Finch
Overview
The true finches are passerine
Passerine
A passerine is a bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species. Sometimes known as perching birds or, less accurately, as songbirds, the passerines form one of the most diverse terrestrial vertebrate orders: with over 5,000 identified species, it has roughly...

 bird
Bird
Birds are feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic , egg-laying, vertebrate animals. Around 10,000 living species and 188 families makes them the most speciose class of tetrapod vertebrates. They inhabit ecosystems across the globe, from the Arctic to the Antarctic. Extant birds range in size from...

s in the family
Family (biology)
In biological classification, family is* a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, genus, and species, with family fitting between order and genus. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the...

 Fringillidae. They are predominantly seed
Seed
A seed is a small embryonic plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat, usually with some stored food. It is the product of the ripened ovule of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants which occurs after fertilization and some growth within the mother plant...

-eating songbird
Songbird
A songbird is a bird belonging to the suborder Passeri of the perching birds . Another name that is sometimes seen as scientific or vernacular name is Oscines, from Latin oscen, "a songbird"...

s. Most are native to the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of a planet that is north of its equator—the word hemisphere literally means “half sphere”. It is also that half of the celestial sphere north of the celestial equator...

, but one subfamily is endemic to the Neotropics, one to the Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
The Hawaiian Islands are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and undersea seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some 1,500 miles from the island of Hawaii in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll...

, and one subfamily – monotypic
Monotypic
In biology, a monotypic taxon is a taxonomic group with only one biological type. The term's usage differs slightly between botany and zoology. The term monotypic has a separate use in conservation biology, monotypic habitat, regarding species habitat conversion eliminating biodiversity and...

 at genus
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

 level – is found only in the Palaearctic. The scientific name Fringillidae comes from the Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 word fringilla for the Chaffinch
Chaffinch
The Chaffinch , also called by a wide variety of other names, is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae.- Description :...

 (Fringilla coelebs) – a member of that last subfamily – which is common in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

.

Many birds in other families are also commonly called "finches", including some species
Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

 in the very similar-looking waxbills or estrildid finch
Estrildid finch
The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They can be classified as the family Estrildidae , or as a sub-group within the family Passeridae, which also includes the true sparrows....

es (family Passeridae, subfamily Estrildinae) of the Old World tropics and Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

; several groups of the bunting
Bunting (bird)
Buntings are a group of Eurasian and African passerine birds of the family Emberizidae.They are seed-eating birds with stubby, conical bills, and are the Old World equivalents of the species known in North America as sparrows...

 and American sparrow
American sparrow
American sparrows are a group of mainly New World passerine birds, forming part of the family Emberizidae. American sparrows are seed-eating birds with conical bills, brown or gray in color, and many species have distinctive head patterns....

 family (Emberizidae
Emberizidae
The Emberizidae are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill.In Europe, most species are called buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the sparrows, the...

); and Darwin's finches
Darwin's finches
Darwin's finches are a group of 14 or 15 species of passerine birds. It is still not clear which bird family they belong to, but they are not related to the true finches. They were first collected by Charles Darwin on the Galápagos Islands during the second voyage of the Beagle...

 of the Galapagos islands, which provided evidence of natural selection and are now recognized to be peculiar tanager
Tanager
The tanagers comprise the bird family Thraupidae, in the order Passeriformes. The family has an American distribution.There were traditionally about 240 species of tanagers, but the taxonomic treatment of this family's members is currently in a state of flux...

s (Thraupidae).

Some species are being imported or smuggled into other countries and sold as exotic pets.
The "classical" true finches range in size from the Andean Siskin
Andean Siskin
The Andean Siskin is a species of finch in the Fringillidae family. It is found in Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela....

 (Carduelis spinescens) at 9.5 cm (3.8 in) and 8.4 g (0.3 oz) to the Collared Grosbeak
Collared Grosbeak
The Collared Grosbeak is a species of finch in the Fringillidae family.It is found in Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand. Its natural habitat is boreal forests.-References:...

 (Mycerobas affinis) with its nearly 23 cm (9 in) and 80 g (3 oz).
Encyclopedia
The true finches are passerine
Passerine
A passerine is a bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species. Sometimes known as perching birds or, less accurately, as songbirds, the passerines form one of the most diverse terrestrial vertebrate orders: with over 5,000 identified species, it has roughly...

 bird
Bird
Birds are feathered, winged, bipedal, endothermic , egg-laying, vertebrate animals. Around 10,000 living species and 188 families makes them the most speciose class of tetrapod vertebrates. They inhabit ecosystems across the globe, from the Arctic to the Antarctic. Extant birds range in size from...

s in the family
Family (biology)
In biological classification, family is* a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, genus, and species, with family fitting between order and genus. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the...

