Trout
Overview
 
Trout is the name for a number of species
Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

 of freshwater
Freshwater
Fresh water is naturally occurring water on the Earth's surface in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and underground as groundwater in aquifers and underground streams. Fresh water is generally characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts and...

 and saltwater fish
Fish
Fish are a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic vertebrate animals that lack limbs with digits. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish, as well as various extinct related groups...

 belonging to the Salmoninae subfamily of the family Salmonidae
Salmonidae
Salmonidae is a family of ray-finned fish, the only living family currently placed in the order Salmoniformes. It includes salmon, trout, chars, freshwater whitefishes and graylings...

. Salmon
Salmon
Salmon is the common name for several species of fish in the family Salmonidae. Several other fish in the same family are called trout; the difference is often said to be that salmon migrate and trout are resident, but this distinction does not strictly hold true...

 belong to the same family as trout. Most salmon species spend almost all their lives in salt water. Trout are classified as an oily fish
Oily fish
Oily fish have oil in their tissues and in the belly cavity around the gut. Their fillets contain up to 30 percent oil, although this figure varies both within and between species...

.

The word trout is also used as part of the name of some non-salmonid fish such as Cynoscion nebulosus, the spotted seatrout
Spotted Seatrout
The spotted seatrout also known as speckled trout,or spotted weakfish is a common estuary fish found in the southern United States...

 or speckled trout.
The name trout is commonly used for some species in three of the seven genera
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

 in the subfamily Salmoninae: Salmo
Salmo
Salmo is a genus of fish in the salmon family that includes the familiar species Atlantic salmon and brown trout . The natural distribution of the genus is chiefly European. Only the range of the Atlantic salmon extends to northern North America...

, Atlantic
Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

 species; Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus is a genus of fish in the family Salmonidae; it contains the Pacific salmons and Pacific trouts. The name of the genus is derived from the Greek onkos and rynchos , in reference to the hooked jaws of males in the mating season .-Range:Salmon and trout with ranges generally in waters...

, Pacific
Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, and the Americas in the east.At 165.2 million square kilometres in area, this largest division of the World...

 species; and Salvelinus
Salvelinus
Salvelinus is a genus of salmonid fish often called char or charr; some species are called "trout". Salvelinus is a member of the Salmoninae subfamily of the Salmonidae family. Charr may be identified by light cream pink or red spots over a darker body. Scales tend to be small, with 115-200 along...

, which includes fish also sometimes called char or charr.
Encyclopedia
Trout is the name for a number of species
Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

 of freshwater
Freshwater
Fresh water is naturally occurring water on the Earth's surface in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and underground as groundwater in aquifers and underground streams. Fresh water is generally characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts and...

 and saltwater fish
Fish
Fish are a paraphyletic group of organisms that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic vertebrate animals that lack limbs with digits. Included in this definition are the living hagfish, lampreys, and cartilaginous and bony fish, as well as various extinct related groups...

 belonging to the Salmoninae subfamily of the family Salmonidae
Salmonidae
Salmonidae is a family of ray-finned fish, the only living family currently placed in the order Salmoniformes. It includes salmon, trout, chars, freshwater whitefishes and graylings...

. Salmon
Salmon
Salmon is the common name for several species of fish in the family Salmonidae. Several other fish in the same family are called trout; the difference is often said to be that salmon migrate and trout are resident, but this distinction does not strictly hold true...

 belong to the same family as trout. Most salmon species spend almost all their lives in salt water. Trout are classified as an oily fish
Oily fish
Oily fish have oil in their tissues and in the belly cavity around the gut. Their fillets contain up to 30 percent oil, although this figure varies both within and between species...

.

The word trout is also used as part of the name of some non-salmonid fish such as Cynoscion nebulosus, the spotted seatrout
Spotted Seatrout
The spotted seatrout also known as speckled trout,or spotted weakfish is a common estuary fish found in the southern United States...

 or speckled trout.

Species

The name trout is commonly used for some species in three of the seven genera
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

 in the subfamily Salmoninae: Salmo
Salmo
Salmo is a genus of fish in the salmon family that includes the familiar species Atlantic salmon and brown trout . The natural distribution of the genus is chiefly European. Only the range of the Atlantic salmon extends to northern North America...

, Atlantic
Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

 species; Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus
Oncorhynchus is a genus of fish in the family Salmonidae; it contains the Pacific salmons and Pacific trouts. The name of the genus is derived from the Greek onkos and rynchos , in reference to the hooked jaws of males in the mating season .-Range:Salmon and trout with ranges generally in waters...

