fish. One of the best known is the red snapper....

    ), Perca (perch
    Perch is a common name for fish of the genus Perca, freshwater gamefish belonging to the family Percidae. The perch, of which there are three species in different geographical areas, lend their name to a large order of vertebrates: the Perciformes, from the Greek perke meaning spotted, and the...

    ), Gasterosteus (stickleback
    The Gasterosteidae are a family of fish including the sticklebacks. FishBase currently recognises sixteen species in the family, grouped in five genera. However several of the species have a number of recognised subspecies, and the taxonomy of the family is thought to be in need of revision...

    s), Scomber (mackerel
    Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae. They may be found in all tropical and temperate seas. Most live offshore in the oceanic environment but a few, like the Spanish mackerel , enter bays and can be...

     & tuna
    Tuna is a salt water fish from the family Scombridae, mostly in the genus Thunnus. Tuna are fast swimmers, and some species are capable of speeds of . Unlike most fish, which have white flesh, the muscle tissue of tuna ranges from pink to dark red. The red coloration derives from myoglobin, an...

    ), Mullus (goatfishes
    Mullus known as Goatfishes or Mullets is subtropical marine genus of perciform fish of the family Mullidae. Occurs mainly in the Southwest Atlantic near the South American coast and in the Eastern Atlantic including the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. These fish are bottom dwelling over sands and...

    ) & Trigla (sea robin
    Sea robin
    Sea robins, also known as gurnard, are bottom-feeding scorpaeniform fishes in the family Triglidae. They get their name from their large pectoral fins, which, when swimming, open and close like a bird's wings in flight....

  • Abdominales: Cobitis (loaches
    Cobitis is a Palearctic genus of ray-finned fish in the family Cobitidae. It contains the typical spiny loaches, including the well-known Spined Loach of temperate western Eurasia. Containing almost 60 named species as of mid-2008, at least two undescribed ones are also known...

    ), Silurus (catfish
    Catfishes are a diverse group of ray-finned fish. Named for their prominent barbels, which resemble a cat's whiskers, catfish range in size and behavior from the heaviest and longest, the Mekong giant catfish from Southeast Asia and the second longest, the wels catfish of Eurasia, to detritivores...

    es), Loricaria (suckermouth catfishes
    Loricariidae is the largest family of catfish , with almost 700 species and new species being described each year. Loricariids originate from fresh water habitats of Costa Rica, Panama, and tropical and subtropical South America. These fish are noted for the bony plates covering their bodies and...

    ), Salmo (salmon
    Salmon is the common name for several species of fish in the family Salmonidae. Several other fish in the same family are called trout; the difference is often said to be that salmon migrate and trout are resident, but this distinction does not strictly hold true...

     & trout
    Trout is the name for a number of species of freshwater and saltwater fish belonging to the Salmoninae subfamily of the family Salmonidae. Salmon belong to the same family as trout. Most salmon species spend almost all their lives in salt water...

    ), Fistularia (cornetfish
    The cornetfishes are a small family Fistulariidae of extremely elongated fishes in the order Syngnathiformes. The family consists of just a single genus Fistularia with four species, found worldwide in tropical and subtropical marine environments.Ranging up to in length, cornetfishes are as thin...

    es), Esox (pike
    Esox is a genus of freshwater fish, the only living genus in the family Esocidae — the esocids which were endemic to North America, Europe and Eurasia during the Paleogene through present.The type species is E. lucius, the northern pike...

    ), Argentina (herring smelt
    Herring smelt
    The herring smelts or argentines are a family, Argentinidae, of osmeriform fishes. They are similar in appearance to smelts but have much smaller mouths.They are found in oceans throughout the world...

    s), Atherina (silversides), Mugil (mullet
    Mullet (fish)
    The mullets or grey mullets are a family and order of ray-finned fish found worldwide in coastal temperate and tropical waters, and in some species in fresh water. Mullets have served as an important source of food in Mediterranean Europe since Roman times...

    ), Exocoetus (flying fishes), Polynemus (threadfin
    Threadfins are silvery grey perciform marine fish of the family Polynemidae. Found in tropical to subtropical waters throughout the world, the threadfin family contains nine genera and 33 species...

    s), Clupea (herring
    Herring is an oily fish of the genus Clupea, found in the shallow, temperate waters of the North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans, including the Baltic Sea. Three species of Clupea are recognized. The main taxa, the Atlantic herring and the Pacific herring may each be divided into subspecies...

    ) & Cyprinus (carp
    Cyprinus is the genus of typical carps in family Cyprinidae. They are of East Asian origin and closely related to some more barb-like genera, such Cyclocheilichthys and the recently-established Barbonymus . The crucian carps of western Eurasia, which include the goldfish Cyprinus is the genus of...

  • Branchiostegi: Mormyrus (elephantfishes
    The family Mormyridae, sometimes called "elephantfish" , are freshwater fish in the order Osteoglossiformes native to Africa. It is by far the largest family in the order with around 200 species. Members of the family are popular, if challenging, aquarium species...

    ), Balistes (triggerfish
    Triggerfishes are about 40 species of often brightly colored fishes of the family Balistidae. Often marked by lines and spots, they inhabit tropical and subtropical oceans throughout the world, with the greatest species richness in the Indo-Pacific...

    es), Ostracion (boxfishes), Tetrodon (pufferfishes), Diodon (porcupinefishes
    Members of the diodontidae, species of the genus diodon are usually known as porcupinefishes or balloonfishes.-Distinguishing features:Fish of the genus Diodon have;...

    ), Centriscus (snipefish
    The snipefishes are two species of fishes found in tropical and subtropical oceans at depth down to . According to FishBase, they are part of the family Centriscidae, but some authorities split that family, in which case the genus Macroramphosus is in the family Macroramphosidae...

    es), Syngnathus (pipefish
    Pipefishes or pipe-fishes are a subfamily of small fishes, which, together with the seahorses, form the family Syngnathidae.-Anatomy:...

    es & seahorse
    Seahorses compose the fish genus Hippocampus within the family Syngnathidae, in order Syngnathiformes. Syngnathidae also includes the pipefishes. "Hippocampus" comes from the Ancient Greek hippos meaning "horse" and kampos meaning “sea monster”.There are nearly 50 species of seahorse...

    s) & Pegasus (seamoths
    The seamoths are a family, the Pegasidae, of fish found in coastal tropical waters.They are distinguished by flattened bodies, the presence of large, wing-like, pectoral fins, and a body encased in thick, bony plates. Most species also have an elongated snout in front of their jaws...



Linnaeus described his "Insecta" (comprising all arthropod
An arthropod is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton , a segmented body, and jointed appendages. Arthropods are members of the phylum Arthropoda , and include the insects, arachnids, crustaceans, and others...

s, including insect
Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body , three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes, and two antennae...

s, crustacean
Crustaceans form a very large group of arthropods, usually treated as a subphylum, which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill and barnacles. The 50,000 described species range in size from Stygotantulus stocki at , to the Japanese spider crab with a leg span...

s, arachnid
Arachnids are a class of joint-legged invertebrate animals in the subphylum Chelicerata. All arachnids have eight legs, although in some species the front pair may convert to a sensory function. The term is derived from the Greek words , meaning "spider".Almost all extant arachnids are terrestrial...

s and others) as: A very numerous and various class consisting of small animals, breathing through lateral spiracles, armed on all sides with a bony skin, or covered with hair; furnished with many feet, and moveable antennae (or horns), which project from the head, and are the probable instruments of sensation. 