 Fringillidae. They are predominantly seed
Seed
A seed is a small embryonic plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat, usually with some stored food. It is the product of the ripened ovule of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants which occurs after fertilization and some growth within the mother plant...

-eating songbird
Songbird
A songbird is a bird belonging to the suborder Passeri of the perching birds . Another name that is sometimes seen as scientific or vernacular name is Oscines, from Latin oscen, "a songbird"...

s. Most are native to the Northern Hemisphere
Northern Hemisphere
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of a planet that is north of its equator—the word hemisphere literally means “half sphere”. It is also that half of the celestial sphere north of the celestial equator...

, but one subfamily is endemic to the Neotropics, one to the Hawaiian Islands
Hawaiian Islands
The Hawaiian Islands are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and undersea seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some 1,500 miles from the island of Hawaii in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll...

, and one subfamily – monotypic
Monotypic
In biology, a monotypic taxon is a taxonomic group with only one biological type. The term's usage differs slightly between botany and zoology. The term monotypic has a separate use in conservation biology, monotypic habitat, regarding species habitat conversion eliminating biodiversity and...

 at genus
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

 level – is found only in the Palaearctic. The scientific name Fringillidae comes from the Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 word fringilla for the Chaffinch
Chaffinch
The Chaffinch , also called by a wide variety of other names, is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae.- Description :...

 (Fringilla coelebs) – a member of that last subfamily – which is common in Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

.

Many birds in other families are also commonly called "finches", including some species
Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

 in the very similar-looking waxbills or estrildid finch
Estrildid finch
The estrildid finches are small passerine birds of the Old World tropics and Australasia. They can be classified as the family Estrildidae , or as a sub-group within the family Passeridae, which also includes the true sparrows....

es (family Passeridae, subfamily Estrildinae) of the Old World tropics and Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

; several groups of the bunting
Bunting (bird)
Buntings are a group of Eurasian and African passerine birds of the family Emberizidae.They are seed-eating birds with stubby, conical bills, and are the Old World equivalents of the species known in North America as sparrows...

 and American sparrow
American sparrow
American sparrows are a group of mainly New World passerine birds, forming part of the family Emberizidae. American sparrows are seed-eating birds with conical bills, brown or gray in color, and many species have distinctive head patterns....

 family (Emberizidae
Emberizidae
The Emberizidae are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill.In Europe, most species are called buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the sparrows, the...

); and Darwin's finches
Darwin's finches
Darwin's finches are a group of 14 or 15 species of passerine birds. It is still not clear which bird family they belong to, but they are not related to the true finches. They were first collected by Charles Darwin on the Galápagos Islands during the second voyage of the Beagle...

 of the Galapagos islands, which provided evidence of natural selection and are now recognized to be peculiar tanager
Tanager
The tanagers comprise the bird family Thraupidae, in the order Passeriformes. The family has an American distribution.There were traditionally about 240 species of tanagers, but the taxonomic treatment of this family's members is currently in a state of flux...

s (Thraupidae).

Some species are being imported or smuggled into other countries and sold as exotic pets.

Description

The "classical" true finches range in size from the Andean Siskin
Andean Siskin
The Andean Siskin is a species of finch in the Fringillidae family. It is found in Colombia, Ecuador, and Venezuela....

 (Carduelis spinescens) at 9.5 cm (3.8 in) and 8.4 g (0.3 oz) to the Collared Grosbeak
Collared Grosbeak
The Collared Grosbeak is a species of finch in the Fringillidae family.It is found in Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, and Thailand. Its natural habitat is boreal forests.-References:...