, Pacific
Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, and the Americas in the east.At 165.2 million square kilometres in area, this largest division of the World...

 species; and Salvelinus
Salvelinus
Salvelinus is a genus of salmonid fish often called char or charr; some species are called "trout". Salvelinus is a member of the Salmoninae subfamily of the Salmonidae family. Charr may be identified by light cream pink or red spots over a darker body. Scales tend to be small, with 115-200 along...

, which includes fish also sometimes called char or charr. Fish referred to as trout include:
  • Genus Salmo
    Salmo
    Salmo is a genus of fish in the salmon family that includes the familiar species Atlantic salmon and brown trout . The natural distribution of the genus is chiefly European. Only the range of the Atlantic salmon extends to northern North America...

    • Adriatic trout
      Adriatic trout
      Salmo obtusirostris, also known as the Adriatic trout, Adriatic salmon, and softmouth trout, is a species of salmonid fish endemic to the rivers of Western Balkans in southeastern Europe...

      , Salmo obtusirostris
      • S. o. oxyrhynchus
      • S. o. salonitana
      • S. o. krkensis
      • S. o. zetensis
    • Salmo trutta
      • Brown trout
        Brown trout
        The brown trout and the sea trout are fish of the same species....

        , S. t. morpha fario and S. t. morpha lacustris
      • Sea trout, S. t. morpha trutta
    • Flathead trout, Salmo platycephalus
    • Marble trout, Soca River trout or Soča trout - Salmo marmoratus
    • Ohrid trout, Salmo letnica, S. balcanicus (exctinct), S. lumi, and S. aphelios
    • Sevan trout
      Sevan trout
      The Sevan trout is an endemic fish species of Lake Sevan in Armenia. It is a salmonid fish related to the brown trout....

      , Salmo ischchan
      • Winter bakhtak, S. i. ischchan
      • Summer bakhtak, S. i. aestivalis
      • Gegharkuni, S. i. gegarkuni
      • Bojak, S. i. danilewskii
  • Genus Oncorhynchus
    Oncorhynchus
    Oncorhynchus is a genus of fish in the family Salmonidae; it contains the Pacific salmons and Pacific trouts. The name of the genus is derived from the Greek onkos and rynchos , in reference to the hooked jaws of males in the mating season .-Range:Salmon and trout with ranges generally in waters...

    • Biwa trout
      Biwa trout
      The Biwa trout or Biwa salmon, Oncorhynchus masou rhodurus, is an anadromous salmonid fish of the Pacific salmon genus Oncorhynchus. It is one of several fish called trout, but taxonomically it is a subspecies of the more widespread cherry salmon of western Pacific...

      , Oncorhynchus masou rhodurus
    • Cutthroat trout
      Cutthroat trout
      The cutthroat trout is a species of freshwater fish in the salmon family of order Salmoniformes. It is one of the many fish species colloquially known as trout...

      , Oncorhynchus clarki
      • Coastal cutthroat trout
        Coastal cutthroat trout
        The coastal cutthroat trout also known as the sea run cutthroat, or harvest trout are a subspecies of cutthroat trout with an anadromous life history....

        , O. c. clarki
        • Crescenti trout, O. c. crescenti
      • Alvord cutthroat trout
        Alvord cutthroat trout
        The Alvord cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki alvordensis, was a subspecies of cutthroat trout. It was native to spring-fed creeks that ran down to Alvord Dry Lake in southeast Oregon, which was a large lake during the ice ages and an isolated drainage, part of the Great Basin today...

         O. c. alvordensis (extinct)
      • Bonneville cutthroat trout
        Bonneville cutthroat trout
        The Bonneville cutthroat trout is a subspecies of cutthroat trout native to tributaries of the Great Salt Lake, U.S.A. Most of the fish's current and historic range is in Utah, but they are also found in Idaho, Wyoming, and Nevada...

         O. c. utah
      • Humboldt cutthroat trout O. c. spp.
      • Lahontan cutthroat trout
        Lahontan cutthroat trout
        Lahontan cutthroat trout is the largest subspecies of cutthroat trout, and the state fish of Nevada.-Natural history:...