Linnaeus divided the insects based upon the form of the wings, into the following orders and genera:
  • Coleoptera: Scarabaeus (scarab beetles
    The family Scarabaeidae as currently defined consists of over 30,000 species of beetles worldwide. The species in this large family are often called scarabs or scarab beetles. The classification of this family is fairly unstable, with numerous competing theories, and new proposals appearing quite...

    ), Dermestes (larder beetles), Hister (clown beetles), Attelabus (leaf-rolling weevils
    The Attelabidae or leaf-rolling weevils are a widespread family of weevils. There are more than 2000 species. They are included within the primitive weevils, because of their straight antennae, which are inserted near the base of the rostrum...

    ), Curculio (true weevils
    Curculionidae is the family of the "true" weevils . It was formerly recognized in 1998 as the largest of any animal family, with over 40,000 species described worldwide at that time...

    ), Silpha (carrion beetles), Coccinella (ladybirds or ladybugs
    Coccinellidae is a family of beetles, known variously as ladybirds , or ladybugs . Scientists increasingly prefer the names ladybird beetles or lady beetles as these insects are not true bugs...

    ), Cassida (tortoise beetle
    Tortoise beetle
    The tortoise beetles are an artificial grouping of tribes within the leaf beetle subfamily Hispinae. In past classifications, they have been variously placed as a family or a subfamily ; when it was recognized that this group was not monophyletic, it was split and the resulting tribes were...

    s), Chrysomela (leaf beetle
    Leaf beetle
    Beetles in the family Chrysomelidae are commonly known as leaf beetles. This is a family of over 35,000 species in more than 2,500 genera, one of the largest and most commonly encountered of all beetle families....

    s), Meloe (blister beetle
    Blister beetle
    Blister beetles are beetles of the family Meloidae, so called for their defensive secretion of a blistering agent, cantharidin. There are approximately 7,500 known species worldwide. Many are conspicuous and some aposematically colored, announcing their toxicity to would-be...

    s), Tenebrio (darkling beetle
    Darkling beetle
    Darkling beetles are a family of beetles found worldwide, estimated at more than 20,000 species. Many of the beetles have black elytra, leading to their common name...

    s), Mordella (tumbling flower beetles
    Mordellidae is a family of beetles commonly known as tumbling flower beetles for the typical irregular movements they make when escaping predators, or as pintail beetles due to their abdominal tip which aids them in performing these tumbling movements...

    ), Staphylinus (rove beetle
    Rove beetle
    The rove beetles are a large family of beetles, primarily distinguished by their short elytra that leave more than half of their abdomens exposed. With over 46,000 species in thousands of genera, the group is the second largest family of beetles after the Curculionidae...

    s), Cerambyx (longhorn beetle
    Longhorn beetle
    The longhorn beetles are a cosmopolitan family of beetles, typically characterized by extremely long antennae, which are often as long as or longer than the beetle's body...

    s), Cantharis (soldier beetle
    Soldier beetle
    The soldier beetles, Cantharidae, are relatively soft-bodied, straight-sided beetles, related to the Lampyridae or firefly family, but being unable to produce light. They are cosmopolitan in distribution. One common British species is bright red, reminding people of the red coats of soldiers, hence...

    s), Elater (click beetle
    Click beetle
    The family Elateridae is commonly called click beetles , elaters, snapping beetles, spring beetles or "skipjacks". They are a cosmopolitan beetle family characterized by the unusual click mechanism they possess...

    s), Cicindela (ground beetle
    Ground beetle
    Ground beetles are a large, cosmopolitan family of beetles, Carabidae, with more than 40,000 species worldwide, approximately 2,000 of which are found in North America and 2,700 in Europe.-Description and ecology:...

    s), Buprestis (jewel beetles), Dytiscus (Dytiscidae
    Dytiscidae – based on the Greek dytikos , "able to dive" – are the predaceous diving beetles, a family of water beetles. They are about 25 mm long on average, though there is much variation between species. Dytiscus latissimus, the largest, can grow up to 45 mm long...

    ), Carabus (Carabus
    Carabus is a genus of beetle in family Carabidae.-Species:* Carabus aba Kalab, 2002* Carabus abbreviatus Brulle, 1835* Carabus absonus Cavazzuti & Rapuzzi, 2005* Carabus achilleanus Cavazzuti, 2002...

    species), Necydalis (necydaline beetles
    Necydalinae is a small subfamily of the longhorn beetle family , historically treated as a tribe within the subfamily Lepturinae, but recently recognized as a separate subfamily...

    ), Forficula (earwig
    Earwigs make up the insect order Dermaptera, found throughout the Americas, Africa, Eurasia, Australia and New Zealand. With 1,800 species in 12 families, they are one of the smaller insect orders...

    s), Blatta (cockroach
    Cockroaches are insects of the order Blattaria or Blattodea, of which about 30 species out of 4,500 total are associated with human habitations...

    es) & Gryllus (other orthopteroid
    The term orthopteroid is used to denote insects which historically would have been included in the order Orthoptera. When Carl Linnaeus started applying binomial names to animals in the 10th edition of his Systema Naturae in 1758, there were few animals included in the scheme, and consequently few...

  • Hemiptera: Cicada (cicada
    A cicada is an insect of the order Hemiptera, suborder Auchenorrhyncha , in the superfamily Cicadoidea, with large eyes wide apart on the head and usually transparent, well-veined wings. There are about 2,500 species of cicada around the world, and many of them remain unclassified...

    s), Notonecta (backswimmers
    Notonectidae is a cosmopolitan family of aquatic insects in the order Hemiptera, commonly called backswimmers because they swim upside down. They are all predators, up to nearly 2 cm in size. They are similar in appearance to Corixidae , but can be separated by differences in their...

    ), Nepa (water scorpions
    Nepidae is a family of insects in the order Hemiptera, suborder Heteroptera. They are commonly called waterscorpions for their superficial resemblance to a scorpion, which is due to the raptorial forelegs and the presence of a long slender process at the posterior end of the abdomen, simulating a...

    ), Cimex (bedbug
    Cimicidae are small parasitic insects. The most common type is Cimex lectularius. The term usually refers to species that prefer to feed on human blood...

    s), Aphis (aphid
    Aphids, also known as plant lice and in Britain and the Commonwealth as greenflies, blackflies or whiteflies, are small sap sucking insects, and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea. Aphids are among the most destructive insect pests on cultivated plants in temperate regions...

    s), Chermes (woolly aphids
    The Adelgidae is a small family of the Homoptera closely related to the aphids, and often traditionally included in the Aphidoidea with the Phylloxeridae. Adelgids are often known as "woolly conifer aphids". The family is composed of species associated with pine spruce or other conifers, known...

    ), Coccus (scale insect
    Scale insect
    The scale insects are small insects of the order Hemiptera, generally classified as the superfamily Coccoidea. There are about 8,000 species of scale insects.-Ecology:...

    s) & Thrips (thrips
    Thrips are tiny, slender insects with fringed wings . Other common names for thrips include thunderflies, thunderbugs, storm flies, thunderblights, and corn lice...