 (Mycerobas affinis) with its nearly 23 cm (9 in) and 80 g (3 oz). They typically have strong, stubby beak
Beak
The beak, bill or rostrum is an external anatomical structure of birds which is used for eating and for grooming, manipulating objects, killing prey, fighting, probing for food, courtship and feeding young...

s, which in some species can be quite large; however, Hawaiian honeycreeper
Hawaiian honeycreeper
Hawaiian honeycreepers are small, passerine birds endemic to Hawaii. Some authorities still categorize this group as a family Drepanididae, but in recent years, most authorities consider them a subfamily, Drepanidinae, of Fringillidae, the finch family...

s are famous for the wide range of bill shapes and sizes brought about by adaptive radiation
Adaptive radiation
In evolutionary biology, adaptive radiation is the evolution of ecological and phenotypic diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage. Starting with a recent single ancestor, this process results in the speciation and phenotypic adaptation of an array of species exhibiting different...

. All true finches have 12 remiges and 9 primary rectrices. The basic plumage
Plumage
Plumage refers both to the layer of feathers that cover a bird and the pattern, colour, and arrangement of those feathers. The pattern and colours of plumage vary between species and subspecies and can also vary between different age classes, sexes, and season. Within species there can also be a...

 colour is brownish, sometimes greenish; many have considerable amounts of black, while white plumage is generally absent except as wing-bars or other signalling marks. Bright yellow and red carotenoid
Carotenoid
Carotenoids are tetraterpenoid organic pigments that are naturally occurring in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some bacteria, and some types of fungus. Carotenoids can be synthesized fats and other basic organic metabolic building...

 pigment
Pigment
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence, phosphorescence, and other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light.Many materials selectively absorb...

s are commonplace in this family, and thus blue structural colours are rather rare, as the yellow pigments turn the blue color into green. Many, but by no means all true finches have strong sexual dichromatism, the females typically lacking the bright carotenoid markings of males.

Finches are typically inhabitants of well-wooded areas, but some can be found on mountains or even in desert
Desert
A desert is a landscape or region that receives an extremely low amount of precipitation, less than enough to support growth of most plants. Most deserts have an average annual precipitation of less than...

s. They are primarily granivorous, but euphoniines
Euphoniinae
Euphoniinae is a subfamily of finches endemic to the Neotropics. It contains two genera, Euphonia and Chlorophonia.-Species list:SUBFAMILY EUPHONIINAE*Genus Euphonia: the euphonias** Jamaican Euphonia, ** Plumbeous Euphonia, ...

 include considerable amounts of arthropod
Arthropod
An arthropod is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton , a segmented body, and jointed appendages. Arthropods are members of the phylum Arthropoda , and include the insects, arachnids, crustaceans, and others...

s and berries in their diet, and Hawaiian honeycreepers evolve
Evolution
Evolution is any change across successive generations in the heritable characteristics of biological populations. Evolutionary processes give rise to diversity at every level of biological organisation, including species, individual organisms and molecules such as DNA and proteins.Life on Earth...

d to utilize a wide range of food sources, including nectar. The diet of Fringillidae nestlings includes a varying amount of small arthropods. True finches have a bouncing flight like most small passerine
Passerine
A passerine is a bird of the order Passeriformes, which includes more than half of all bird species. Sometimes known as perching birds or, less accurately, as songbirds, the passerines form one of the most diverse terrestrial vertebrate orders: with over 5,000 identified species, it has roughly...

s, alternating bouts of flapping with gliding on closed wings. Most sing well and several are commonly seen cagebirds; foremost among these is the domesticated Canary
Domestic Canary
The Domestic Canary, often simply known as the canary, is a domesticated form of the wild Canary, a small songbird in the finch family originating from the Macaronesian Islands ....

 (Serinus canaria domestica). The natural songs of bullfinches are plain and short, but the birds are known to learn songs that are whistled to them. Bullfinches sing the learned songs with precision though always a semitone higher than the melody originally whistled to them (Tim Birkhead, author of "The Wisdom of Birds"). The nests are basket-shaped and usually built in trees, more rarely in bushes, between rocks or on similar substrate.

Systematics and taxonomy

The taxonomic structure of the true finch family, Fringillidae, has been fairly disputed in the past, with some upranking the Hawaiian honeycreeper
Hawaiian honeycreeper
Hawaiian honeycreepers are small, passerine birds endemic to Hawaii. Some authorities still categorize this group as a family Drepanididae, but in recent years, most authorities consider them a subfamily, Drepanidinae, of Fringillidae, the finch family...

s (Drepanidinae) as family Drepanididae and/or uniting the cardueline and fringilline finches as tribe
Tribe (biology)
In biology, a tribe is a taxonomic rank between family and genus. It is sometimes subdivided into subtribes.Some examples include the tribes: Canini, Acalypheae, Hominini, Bombini, and Antidesmeae.-See also:* Biological classification* Rank...

s (Carduelini and Fringillini) in one subfamily; the euphonious finches (Euphoniinae
Euphoniinae
Euphoniinae is a subfamily of finches endemic to the Neotropics. It contains two genera, Euphonia and Chlorophonia.-Species list:SUBFAMILY EUPHONIINAE*Genus Euphonia: the euphonias** Jamaican Euphonia, ** Plumbeous Euphonia, ...