         O. c. henshawi
        • Whitehorse Basin cutthroat trout, O. c. spp.
      • Paiute cutthroat trout
        Paiute cutthroat trout
        Paiute cutthroat trout is a subspecies of cutthroat trout native only to Silver King Creek, a headwater tributary of the Carson River in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, U.S.A. The Carson River lies within the Great Basin interior drainage system, within the historic range of Lahontan...

         O. c. seleniris
      • Snake River fine-spotted cutthroat trout
        Snake River fine-spotted cutthroat trout
        The Snake River fine-spotted cutthroat trout is a form of the Yellowstone cutthroat trout subspecies. Sub-species designation has been proposed with a trinomial classification of Oncorhynchus clarki behnkei, but the sub-species is not formally recognized...

        , O. c. behnkei
      • Westslope cutthroat trout
        Westslope cutthroat trout
        The westslope cutthroat trout , also known as the blackspotted cutthroat, is a subspecies of the cutthroat trout and is a freshwater fish in the salmon family of order Salmoniformes. The cutthroat is the Montana state fish...

         O. c. lewisi
      • Yellowfin cutthroat trout
        Yellowfin cutthroat trout
        The yellowfin cutthroat trout , a subspecies of the cutthroat trout, was officially identified in 1891 and named after the US Fish Commissioner, MacDonald...

         O. c. macdonaldi (extinct)
      • Yellowstone cutthroat trout
        Yellowstone cutthroat trout
        The Yellowstone cutthroat trout is a subspecies of the cutthroat trout and is a freshwater fish in the salmon family of the order Salmoniformes. Native only to a few U.S...

         O. c. bouvieri
      • Colorado River cutthroat trout
        Colorado River cutthroat trout
        The Colorado River cutthroat trout is a subspecies of cutthroat trout native only to the Green and Colorado River basins, which are west of the Continental Divide...

         O. c. pleuriticus
      • Greenback cutthroat trout
        Greenback cutthroat trout
        The greenback cutthroat trout is the easternmost subspecies of cutthroat trout. This subspecies, once widespread, today occupies less than 1% of its historical range and is currently listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. It was adopted in 1994 as the state fish of...

         O. c. stomias
      • Rio Grande cutthroat trout
        Rio Grande cutthroat trout
        The Rio Grande cutthroat trout , a member of the family Salmonidae is found in New Mexico and southern Colorado in tributaries of the Rio Grande...

         O. c. virginalis
    • Oncorhynchus gilae
      • Gila trout
        Gila trout
        The gila trout is one of two subspecies of trout in O. gilae, the other being the Apache trout . Both are native to the Southwest United States. The gila trout is a species of salmonid, related to the rainbow and cutthroat trouts. The Gila trout has been considered endangered with extinction....

        , O. g. gilae
      • Apache trout
        Apache trout
        The Apache trout or Arizona trout, Oncorhynchus gilae apache, is a species of freshwater fish in the salmon family of order Salmoniformes. It is one of the trouts.-Description:...

        , O. g. apache
    • Rainbow trout
      Rainbow trout
      The rainbow trout is a species of salmonid native to tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America. The steelhead is a sea run rainbow trout usually returning to freshwater to spawn after 2 to 3 years at sea. In other words, rainbow trout and steelhead trout are the same species....

      , Oncorhynchus mykiss
      • Kamchatkan rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss mykiss
      • Columbia River redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdnerii
      • Coastal rainbow trout/Steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus
        • Beardslee trout
          Beardslee trout
          Beardslee trout are a local form of Rainbow trout endemic to Lake Crescent in Washington. By some sources, they are treated as a subspecies....

          , Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus var. beardsleei
      • Great Basin redband trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss newberrii
      • Golden trout
        Golden Trout
        The golden trout is a sub-species of the rainbow trout, and it closley resembles the juvenile Rainbow trout. The fish is also known as the California golden trout and is native to Golden Trout Creek, Volcano Creek and the South Fork Kern River. Another variant, O. m...

        , Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita
        • Kern River rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. gilberti
        • Sacramento golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. stonei
        • Little Kern golden trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita var. whitei
      • Kamloops rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss kamloops
      • Baja California rainbow trout, Nelson's trout, or San Pedro Martir trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni
      • Eagle Lake trout
        Eagle Lake trout
        Eagle Lake trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss aquilarum, is endemic to Eagle Lake, in Lassen County, California. It is a type of trout, known for its ability to withstand high alkalinity, that looks similar to rainbow trout.-Range:...