  • Lepidoptera: Papilio (butterflies
    A butterfly is a mainly day-flying insect of the order Lepidoptera, which includes the butterflies and moths. Like other holometabolous insects, the butterfly's life cycle consists of four parts: egg, larva, pupa and adult. Most species are diurnal. Butterflies have large, often brightly coloured...

    ), Sphinx (hawk moths
    Sphingidae is a family of moths , commonly known as hawk moths, sphinx moths and hornworms, that includes about 1,200 species . It is best represented in the tropics but there are species in every region . They are moderate to large in size and are distinguished among moths for their rapid,...

    ), Phalaena (moth
    A moth is an insect closely related to the butterfly, both being of the order Lepidoptera. Moths form the majority of this order; there are thought to be 150,000 to 250,000 different species of moth , with thousands of species yet to be described...

  • Neuroptera: Libellula (dragonflies
    A dragonfly is a winged insect belonging to the order Odonata, the suborder Epiprocta or, in the strict sense, the infraorder Anisoptera . It is characterized by large multifaceted eyes, two pairs of strong transparent wings, and an elongated body...

     & damselflies
    Damselflies are insects in the order Odonata. Damselflies are similar to dragonflies, but the adults can be distinguished by the fact that the wings of most damselflies are held along, and parallel to, the body when at rest...

    ), Ephemera (mayflies
    Mayflies are insects which belong to the Order Ephemeroptera . They have been placed into an ancient group of insects termed the Palaeoptera, which also contains dragonflies and damselflies...

    ), Phryganea (caddisflies), Hemerobius (lacewings
    The insect order Neuroptera, or net-winged insects, includes the lacewings, mantidflies, antlions, and their relatives. The order contains some 6,010 species...

    ), Panorpa (scorpionflies
    Mecoptera are an order of insects with about 550 species in nine families worldwide. Mecoptera are sometimes called scorpionflies after their largest family, Panorpidae, in which the males have enlarged genitals that look similar to the stinger of a scorpion...

    ) & Raphidia (snakeflies
    Snakeflies are a group of insects in the order Raphidioptera, consisting of about 210 extant species. Together with the Megaloptera they were formerly placed within the Neuroptera, but now these two are generally regarded as separate orders....

  • Hymenoptera: Cynips (Gall wasp
    Gall wasp
    Gall wasps , also called Gallflies, are a family of the order Hymenoptera and are classified with the Apocrita suborder of wasps in the superfamily Cynipoidea...

    s), Tentheredo (sawflies
    Sawfly is the common name for insects belonging to suborder Symphyta of the order Hymenoptera. Sawflies are distinguishable from most other Hymenoptera by the broad connection between the abdomen and the thorax, and by their caterpillar-like larvae...

    , Ichneumon (ichneumon wasps), Sphex (digger wasp
    Digger wasp
    Wasps of the genus Sphex are cosmopolitan predators of the family Sphecidae that sting and paralyze prey insects. There are over 130 known digger wasp species. In preparation for egg laying, they construct a protected "nest" and then stock it with captured insects...

    s), Vespa (hornet
    Hornets are the largest eusocial wasps; some species can reach up to in length. The true hornets make up the genus Vespa and are distinguished from other vespines by the width of the vertex , which is proportionally larger in Vespa and by the anteriorly rounded gasters .- Life cycle :In...

    s), Apis (bee
    Bees are flying insects closely related to wasps and ants, and are known for their role in pollination and for producing honey and beeswax. Bees are a monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea, presently classified by the unranked taxon name Anthophila...

    s), Formica (ant
    Ants are social insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera. Ants evolved from wasp-like ancestors in the mid-Cretaceous period between 110 and 130 million years ago and diversified after the rise of flowering plants. More than...

    s) & Mutella (velvet ants
    Mutillidae are a family of more than 3,000 species of wasp whose wingless females resemble ants. Their common name velvet ant refers to their dense pile of hair which most often is bright scarlet or orange but may also be black, white, silver, or gold. Their bright colours serve as aposematic signals...

  • Diptera: Oesyrus (botflies
    A botfly is any fly in the family Oestridae, which includes all the members of the former families Cuterebridae, Gasterophilidae, and Hypodermatidae. It is the only family of flies whose larvae live as obligate parasites within the bodies of mammals, with the exception of a few screwworm flies in...

    ), Tipula (crane flies
    Crane fly
    A crane fly is an insect in the family Tipulidae. Adults are very slender, long-legged flies that may vary in length from though tropical species may exceed to ....

    ), Musca (house flies
    The housefly , Musca domestica, is a fly of the suborder Cyclorrhapha...

    ), Tabanus (horse flies
    Insects in the order Diptera, family Tabanidae, are commonly called horse flies. Often considered pests for the bites that many inflict, they are among the world's largest true flies. They are known to be extremely noisy during flight. They are also important pollinators of flowers, especially in...

    ), Culex (mosquito
    Mosquitoes are members of a family of nematocerid flies: the Culicidae . The word Mosquito is from the Spanish and Portuguese for little fly...

    es), Empis (dance flies
    Empididae is a family of flies with over 3,000 described species occurring worldwide, but the majority are found in the Holarctic. They are mainly predatory flies like most of their relatives in the Empidoidea, and exhibit a wide range of forms but are generally small to medium sized, non-metallic...

    ), Conops (thick-headed flies
    Conopidae, usually known as the thick-headed flies, is a family of flies within the Brachycera suborder of Diptera. Flies of the family Conopidae are distributed worldwide except for the poles and many of the Pacific islands. About 800 species in 47 genera are described worldwide, approximately 70...

    ), Asilus (robber flies
    Insects in the Diptera family Asilidae are commonly called robber flies. The family Asilidae contains about 7,100 described species worldwide....

    ), Bombylius (bee flies
    Bombyliidae is a large family of flies with hundreds of genera, although their life cycles are not well known. Adults generally feed on nectar and pollen, thus are pollinators of flowers. They superficially resemble bees, thus are commonly called bee flies, and this may offer the adults some...

    ) & Hippobosca (louse flies
    Hippoboscidae, the louse flies or keds are obligate parasites of mammals and birds. In this family there are winged species which can fly at least reasonably well, as well as others with vestigial or no wings which are flightless and highly apomorphic...

  • Aptera: Lepisma (silverfish
    Lepisma saccharina, frequently called silverfish, fishmoths, carpet sharks or paramites, are small, wingless insects in the order Thysanura...

    ), Podura (springtail
    Springtails form the largest of the three lineages of modern hexapods that are no longer considered insects...

    s), Termes (termite
    Termites are a group of eusocial insects that, until recently, were classified at the taxonomic rank of order Isoptera , but are now accepted as the epifamily Termitoidae, of the cockroach order Blattodea...

    )s, Pediculus (lice
    Lice is the common name for over 3,000 species of wingless insects of the order Phthiraptera; three of which are classified as human disease agents...