) were thought to be tanagers due to general similarity in appearance and mode of life until their real affinities were realized. In particular North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

n authors have often merged the bunting
Bunting (bird)
Buntings are a group of Eurasian and African passerine birds of the family Emberizidae.They are seed-eating birds with stubby, conical bills, and are the Old World equivalents of the species known in North America as sparrows...

s and American sparrow
American sparrow
American sparrows are a group of mainly New World passerine birds, forming part of the family Emberizidae. American sparrows are seed-eating birds with conical bills, brown or gray in color, and many species have distinctive head patterns....

 family (Emberizidae
Emberizidae
The Emberizidae are a large family of passerine birds. They are seed-eating birds with a distinctively shaped bill.In Europe, most species are called buntings. In North America, most of the species in this family are known as sparrows, but these birds are not closely related to the sparrows, the...

) – and sometimes the bulk of the nine-primaried oscine
Nine-primaried oscine
The nine-primaried oscines are a group of songbird families from the superfamily Passeroidea. It is composed of the Fringillidae , Emberizidae , Parulidae , Thraupidae , Cardinalidae , Icteridae and the monotypic Peucedramidae...

s – with the split-up Fringillidae as subfamilies of a single massive family. But the current understanding of Passeroidea phylogeny is better reflected in keeping the fundamental nine-primaried oscine clade
Clade
A clade is a group consisting of a species and all its descendants. In the terms of biological systematics, a clade is a single "branch" on the "tree of life". The idea that such a "natural group" of organisms should be grouped together and given a taxonomic name is central to biological...

s as distinct families. However, Przewalski's "Rosefinch"
Przewalski's Finch
The Przevalski's Finch or Przewalski's Finch is an unusual passerine bird from the mountains of central-west China...

 (Urocynchramus pylzowi) is now classified as a distinct family, monotypic as to genus and species, and with no particularly close relatives among the Passeroidea.

Fossil
Fossil
Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of animals , plants, and other organisms from the remote past...

 remains of true finches are rare, and those that are known can mostly be assigned to extant genera
Genera
Genera is a commercial operating system and development environment for Lisp machines developed by Symbolics. It is essentially a fork of an earlier operating system originating on the MIT AI Lab's Lisp machines which Symbolics had used in common with LMI and Texas Instruments...

 at least. Like the other Passeroidea families, the true finches seem to be of roughly Middle Miocene
Middle Miocene
The Middle Miocene is a sub-epoch of the Miocene Epoch made up of two stages: the Langhian and Serravallian stages. The Middle Miocene is preceded by the Early Miocene....

 origin, around 20-10 million years ago (Ma). An unidentifable finch fossil from the Messinian
Messinian
The Messinian is in the geologic timescale the last age or uppermost stage of the Miocene. It spans the time between 7.246 ± 0.005 Ma and 5.332 ± 0.005 Ma...

 age, around 12 to 7.3 million years ago (Ma) during the Late Miocene
Late Miocene
The Late Miocene is a sub-epoch of the Miocene Epoch made up of two stages. The Tortonian and Messinian stages comprise the Late Miocene sub-epoch....

 subepoch, has been found at Polgárdi
Polgárdi
Polgárdi is a town in Fejér county, Hungary....

 in Hungary
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

.

Subfamilies and genera

The systematics of the cardueline finches are contentious. The layout presented here follows the recent decades' molecular phylogenetic studies, and takes into account the traditional splitting of the genus Carduelis. The exact position of several genera in the cardueline sequence is tentative.
  • Subfamily Fringillinae – fringilline finches. Three species
    Species
    In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

    , which feed their young on insects and few if any seed
    • Genus Fringilla
      Fringilla
      The genus Fringilla is a small group of finches from the Old World, which are the only species in the subfamily Fringillinae. The three species are:*Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs*Blue Chaffinch Fringilla teydea...