        , Oncorhynchus mykiss aquilarum
      • McCloud River redband, Oncorhynchus mykiss stonei
      • Sheepheaven Creek redband, Oncorhynchus mykiss spp.
    • Mexican Golden Trout
      Mexican golden trout
      The Mexican golden trout is a species of fish in the Salmonidae family. It is endemic to Mexico.-Description:...

      , Oncorhynchus chrysogaster (Includes as many as eight other species or sub-species, not yet formally named)
  • Genus Salvelinus
    Salvelinus
    Salvelinus is a genus of salmonid fish often called char or charr; some species are called "trout". Salvelinus is a member of the Salmoninae subfamily of the Salmonidae family. Charr may be identified by light cream pink or red spots over a darker body. Scales tend to be small, with 115-200 along...

    (Char)
    • Brook trout
      Brook trout
      The brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, is a species of fish in the salmon family of order Salmoniformes. In many parts of its range, it is known as the speckled trout or squaretail. A potamodromous population in Lake Superior are known as coaster trout or, simply, as coasters...

      , Salvelinus fontinalis
      • Aurora trout
        Aurora trout
        The aurora trout, Salvelinus fontinalis timagamiensis, is a variant or subspecies of the brook trout native to two lakes in the Temagami District of Ontario, Canada. The existence of the fish was brought to the attention of the angling world by four American anglers who were taken by Archie King of...

        , S. f. timagamiensis
    • Bull trout
      Bull trout
      The bull trout, Salvelinus confluentus, is a char of the family Salmonidae native to northwestern North America. Historically, S. confluentus has been known as the "Dolly Varden" , but was re-classified as a separate species in 1980. Bull trout are listed as a threatened species under the U.S....

      , Salvelinus confluentus
    • Salvelinus malma
      • Dolly Varden trout
        Dolly Varden trout
        The Dolly Varden trout, Salvelinus malma malma, is a subspecies of anadromous fish in the salmon family, and is technically a char. Although many of the fish are anadromous, the fish also exists in landlocked waters.- Range :The subspecies S. m...

        , S. m. malma
      • Southern Dolly Varden
        Southern Dolly Varden
        The Southern Dolly Varden is a subspecies of anadromous fish in the salmon family....

        , S. m. krascheninnikova
      • S. m. miyabei
    • Lake trout
      Lake trout
      Lake trout is a freshwater char living mainly in lakes in northern North America. Other names for it include mackinaw, lake char , touladi, togue, and grey trout. In Lake Superior, they can also be variously known as siscowet, paperbellies and leans...

      , Salvelinus namaycush
    • Silver trout
      Silver trout
      The silver trout is an extinct trout species last seen in Dublin Pond, New Hampshire, in 1930, in a catch of six. The only properly confirmed occurrence of the fish was also in Dublin Pond....

      , † Salvelinus agassizi (extinct)
  • Hybrids
    • Tiger trout
      Tiger trout
      The tiger trout is a sterile, intergeneric hybrid of the brown trout and the brook trout . The name derives from the pronounced vermiculations, evoking the stripes of a tiger. It is a rare phenomenon in the wild, with the brook trout having 84 chromosomes and the brown trout 80...

      , Salmo trutta X Salvelinus fontinalis
    • Splake
      Splake
      The splake is a hybrid of two fish species resulting from the crossing of a male brook trout and a female lake trout...

      , Salvelinus namaycush X Salvelinus fontinalis

Anatomy

Trout that live in different environments can have dramatically different colorations and patterns. Mostly, these colors and patterns form as camouflage
Camouflage
Camouflage is a method of concealment that allows an otherwise visible animal, military vehicle, or other object to remain unnoticed, by blending with its environment. Examples include a leopard's spotted coat, the battledress of a modern soldier and a leaf-mimic butterfly...

, based on the surroundings, and will change as the fish moves to different habitats. Trout in, or newly returned from the sea, can look very silvery, while the same "geneic" fish living in a small stream or in an alpine lake could have pronounced markings and more vivid coloration; it is also possible that in some species this signifies that they are ready to mate. It is virtually impossible to define a particular color pattern as belonging to a specific breed; however, in general, wild fish are claimed to have more vivid colors and patterns.

Trout have fins entirely without spines, and all of them have a small adipose fin along the back, near the tail. The pelvic fins sit well back on the body, on each side of the anus. The swim bladder is connected to the esophagus
Esophagus
The esophagus is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. During swallowing, food passes from the mouth through the pharynx into the esophagus and travels via peristalsis to the stomach...