    ), Pulex (flea
    Flea is the common name for insects of the order Siphonaptera which are wingless insects with mouthparts adapted for piercing skin and sucking blood...

    s), Acarus (mite
    Mites, along with ticks, are small arthropods belonging to the subclass Acari and the class Arachnida. The scientific discipline devoted to the study of ticks and mites is called acarology.-Diversity and systematics:...

    s & tick
    Ticks are small arachnids in the order Ixodida, along with mites, constitute the subclass Acarina. Ticks are ectoparasites , living by hematophagy on the blood of mammals, birds, and sometimes reptiles and amphibians...

    s), Phalangium (harvestmen
    Opiliones are an order of arachnids commonly known as harvestmen. , over 6,400 species of harvestmen have been discovered worldwide, although the real number of extant species may exceed 10,000. The order Opiliones can be divided into four suborders: Cyphophthalmi, Eupnoi, Dyspnoi and Laniatores...

    ), Aranea (spider
    Spiders are air-breathing arthropods that have eight legs, and chelicerae with fangs that inject venom. They are the largest order of arachnids and rank seventh in total species diversity among all other groups of organisms...

    s), Scorpio (scorpion
    Scorpions are predatory arthropod animals of the order Scorpiones within the class Arachnida. They have eight legs and are easily recognized by the pair of grasping claws and the narrow, segmented tail, often carried in a characteristic forward curve over the back, ending with a venomous stinger...

    s), Cancer (crab
    True crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" , or where the reduced abdomen is entirely hidden under the thorax...

    s, lobster
    Clawed lobsters comprise a family of large marine crustaceans. Highly prized as seafood, lobsters are economically important, and are often one of the most profitable commodities in coastal areas they populate.Though several groups of crustaceans are known as lobsters, the clawed lobsters are most...

    s and kin), Monoculus (water fleas & kin), Oniscus (woodlice
    A woodlouse is a crustacean with a rigid, segmented, long exoskeleton and fourteen jointed limbs...

    ), Scolopendra (centipede
    Centipedes are arthropods belonging to the class Chilopoda of the subphylum Myriapoda. They are elongated metameric animals with one pair of legs per body segment. Despite the name, centipedes can have a varying number of legs from under 20 to over 300. Centipedes have an odd number of pairs of...

    s) & Julus (millipede
    Millipedes are arthropods that have two pairs of legs per segment . Each segment that has two pairs of legs is a result of two single segments fused together as one...



Linnaeus described his "Vermes" as: Animals of slow motion, soft substance, able to increase their bulk and restore parts which have been destroyed, extremely tenacious of life, and the inhabitants of moist places. Many of them are without a distinct head, and most of them without feet. They are principally distinguished by their tentacles (or feelers). By the Ancients they were not improperly called imperfect animals, as being destitute of ears, nose, head, eyes and legs; and are therefore totally distinct from Insects. 

Linnaeus divided the "Vermes" based upon the structure of the body, into the following orders and genera:
  • Intestina: Gordius (horsehair worms
    Nematomorpha is a phylum of parasitic animals that are superficially morphologically similar to nematode worms, hence the name. They range in size in most species from long and can reach in extreme cases up to 2 metres, and in diameter...

    ), Furia, Lumbricus (earthworm
    Earthworm is the common name for the largest members of Oligochaeta in the phylum Annelida. In classical systems they were placed in the order Opisthopora, on the basis of the male pores opening posterior to the female pores, even though the internal male segments are anterior to the female...

    s), Ascaris (giant intestinal roundworms
    Ascaris is a genus of parasitic nematode worms known as the "giant intestinal roundworms". One species, A. suum, typically infects pigs, while another, A. lumbricoides, affects human populations, typically in sub-tropical and tropical areas with poor sanitation. A...

    ), Fasciola (liver fluke
    Liver fluke
    Liver flukes are a polyphyletic group of trematodes .Adults of liver flukes are localized in the liver of various mammals, including humans. These flatworms can occur in bile ducts, gallbladder, and liver parenchyma. They feed on blood...

    s), Hirudo (leech
    Leeches are segmented worms that belong to the phylum Annelida and comprise the subclass Hirudinea. Like other oligochaetes such as earthworms, leeches share a clitellum and are hermaphrodites. Nevertheless, they differ from other oligochaetes in significant ways...

    es), Myxine (hagfish
    Hagfish, the clade Myxini , are eel-shaped slime-producing marine animals . They are the only living animals that have a skull but not a vertebral column. Along with lampreys, hagfish are jawless and are living fossils whose next nearest relatives include all vertebrates...

    es), Teredo (shipworm
    Shipworms are not worms at all, but rather a group of unusual saltwater clams with very small shells, notorious for boring into wooden structures that are immersed in sea water, such as piers, docks and wooden ships...

  • Mollusca: Limax (terrestrial slugs
    Slug is a common name that is normally applied to any gastropod mollusc that lacks a shell, has a very reduced shell, or has a small internal shell...

    ), Doris (dorid nudibranchs), Tethys (tethydid sea slugs
    Tethydidae is a family of sea slugs, marine gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Tritonioidea.- Taxonomy :This family is within the clade Cladobranchia and has no subfamilies ....

    ), Nereis (polychaete worms
    Nereis is a genus of polychaete worms in the family Nereidae. It comprises many species, most of which are marine, including the sandworm and the common clam worm . Nereis possess setae and parapodia for locomotion. They may have two types of setae, which are found on the parapodia. Acicular setae...

    ), Aphrodita (sea mice
    Sea mouse
    The sea mouse, Aphrodita aculeata is a marine polychaete worm found in the North Atlantic, the North Sea, the Baltic Sea and the Mediterranean. The sea mouse normally lies buried head-first in the sand. It can live in muddy sea floors down to around 1000m.Its body is covered in a dense mat of...

    ), Lernaea (anchor worms
    Lernaea is a genus of copepod crustaceans commonly called anchor worms, parasitic on freshwater fishes. They mate during the last free-swimming stage of development...

    ), Priapus (priapulid worms
    Priapulida is a phylum of marine worms. They are named for their extensible spiny proboscis, which, in some species, may have a shape like that of a human penis...

     & Sea anemone
    Sea anemone
    Sea anemones are a group of water-dwelling, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria; they are named after the anemone, a terrestrial flower. Sea anemones are classified in the phylum Cnidaria, class Anthozoa, subclass Zoantharia. Anthozoa often have large polyps that allow for digestion of larger...

    s), Scyllaea (scyllaeid sea slugs
    Scyllaeidae is a family of sea slugs, nudibranchs, marine gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Tritonioidea.This family is within the clade Cladobranchia .- Taxonomy :...

    ), Holothuria (salp
    A salp or salpa is a barrel-shaped, planktonic tunicate. It moves by contracting, thus pumping water through its gelatinous body...

    s & Portuguese Man o' War
    Portuguese Man o' War
    The Portuguese Man o' War , also known as the Portuguese man-of-war, man-of-war, or bluebottle, is a jelly-like marine invertebrate of the family Physaliidae...

    ), Triton (triton shells), Sepia (octopus
    The octopus is a cephalopod mollusc of the order Octopoda. Octopuses have two eyes and four pairs of arms, and like other cephalopods they are bilaterally symmetric. An octopus has a hard beak, with its mouth at the center point of the arms...

    es, squid
    Squid are cephalopods of the order Teuthida, which comprises around 300 species. Like all other cephalopods, squid have a distinct head, bilateral symmetry, a mantle, and arms. Squid, like cuttlefish, have eight arms arranged in pairs and two, usually longer, tentacles...

    s, & cuttlefish
    Cuttlefish are marine animals of the order Sepiida. They belong to the class Cephalopoda . Despite their name, cuttlefish are not fish but molluscs....

    es), Medusa (jellyfish
    Jellyfish are free-swimming members of the phylum Cnidaria. Medusa is another word for jellyfish, and refers to any free-swimming jellyfish stages in the phylum Cnidaria...

    es), Asterias (starfishes), Echinus (sea urchin
    Sea urchin
    Sea urchins or urchins are small, spiny, globular animals which, with their close kin, such as sand dollars, constitute the class Echinoidea of the echinoderm phylum. They inhabit all oceans. Their shell, or "test", is round and spiny, typically from across. Common colors include black and dull...