  • Subfamily Carduelinae
    Carduelinae
    The cardueline finches are a subfamily, Carduelinae, one of at least three subfamilies of the finch family Fringillidae, the others being the Fringillinae and the Euphoniinae. The Hawaiian honeycreepers are usually considered another subfamily, Drepanidinae, but they may be cardueline finches as well...

     – cardueline finches. A much larger group that contains several genera which feed their young mainly on seeds. This subfamily consists of several well-defined clade
    Clade
    A clade is a group consisting of a species and all its descendants. In the terms of biological systematics, a clade is a single "branch" on the "tree of life". The idea that such a "natural group" of organisms should be grouped together and given a taxonomic name is central to biological...

    s.
    • Typical grosbeak
      Grosbeak
      Grosbeak is a form taxon containing several species of seed-eating passerine birds with large beaks. Although they all belong to the superfamily Passeroidea, they are not a natural group but rather a polyphyletic assemblage of distantly related songbirds....

      s
      • Genus Eophona
        Eophona
        The Oriental grosbeaks are a genus of finches containing two species:* Yellow-billed Grosbeak Eophona migratoria* Japanese Grosbeak Eophona personata- References :...

         – Oriental grosbeaks
      • Genus Coccothraustes
        Coccothraustes
        Coccothraustes is a genus of large finches containing three species:* Hawfinch – Coccothraustes coccothraustes* Evening Grosbeak – Coccothraustes vespertinus* Hooded Grosbeak – Coccothraustes abeillei...

         – Holarctic grosbeaks (polyphyletic?)
      • Genus Mycerobas
        Mycerobas
        The Mycerobas grosbeaks are a genus of finch in the Fringillidae family. They are colorful finches and are the largest species in the family.The genus contains the following species:* Collared Grosbeak...

         – Mycerobas grosbeaks
    • American rosefinches
      • Genus "Carpodacus" – House Finch
        House Finch
        The House Finch is a bird in the finch family Fringillidae, which is found in North America. This species and the other "American rosefinches" are usually placed in the rosefinch genus Carpodacus...

        , Cassin's Finch
        Cassin's Finch
        Cassin's Finch is a bird in the finch family Fringillidae. This species and the other "American rosefinches" are usually placed in the rosefinch genus Carpodacus, but they likely belong in a distinct genus Burrica....

        , and Purple Finch
        Purple Finch
        The Purple Finch, Carpodacus purpureus, is a bird in the finch family Fringillidae.-Taxonomy:The Purple Finch is one of 24 birds in the genus Carpodacus and is included in the finch...

    • Bullfinches
      • Genus Pinicola
        Pinicola
        Pinicola is a possibly monotypic genus of "grosbeaks" of the true finch family, Fringillidae. It is closely related to the true bullfinches and the Holarctic mountain finches .This genus contains at most two species:...

         – Pine Grosbeak
      • Genus Pyrrhula
        Pyrrhula
        Pyrrhula is a small genus of passerine birds, commonly called Bullfinches, belonging to the finch family .The genus has a palearctic distribution. All species occur in Asia with two species exclusively in the Himalayas and one species, P. pyrrhula, also occurring in Europe. The Azores Bullfinch...

         – bullfinches
    • Arid-zone clade
      • Genus Leucosticte – mountain finches
      • Genus N.N. – Dark-breasted Rosefinch
        Dark-breasted Rosefinch
        The Dark-breasted Rosefinch is a true finch species . It is one the most peculiar "rosefinches" and might belong in a monotypic genus Procarduelis, closer to Fringilla than to the true rosefinches.It is found in Bhutan, China, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Thailand, and Vietnam...

        , "Carpodacus" nipalensis
      • Genus Rhodopechys
        Rhodopechys
        Rhodopechys is a genus of finches containing the following species:* Crimson-winged Finch, Rhodopechys sanguineus** African Crimson-winged Finch, Rhodopechys sanguineus alienus* Trumpeter Finch, Rhodopechys githaginea...