  • Testacea: Chiton (chiton
    Chitons are small to large, primitive marine molluscs in the class Polyplacophora.There are 900 to 1,000 extant species of chitons in the class, which was formerly known as Amphineura....

    s), Lepas (barnacle
    A barnacle is a type of arthropod belonging to infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea, and is hence related to crabs and lobsters. Barnacles are exclusively marine, and tend to live in shallow and tidal waters, typically in erosive settings. They are sessile suspension feeders, and have...

    s), Pholas (piddocks & angelwings), Myes (soft-shell clams
    Myidae is a family of bivalve molluscs in the order Myoida.-Genera:* Cryptomya ** Cryptomya californica - California softshell* Mya Linnaeus, 1758...

    ), Solen (saltwater clams
    Solenidae is a family of saltwater clams known as razor shells, marine bivalve mollusks in the order Veneroida.-Taxonomy:Originally razor shells were all classified as Solenidae. Then the genera were grouped into two sub-families, the Cultellinae and Soleninae...

    ), Tellina (tellinid shellfishes
    Tellinidae is a family of marine bivalve molluscs of the order Veneroida. They live under soft sediments in shallow seas.-Characteristics:Tellinids have rounded or oval, elongated shells, much flattened. The two valves are connected by a large external ligament. The two separate siphons are...

    ), Cardium (cockles
    Cockle (bivalve)
    Cockle is the common name for a group of small, edible, saltwater clams, marine bivalve molluscs in the family Cardiidae.Various species of cockles live in sandy sheltered beaches throughout the world....

    ), Donax (wedge shells
    Donacidae, the bean clams or wedge shells, is a family of bivalve molluscs of the order Veneroida. The family is related to the Tellins.The Donacidae are prolific filter feeders, and are an important part of coastal food chains where they occur...

    ), Venus (Venus clams
    The Veneridae or venerids, also known as the Venus clams, are a very large family of minute to large, saltwater clams, marine bivalve molluscs. There are over 500 living species of venerid bivalves, most of which are edible, and many of which are exploited as a food source.Many of the most...

    ), Spondylus (thorny oysters
    Spondylus is a genus of bivalve molluscs, the only genus in the family Spondylidae. As well as being the systematic or scientific name, Spondylus is also the most often used common name for these animals, though they are also known as thorny oysters or spiny oysters.There are many species of...

    ), Chama (jewel box shells
    Chamidae is a family of marine bivalve clams of the order Veneroida.-Genera and species:*Arcinella Schumacher, 1817**Arcinella arcinella — spiny jewelbox...

    ), Arca (ark clam
    Ark clam
    Ark clam is the common name for a family of small to large-sized saltwater clams or marine bivalve molluscs in the family Arcidae. Ark clams vary both in shape and size. They number about 200 species worldwide....

    s), Ostrea (true oysters
    Ostreidae are the true oysters, and include most species that are commonly eaten under the name oyster. Pearl oysters are not true oysters and belong to the distinct order Pterioida....

    ), Anomia (saddle oysters
    Anomiidae is a family of bivalve molluscs related to scallops and oysters, and known as anomiids. It contains seven genera.The family is known by several common names, including jingle shells, saddle oysters and mermaid's toenails....

    ), Mytilus (saltwater mussels
    Mytilidae is a family of small to large saltwater mussels, marine bivalve mollusks in the order Mytiloida. It is the only family in the order...

    ), Pinna (pen shells
    Pinnidae is a family of large saltwater clams sometimes known as pen shells. They are marine bivalve molluscs in the order Pterioida.The shells are fragile and have a long and triangular shape, and in life they are anchored in sediment using a byssus...

    ), Argonauta (paper nautiluses
    Argonaut (animal)
    The argonauts are a group of pelagic octopuses. They are also called paper nautiluses, referring to the paper-thin eggcase that females secrete...

    ), Nautilus (nautilus
    Nautilus is the common name of marine creatures of cephalopod family Nautilidae, the sole extant family of the superfamily Nautilaceae and of its smaller but near equal suborder, Nautilina. It comprises six living species in two genera, the type of which is the genus Nautilus...

    es), Conus (cone snails
    Conus is a large genus of small to large predatory sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs, with the common names of cone snails, cone shells or cones. This genus is placed in the subfamily Coninae within the family Conidae. Geologically speaking, the genus is known from the Eocene to the Recent ...

    ), Cypraea (cowries
    Cypraeidae, common name the cowries , is a taxonomic family of small to large sea snails. These are marine gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Cypraeoidea, the cowries and cowry allies.-Shell description:...

    ), Bulla (bubble shells), Voluta (volutes
    Volutidae, common name volutes, are a taxonomic family of predatory sea snails that range in size from 9 mm to over 500 mm, marine gastropod mollusks...

    ), Buccinum (true whelks
    Buccinidae is a very large and diverse taxonomic family of large sea snails, often known as whelks or true whelks.True whelks are mostly marine gastropod mollusks in the clade Neogastropoda...

    ), Strombus (true conches
    Strombidae, commonly known as the true conchs, is a taxonomic family of medium-sized to very large sea snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the superfamily Stromboidea....

    ), Murex (murex snails
    Muricidae, common name murex snails or rock snails, is a large and varied taxonomic family of small to large predatory sea snails. With approximately 1,600 living species the Muricidae represent almost 10% of the Neogastropoda. Additionally, 1,200 fossil species have been recognised...

    ), Trochus (top snails
    The Trochidae, common name top snails, are a taxonomic family of very small to large sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the clade Vetigastropoda ....

    ), Turbo (turban snails
    Turbinidae, the turban snails, are a family of small to large marine gastropods. Turbinidae have a strong, thick calcareous operculum readily distinguishing them from the somewhat similar Trochidae or top snails, which have a corneous operculum...

    ), Helix (terrestrial snails
    The Helicidae, sometimes known as the typical snails, are a taxonomic family of small to large, air-breathing, land snails. In other words, they are terrestrial pulmonate gastropod mollusks....

    ), Neritha (nerites
    Neritidae, common name the nerites, is a taxonomic family of small to medium-sized saltwater and freshwater snails which have a gill and a distinctive operculum, marine, brackish water and freshwater gastropod mollusks in the order Neritoida....

    ), Haliotis (abalone
    Abalone , from aulón, are small to very large-sized edible sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Haliotidae and the genus Haliotis...

    s), Patella (true limpets
    Patellidae is a taxonomic family of sea snails or true limpets, marine gastropod molluscs in the clade Patellogastropoda.Patellidae is the only family in the superfamily Patelloidea...