         – Trumpeter Finch
        Trumpeter Finch
        The Trumpeter Finch is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae.This bird breeds in the Canary Islands, across north Africa, and in the Middle East and into central Asia. There is a small European population in southern Spain...

         and relatives
    • Asian rosefinches
      • Genus Carpodacus – rosefinches (Genus in need of substantial revision. May consist of two or more genera; alternatively may include Haematospiza and Uragus)
      • Genus Haematospiza – Scarlet Finch
      • Genus Uragus – streaked rosefinches

    • Goldfinch-canary-crossbill clade (Carduelis
      Carduelis
      The genus Carduelisis a large group of birds in the finch family Fringillidae. It includes the greenfinches, redpolls, goldfinches, linnets, the twite, and the non-African siskins...

       and Serinus
      Serinus
      The genus Serinus is a large genus of birds in the finch family Fringillidae found mostly in the Afrotropical region with some outlying species in Europe and Asia. The genus contains several species groups including canaries, seedeaters and the African siskins...

       are polyphyletic and are probably best regarded as a collection of independent sub-groups or genera.)
      • Genus Serinus
        Serinus
        The genus Serinus is a large genus of birds in the finch family Fringillidae found mostly in the Afrotropical region with some outlying species in Europe and Asia. The genus contains several species groups including canaries, seedeaters and the African siskins...

         sensu lato – canaries, African seedeater
        Seedeater
        The seedeaters are a form taxon of seed-eating passerine birds with a distinctively conical bill.Most are Central and South American birds that were formerly placed in the American sparrow family , but are now known to be tanagers closely related to Darwins finches...

        s, serin
        Serín
        Serín is a district of the municipality of Gijón / Xixón, in Asturias, Spain.The population of Serín was 309 in 2004Serín is located on the western area of Gijón / Xixón, and borders the Asturian municipalities of Llanera, Corvera and Carreño.Barrios & Places:-External links:* - Gijón / Xixón...

        s and African siskin
        Siskin
        -Birds:The name siskin when referring to a bird is derived from an adaptation of the German dialect words sisschen, zeischen, which are diminuative forms of Middle High German and Middle Low German words, which are themselves apparently of Slavic origin...

        s
        • (Sub)Genus Serinus sensu stricto – European Serin
          European Serin
          The European Serin, or just Serin is the smallest European species of the family of finches and is closely related to the Canary. Its diet consists mainly of a combination of buds and seeds.-Description:...

           and relatives (possibly related to Spinus)
        • (Sub)Genus Crithagra – Afrotropical canaries, African seedeaters, citrils (probably only distantly related to Serinus)
      • Genus Linurgus – Oriole Finch (possibly basal to Crithagra)
      • Genus Rhynchostruthus – golden-winged grosbeaks (tentatively placed here)
      • Genus "Serinus" thibetanus – Tibetan Serin
        Tibetan Serin
        The Tibetan Serin , sometimes considered a siskin of the genus Carduelis, is a true finch species .It is found in Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, and Nepal. Its natural habitat is temperate forests....

         (probably related to Spinus and Serinus sensu stricto)
      • Genus Carduelis
        Carduelis
        The genus Carduelisis a large group of birds in the finch family Fringillidae. It includes the greenfinches, redpolls, goldfinches, linnets, the twite, and the non-African siskins...

         sensu lato
        • (Sub)Genus Carduelis sensu stricto – European Goldfinch
          European Goldfinch
          The European Goldfinch or Goldfinch is a small passerine bird in the finch family.-Habitat and range:The goldfinch breeds across Europe, North Africa, and western and central Asia, in open, partially wooded lowlands. It is resident in the milder west of its range, but migrates from colder regions...

          , Citril Finch
          Citril Finch
          The Citril Finch is a small songbird, a member of the true finch family Fringillidae. For a long time, this cardueline finch was placed in the genus Serinus, but it is apparently very closely related to the European Goldfinch .This bird is a resident breeder in the mountains of southwestern Europe...

           and Corsican Finch
          Corsican Finch
          The Corsican Finch is a bird in the finch family, Fringillidae.It was formerly regarded a subspecies of the Citril Finch, but it differs in morphology and vocalizations as well as mtDNA sequence and they are now considered distinct...

           (probably only distantly related to Spinus)
        • (Sub)Genus Spinus – siskin
          Siskin
          -Birds:The name siskin when referring to a bird is derived from an adaptation of the German dialect words sisschen, zeischen, which are diminuative forms of Middle High German and Middle Low German words, which are themselves apparently of Slavic origin...

          s and American goldfinch
          American Goldfinch
          The American Goldfinch , also known as the Eastern Goldfinch and Wild Canary, is a small North American bird in the finch family...

          es
        • (Sub)Genus Linaria – linnet
          Linnet
          The Linnet is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae.The Linnet derives its scientific name from its fondness for hemp and its English name from its liking for seeds of flax, from which linen is made.- Description :...

          s and twite
          Twite
          The Twite is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae.The Twite is a small finch, similar in size and shape to a Linnet. Birds of the subspecies flavirostris are long, and those of the subspecies altaica are long. It lacks the red head patch and breast shown by the Linnet and the...

           (related to Spinus)
        • (Sub)Genus Chloris – greenfinch
          Greenfinch
          -Birds:* Black-headed Greenfinch * European Greenfinch * Oriental Greenfinch * Vietnam Greenfinch * Yellow-breasted Greenfinch -Other:...

          es and Desert Finch
          Desert Finch
          The Desert Finch , sometimes called Lichtenstein's Desert Finch, is a large brown true finch found in southern Eurasia. Its taxonomy is confused, and it has formerly been placed in Fringilla, Bucanetes, Rhodospiza and Rhodopechys.It has an average wingspan of...

        • (Sub)Genus Acanthis – redpolls (related to Loxia)
        • (Sub)Genus Loxia – crossbills
    • Carduelinae incertae sedis
      Incertae sedis
      , is a term used to define a taxonomic group where its broader relationships are unknown or undefined. Uncertainty at specific taxonomic levels is attributed by , , and similar terms.-Examples:*The fossil plant Paradinandra suecica could not be assigned to any...

      • Genus Pyrrhoplectes – Gold-naped Finch
      • Genus Chaunoproctus – Bonin Grosbeak (extinct: 1830s)
      • Genus Callacanthis – Spectacled Finch
      • Genus Neospiza – Sao Tomé Grosbeak

  • Subfamily Drepanidinae – Hawaiian honeycreepers. Endemic to the Hawaiian Islands
    Hawaiian Islands
    The Hawaiian Islands are an archipelago of eight major islands, several atolls, numerous smaller islets, and undersea seamounts in the North Pacific Ocean, extending some 1,500 miles from the island of Hawaii in the south to northernmost Kure Atoll...

    ; formerly often treated as a separate family.
    • Some 10-12 living genera, about 7 recently extinct

  • Subfamily Euphoniinae
    Euphoniinae
    Euphoniinae is a subfamily of finches endemic to the Neotropics. It contains two genera, Euphonia and Chlorophonia.-Species list:SUBFAMILY EUPHONIINAE*Genus Euphonia: the euphonias** Jamaican Euphonia, ** Plumbeous Euphonia, ...

     – Euphonious finches. Endemic to the Neotropics; formerly placed in Thraupidae.
    • Genus Euphonia
      Euphonia
      Euphonias are members of the genus Euphonia, a group of Neotropical birds in the finch family. Euphonia contains close to 27 species. They and the chlorophonias comprise the subfamily Euphoniinae....

       – euphonias
    • Genus Chlorophonia
      Chlorophonia
      Chlorophonia is a genus of finches endemic to the Neotropics. The English group name for the five species that constitute the genus is also chlorophonia. The collective term for the genus is chlorophonias...

      – chlorophonias

Further reading

  • Groth, J. G. 1994. A mitochondrial cytochrome b phylogeny of cardueline finches. Journal für Ornithologie, 135: 31.
  • Groth, J. G. 1998. Molecular phylogeny of the cardueline finches and Hawaiian honeycreepers. Ostrich, 69: 401.
  • Klicka, J., K.P. Johnson, and S.M. Lanyon. 2000. New World nine-primaried oscine relationships: Constructing a mitochondrial DNA framework. Auk 117:321-336.
  • Ryan, P.G., Wright, D., Oatley, G., Wakeling, J., Cohen, C., Nowell, T.L., Bowie, R.C.K., Ward, V. & Crowe, T.M. 2004. Systematics of Serinus canaries and the status of Cape and Yellow-crowned Canaries inferred from mtDNA and morphology. Ostrich 75:288-294.
  • Treplin, S. 2006. Inference of phylogenetic relationships in passerine birds (Aves: Passeriformes) using new molecular markers. (Dissertation - available online) http://opus.kobv.de/ubp/volltexte/2006/1123/pdf/treplin_diss.pdf.
  • Yuri, T., and D. P. Mindell. 2002. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of Fringillidae, "New World nine-primaried oscines" (Aves: Passeriformes). Mol. Phylogen. Evol. 23:229-243.

External links

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