    ), Dentalium (tusk shell
    Tusk shell
    The tusk shells or scaphopods are a class of shelled marine mollusks. The scientific name of this class is Scaphopoda, meaning "shovel-footed". Shells of species within this class range from about 0.5 to 15 cm in length...

    s), Serpula (serpulid worms
    Serpulidae is a family of sessile, tube-building annelid worms in the class Polychaeta. The members of this family differ from the sabellid tube worms in that they have a specialized operculum that blocks the entrance of their tubes when they withdraw into the tubes. In addition, serpulids secrete...

  • Lithophyta: Tubipora (organ pipe coral
    Organ pipe coral
    The Organ pipe coral is an alcyonarian coral native to the waters of the Indian Ocean and the central and western regions of the Pacific Ocean. It is the only known species of the genus Tubipora. This species is a soft coral but with a unique, hard skeleton of calcium carbonate that contains many...

    s), Millepora (fire coral
    Fire coral
    Fire corals are colonial marine organisms that look rather like real coral. However they are technically not corals; they are actually more closely related to jellyfish and other stinging anemones...

    s), Madrepora (stone corals
    Scleractinia, also called stony corals, are exclusively marine animals; they are very similar to sea anemones but generate a hard skeleton. They first appeared in the Middle Triassic and replaced tabulate and rugose corals that went extinct at the end of the Permian...

  • Zoophyta: Isis (soft corals
    The Alcyonacea, or the soft corals are an order of corals which do not produce calcium carbonate skeletons. Soft corals contain minute, spiny skeletal elements called sclerites. Aside from their scientific utility in species identification, sclerites give these corals some degree of support and...

    ), Gorgonia (sea fans), Alcyonium (tunicate
    Tunicates, also known as urochordates, are members of the subphylum Tunicata, previously known as Urochordata, a group of underwater saclike filter feeders with incurrent and excurrent siphons that is classified within the phylum Chordata. While most tunicates live on the ocean floor, others such...

    s), Tubularia (Tubularia
    Tubularia is a genus of hydroids that appear to be furry pink tufts or balls at the end of long strings, thus causing them to be sometimes be called "pink-mouthed" or "pink-hearted" hydroids. T. larynx is described as:The stems are tubular, with a yellowish coloured tegument and are branched at the...

    ), Eschara (Bryozoa
    The Bryozoa, also known as Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals, are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals. Typically about long, they are filter feeders that sieve food particles out of the water using a retractable lophophore, a "crown" of tentacles lined with cilia...

    ), Corallina (coralline algae
    Coralline algae
    Coralline algae are red algae in the order Corallinales. They are characterized by a thallus that is hard because of calcareous deposits contained within the cell walls...

    ), Sertularia (Bryozoa
    The Bryozoa, also known as Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals, are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals. Typically about long, they are filter feeders that sieve food particles out of the water using a retractable lophophore, a "crown" of tentacles lined with cilia...

    ), Hydra
    Hydra (genus)
    Hydra is a genus of simple fresh-water animal possessing radial symmetry. Hydras are predatory animals belonging to the phylum Cnidaria and the class Hydrozoa. They can be found in most unpolluted fresh-water ponds, lakes, and streams in the temperate and tropical regions and can be found by...

    , Pennatula (sea pen
    Sea pen
    Sea pens are colonial marine cnidarians belonging to the order Pennatulacea. There are 14 families within the order; they are thought to have a cosmopolitan distribution in tropical and temperate waters worldwide...

    s), Taenia (tapeworms), Volvox
    Volvox is a genus of chlorophytes, a type of green algae. It forms spherical colonies of up to 50,000 cells. They live in a variety of freshwater habitats, and were first reported by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek in 1700. Volvox developed its colonial lifestyle .-Description:Volvox is the most developed...


The second volume, published in 1759, detailed the kingdom Plantae, in which Linnaeus included true plant
Plants are living organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. Precise definitions of the kingdom vary, but as the term is used here, plants include familiar organisms such as trees, flowers, herbs, bushes, grasses, vines, ferns, mosses, and green algae. The group is also called green plants or...

s, as well as fungi
A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds , as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from plants, animals, and bacteria...

, algae
Algae are a large and diverse group of simple, typically autotrophic organisms, ranging from unicellular to multicellular forms, such as the giant kelps that grow to 65 meters in length. They are photosynthetic like plants, and "simple" because their tissues are not organized into the many...

 and lichen
Lichens are composite organisms consisting of a symbiotic organism composed of a fungus with a photosynthetic partner , usually either a green alga or cyanobacterium...

s. In addition to repeating the species he had previously listed in his Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum was first published in 1753, as a two-volume work by Carl Linnaeus. Its prime importance is perhaps that it is the primary starting point of plant nomenclature as it exists today. This means that the first names to be considered validly published in botany are those that appear...

(1753), and those published in the intervening period, Linnaeus described several hundred new plant species. The species from Species Plantarum were numbered sequentially, while the new species were labelled with letters. Many were sent to Linnaeus by his correspondents overseas, including Johannes Burman
Johannes Burman
Johannes Burman , was a Dutch botanist and physician. Burman specialized in plants from Ceylon, Amboina and Cape Colony. The name Pelargonium was introduced by Johannes Burman....

 and David de Gorter
David de Gorter
David de Gorter was a Dutch physician and botanist.He was professor at the then University of Harderwijk and royal physician to Empress Elizabeth of Russia...

 in South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

, Patrick Browne
Patrick Browne
Patrick Browne was an Irish physician and botanist.-Career:Browne was born in Woodstock, County Mayo, sent to relatives on Antigua in 1737 and returned to Europe due to ill health after two years. He studied medicine, natural history and especially botany at Reims, Paris and Leyden, qualifying...

, Philip Miller
Philip Miller
Philip Miller FRS was a Scottish botanist.Miller was chief gardener at the Chelsea Physic Garden from 1722 until he was pressured to retire shortly before his death...

 and John Ellis
John Ellis (naturalist)
John Ellis FRS was a British linen merchant and naturalist.Ellis specialised in the study of corals. He was elected a member of the Royal Society in 1754 and in the following year published An essay towards the Natural History of the Corallines. He was awarded the Copley Medal in 1767...

 in America, Jean-François Séguier
Jean-François Séguier
Jean François Séguier was a French astronomer and botanist from Nîmes.His botanical works include Plantae Veronenses, seu Stirpium quae in agro Veronensi repriuntur ....

, Carlo Allioni
Carlo Allioni
Carlo Allioni was an Italian physician and professor of botany at the University of Turin. His most important work was Flora Pedemontana, sive enumeratio methodica stirpium indigenarum Pedemontii 1755, a study of the plant world in Piedmont, in which he listed 2813 species of plants, of which 237...

 and Casimir Christoph Schmidel in the Alps
The Alps is one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east through Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west....

, Gorter and Johann Ernst Hebenstreit
Johann Ernst Hebenstreit
Johann Ernst Hebenstreit was a German physician and naturalist who was born in Neustadt an der Orla.He was a student at the University of Leipzig, where in 1728 he earned his philosophy degree, and in 1729 his medical doctorate...

 in the Orient, and François Boissier de Sauvages de Lacroix
François Boissier de Sauvages de Lacroix
François Boissier de Sauvages de Lacroix was a French physician and botanist who was a native of Alès. He studied medicine and botany at the University of Montpellier, and received his doctorate in 1726. After spending a few years in Paris, he returned to Montpellier in 1734, where became...

, Gerard and Barnadet Gabriel across Europe.

New plant species described in the 10th edition of include:

  • Adiantum aethiopicum
    Adiantum aethiopicum
    Adiantum aethiopicum, also known as the common maidenhair fern, is a small fern of widespread distribution. Occurring in Africa, Australia, Norfolk Island and New Zealand. Known as the Common Maidenhair Fern in Australia....

  • Allionia incarnata
  • Alyssum alyssoides
    Alyssum alyssoides
    Alyssum alyssoides is a species of flowering plant in the mustard family known by several common names, including pale madwort and yellow alyssum...

  • Amaranthus albus
    Amaranthus albus
    Amaranthus albus is an annual species of flowering plant. It is native to the tropical Americas but a widespread introduced species in other places, including Europe, Africa, and Australia...

  • Amaranthus cruentus
    Amaranthus cruentus
    Amaranthus cruentus is a common flowering plant species that yields the nutritious staple amaranth grain. It is one of three Amaranthus species cultivated as a grain source, the other two being Amaranthus hypochondriacus and Amaranthus caudatus...

  • Amaranthus gangeticus
  • Amyris elemifera
    Amyris elemifera
    Amyris elemifera, commonly known as Sea Torchwood, is a coastal evergreen shrub or small tree. It is found in central and southern Florida in the United States, The Bahamas, the Caribbean, and the Central American countries of Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, and El Salvador. The resinous wood has been...

  • Anacamptis papilionacea
    Anacamptis papilionacea
    Anacamptis papilionacea is a species of orchid. It is commonly known as Butterfly orchid....

  • Anacamptis sancta
    Anacamptis sancta
    Anacamptis sancta is a species of orchid....

  • Apocynum androsaemifolium
    Apocynum androsaemifolium
    Apocynum androsaemifolium is a flowering plant. Milky sap appears on broken stems. Leaf margin is entire and leaf veination is alternate. Its leaves appear as pointed ovals, while...

  • Arbutus andrachne
    Arbutus andrachne
    Arbutus andrachne, commonly called the Greek Strawberry Tree, is an evergreen shrub or small tree in the family Ericaceae, native to the Mediterranean region, the Middle East, and southwestern Asia.-Garden history:...

  • Brassia caudata
    Brassia caudata
    The Tailed Brassia is a species of orchid....

  • Calycanthus floridus
  • Carex capitata
    Carex capitata
    Carex capitata is a species of sedge known by the common name capitate sedge. It has a circumboreal distribution, growing in wet places in boreal forests and mountain meadows in alpine climates.-Description:...

  • Catharanthus roseus
    Catharanthus roseus
    Catharanthus roseus is a species of Catharanthus native and endemic to Madagascar. Synonyms include Vinca rosea , Ammocallis rosea, and Lochnera rosea; other English names occasionally used include Cape Periwinkle, Rose Periwinkle, Rosy Periwinkle, and "Old-maid".In the wild, it is an endangered...

  • Cecropia peltata
    Cecropia peltata
    Cecropia peltata is a plant in the Cecropia genus. Common names include pumpwood and trumpet tree. It is listed as one of the world's 100 worst invasive species....

  • Cedrela odorata
    Cedrela odorata
    Cedrela odorata . The genus Cedrela has undergone two major systematic revisions since 1960. The most recent revision reduced the number of species in the genus to seven . The common cedro, Cedrela odorata L., embraces 28 other named species, including C. mexicana M. J...

  • Chromolaena odorata
    Chromolaena odorata
    Chromolaena odorata is a species of flowering shrub in the sunflower family, Asteraceae. It is native to North America, from Florida and Texas to Mexico and the Caribbean, and has been introduced to tropical Asia, west Africa, and parts of Australia. Common names include Siam Weed, Christmas Bush,...

  • Cissus sicyoides
    Cissus sicyoides
    Cissus sicyoides, also known as Princess vine, Millionaire vine and Curtain Ivy, is evergreen perennial vine in the Vitaceae family....

  • Coccoloba pubescens
  • Coccoloba uvifera
    Coccoloba uvifera
    Coccoloba uvifera is a species of flowering plant in the buckwheat family, Polygonaceae, that is native to coastal beaches throughout tropical America and the Caribbean, including southern Florida, the Bahamas, Barbados and Bermuda...

  • Cochlearia anglica
    Cochlearia anglica
    The flowering plant Cochlearia anglica is known by the common names English scurvy-grass and long-leaved scurvy grass. It is a plant of the coastlines of Europe, especially the British Isles. It is edible, and as its name suggests, it is rich in vitamin C. It has spade-shaped leaves and white...

  • Coilostylis ciliaris
    Coilostylis ciliaris
    Coilostylis ciliaris , formerly Epidendrum ciliare, is a species of orchid in the genus Coilostylis. It was transferred from Epidendrum by Withner and Harding in 2004...

  • Cordyline fruticosa
  • Cunila mariana
    Cunila mariana
    Stone mint is an ornamental plant also known as Common Dittany.-External links:***Cunila origanoides...

  • Cunonia capensis
    Cunonia capensis
    Cunonia capensis is a small tree, found in the afromontane forests of Southern Africa, and along rivers....

  • Dorstenia drakena
    Dorstenia drakena
    Dorstenia drakena is a species of herb in the Moraceae plant family which is native to Mexico and Central America....

  • Echinochloa colona
    Echinochloa colona
    Echinochloa colona is a type of wild grass originating from tropical Asia. It was formerly classified as a type of panicum grass.-Usage:...

  • Equisetum giganteum
    Equisetum giganteum
    Equisetum giganteum is a species of horsetail native to South America and Central America, from central Chile east to Brazil and north to southern Mexico....

  • Genipa americana
    Genipa americana
    Genipa americana is a species of Genipa, native to northern South America , the Caribbean and southern Mexico, growing in rainforests. It is commonly called Genipapo or Huito; the alternate name Jagua may refer to other species of Genipa as well. To the Inca, it was known as hawa or wituq...

  • Geranium pusillum
    Geranium pusillum
    Geranium pusillum, commonly known as Small-flowered Cranesbill or Small Geranium, is a herbaceous annual plant of the genus Geranium.-External links:***...

  • Grias cauliflora
    Anchovy pear
    The anchovy pear is a fruit native to the West Indies and is often found near rivers or marshes in large colonies. It grows on the evergreen tree Grias cauliflora of the Lecythidaceae family. The edible nuts grow clumped together in large, round, woody and extremely hard seed pods the size of a...

  • Heliotropium arborescens
    Heliotropium arborescens
    The Garden Heliotrope is a highly fragrant perennial plant, originally from Peru. It is especially notable for its intense, rather vanilla-like fragrance. Common names include cherry pie and "common heliotrope"...

  • Holcus mollis
  • Hydrastis canadensis
    Goldenseal is a perennial herb in the buttercup family Ranunculaceae, native to southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States. It may be distinguished by its thick, yellow knotted rootstock. The stem is purplish and hairy above ground and yellow below ground where it connects to the...

  • Illicium anisatum
  • Ipomoea hederifolia
    Ipomoea hederifolia
    Ipomoea hederifolia is a species of herbaceous annual vine native to the Americas. It was first described by Linnaeus in 1759.It is commonly known as Scarlet Morning Glory, Scarlet Creeper, Star Ipomoea, Trompillo or "Ivy-leaved Morning Glory" .Ipomoea × multifida is a hybrid between I...

  • Juglans cinerea
  • Hibiscus cannabinus
    Kenaf [Etymology: Persian], Hibiscus cannabinus, is a plant in the Malvaceae family. Hibiscus cannabinus is in the genus Hibiscus and is probably native to southern Asia, though its exact natural origin is unknown. The name also applies to the fibre obtained from this plant...

  • Krameria ixine
    Krameria ixine
    Krameria ixine is a perennial shrub of the family Krameriaceae, the Rhatanies. It is found in Puerto Rico, Haiti, Netherlands Antilles, Antigua and Barbuda, Grenada, Central America, and in South America, in Guyana, Venezuela, and Colombia.-References:***;...

  • Lactuca canadensis
    Lactuca canadensis
    Lactuca canadensis is a species of wild lettuce known by the common name Canada lettuce, or Canada wild lettuce. It is native to much of North America, especially in eastern regions, but it can be found all across the continent, having been introduced widely...

  • Lagerstroemia indica
    Lagerstroemia indica
    Lagerstroemia indica is a species in the genus Lagerstroemia in the family Lythraceae.From China, Korea and Japan, Lagerstroemia indica is an often multistemmed, deciduous tree with a wide spreading, flat topped, open habit when mature.The bark is a prominent feature being smooth, pinkinsh-gray...

  • Lamium orvala
    Lamium orvala
    Lamium orvala is a species of flowering plants in the family Lamiaceae, native to Europe.- References :* *...

  • Lecythis ollaria
    Lecythis ollaria
    Lecythis ollaria is a species of woody plant in the Lecythidaceae family.It is found in Brazil and Venezuela.-References:* Pires O'Brien, J. 1998. . Downloaded on 18 July 2007....

  • Magnolia acuminata
  • Magnolia grandiflora
  • Magnolia tripetala
  • Mucuna pruriens
    Mucuna pruriens
    Mucuna pruriens is a tropical legume known as velvet bean or cowitch and by other common names , found in Africa, India and the Caribbean. The plant is infamous for its extreme itchiness produced on contact, particularly with the young foliage and the seed pods...

  • Oenothera perennis
    Oenothera perennis
    Oenothera perennis, or Sundrops, is a herbaceous flowering plant native to the United States and Canada....

  • Paeonia tenuifolia
    Paeonia tenuifolia
    Paeonia tenuifolia is sometimes called the fern leaf peony. It is native to the Caucasus Mountains of Russia, as well as areas north of the Black Sea and westward into Romania and Serbia. It was described by Linnaeus in 1759. The narrow, divided leaves are almost thread-like and grow close...

  • Paspalum distichum
    Paspalum distichum
    Paspalum distichum is a species of grass known by the common name knotgrass. Other common names include couch paspalum, eternity grass, gingergrass, and Thompson grass. Its native range is obscure because it has long been present on most continents, and in most areas it is certainly an introduced...

  • Passiflora quadrangularis
    Giant granadilla
    The Giant Granadilla, Giant Tumbo or Badea , Passiflora quadrangularis, is the largest of the passionfruits, plants of the genus Passiflora...

  • Pedalium murex
    Pedalium is a genus of plant in the Pedaliacae family comprising one species, P murex. It is endemic to India.-References:* *...

  • Persicaria perfoliata
  • Phytolacca icosandra
    Phytolacca icosandra
    Phytolacca icosandra, sometimes known as Tropical pokeweed, is a species of flowering plant found in the neotropics, introduced into the warmer areas of the western USA....

  • Poa palustris
    Poa palustris
    Poa palustris is a species of grass native to Asia, Europe and Northern America. This plant is used as fodder and forage, and it also used for erosion control or revegetation.-External links:****...

  • Polemonium reptans
    Polemonium reptans
    Polemonium reptans is a flowering plant in the genus Polemonium, native to eastern North America. Common names include Abscess Root, Creeping or Spreading Jacob's Ladder, False Jacob's Ladder, American Greek Valerian, Blue bells, Stairway to Heaven, and Sweatroot.-Growth:It is a perennial...

  • Polycarpon tetraphyllum
    Polycarpon tetraphyllum
    Polycarpon tetraphyllum, commonly known as Four-leaved Allseed , is a plant of the family Caryophyllaceae . An annual herb growing to 15 cm in height, it is found on sandy soils, in coastal areas and on wasteland. Native to Europe, it is also naturalised in parts of North America, Australia and...

  • Portlandia grandiflora
    Portlandia grandiflora
    Portlandia grandiflora is a species of plant in the Rubiaceae family. It is endemic to Jamaica.-Source:* World Conservation Monitoring Centre 1998. . Downloaded on 23 August 2007....

  • Ranunculus parviflorus
    Ranunculus parviflorus
    Ranunculus parviflorus is a species of buttercup known by the common name smallflower buttercup. It is native to Europe, but it is known on other areas of the world as an introduced species and sometimes a roadside weed, for example, in parts of Australia and the United States. It is an annual herb...

  • Reseda odorata
    Reseda odorata
    Reseda odorata is a species of flowering plant in the reseda family known by many common names, including garden mignonette and common mignonette. It is probably native to the Mediterranean Basin, but it can sometimes be found growing in the wild as an introduced species in many parts of the world...

  • Rheum palmatum
  • Rosa pimpinellifolia
    Rosa pimpinellifolia
    Rosa pimpinellifolia is a species of rose native to western, central and southern Europe and northwest Africa...

  • Sagittaria lancifolia
    Sagittaria lancifolia
    Sagittaria lancifolia is a perennial, monocot plant in the family Alismataceae, genus Sagittaria, with herbaceous growth patterns. It is native to the southeastern United States and westward through Texas...

  • Saxifraga cuneifolia
    Saxifraga cuneifolia
    Saxifraga cuneifolia, common name Lesser London Pride or Shield-leaved Saxifrage or Spoon-leaved Saxifrage, is a herbaceous perennial plant belonging to the Saxifragaceae family.-Etymology:...

  • Scabiosa prolifera
    Carmel daisy
    The Carmel daisy is a flowering plant of the family Dipsacales. Its flowers are creamy yellow, and when the petals are shed they leave a greenish-looking dried flower, good for arrangements....

  • Sesuvium portulacastrum
    Sesuvium portulacastrum
    Sesuvium portulacastrum, commonly known as shoreline purslane or "sea purslane", is a sprawling perennial herb that grows in coastal areas throughout much of the world.-Description:...

  • Silphium perfoliatum
    Silphium perfoliatum
    Silphium perfoliatum is a herbaceous perennial flowering plant in Asteraceae, the aster family, it is native from Eastern and Central North America. It grows in prairies, open woodlands, and on stream banks....

  • Talinum fruticosum
    Talinum fruticosum
    Talinum fruticosum is an herbaceous perennial plant that is native to Mexico, the Caribbean, Central America, and much of South America. Common names include waterleaf, cariru, Surinam purslane, Philippine spinach, Ceylon spinach, Florida spinach, potherb fameflower, Lagos bologi, and sweetheart...

  • Tripsacum dactyloides
    Tripsacum dactyloides
    Tripsacum dactyloides is a prairie grass of the Great Plains. Gama Grass is found as far northwest as Nebraska....

  • Turbina corymbosa

External links

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