, allowing for gulping or rapid expulsion of air, a condition known as physostome
Physostome
Physostomes are fishes that have a pneumatic duct connecting the gas bladder to the alimentary canal. This allows the gas bladder to be filled or emptied via the mouth. In contrast, fishes without any connection to their gas bladder are called Physoclisti. The physostome fish encompass the...

. Unlike many other physostome fish, the trout do not use their bladder as an axillary device for oxygen
Oxygen
Oxygen is the element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O. Its name derives from the Greek roots ὀξύς and -γενής , because at the time of naming, it was mistakenly thought that all acids required oxygen in their composition...

 uptake, relying solely on their gills.

There are many species, and even more populations that are isolated from each other and morphologically different. However, since many of these distinct populations show no significant genetic differences, what may appear to be a large number of species is considered a much smaller number of distinct species by most ichthyologists
Ichthyology
Ichthyology is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish. This includes skeletal fish , cartilaginous fish , and jawless fish...

. The trout found in the eastern United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 are a good example of this. The brook trout
Brook trout
The brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, is a species of fish in the salmon family of order Salmoniformes. In many parts of its range, it is known as the speckled trout or squaretail. A potamodromous population in Lake Superior are known as coaster trout or, simply, as coasters...

, the aurora trout
Aurora trout
The aurora trout, Salvelinus fontinalis timagamiensis, is a variant or subspecies of the brook trout native to two lakes in the Temagami District of Ontario, Canada. The existence of the fish was brought to the attention of the angling world by four American anglers who were taken by Archie King of...

, and the (extinct) silver trout
Silver trout
The silver trout is an extinct trout species last seen in Dublin Pond, New Hampshire, in 1930, in a catch of six. The only properly confirmed occurrence of the fish was also in Dublin Pond....

 all have physical characteristics and colorations that distinguish them, yet gene
Gene
A gene is a molecular unit of heredity of a living organism. It is a name given to some stretches of DNA and RNA that code for a type of protein or for an RNA chain that has a function in the organism. Living beings depend on genes, as they specify all proteins and functional RNA chains...

tic analysis shows that they are one species, Salvelinus fontinalis.

Lake trout
Lake trout
Lake trout is a freshwater char living mainly in lakes in northern North America. Other names for it include mackinaw, lake char , touladi, togue, and grey trout. In Lake Superior, they can also be variously known as siscowet, paperbellies and leans...

 (Salvelinus namaycush), like brook trout, belong to the char genus. Lake trout inhabit many of the larger lakes in North America, and live much longer than rainbow trout
Rainbow trout
The rainbow trout is a species of salmonid native to tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America. The steelhead is a sea run rainbow trout usually returning to freshwater to spawn after 2 to 3 years at sea. In other words, rainbow trout and steelhead trout are the same species....

, which have an average maximum lifespan of 7 years. Lake trout can live many decades, and can grow to more than 30 kilograms (66.1 lb).

Habitat

Trout are usually found in cool (50–60 °F (10–15.6 C)), clear streams and lakes, although many of the species have anadromous
Fish migration
Many types of fish migrate on a regular basis, on time scales ranging from daily to annually or longer, and over distances ranging from a few metres to thousands of kilometres...

 strains as well. Young trout are referred to as troutlet, troutling or fry. They are distributed naturally throughout North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

, northern Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

 and Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

. Several species of trout were introduced to Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

 and New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

 by amateur fishing enthusiasts in the 19th century, effectively displacing and endangering several upland
Upland and lowland (freshwater ecology)
In studies of the ecology of freshwater rivers, habitats are classified as upland and lowland.-Definitions:Upland habitats are cold, clear, rocky, fast flowing rivers in mountainous areas; lowland habitats are warm, slow flowing rivers found in relatively flat lowland areas, with water that is...

 native fish species. The introduced species included brown trout
Brown trout
The brown trout and the sea trout are fish of the same species....

 from England and rainbow trout
Rainbow trout
The rainbow trout is a species of salmonid native to tributaries of the Pacific Ocean in Asia and North America. The steelhead is a sea run rainbow trout usually returning to freshwater to spawn after 2 to 3 years at sea. In other words, rainbow trout and steelhead trout are the same species....

 from California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

. The rainbow trout were a steelhead strain, generally accepted as coming from Sonoma Creek
Sonoma Creek
Sonoma Creek is a stream in northern California. It is one of two principal drainages of southern Sonoma County, California, with headwaters rising in the rugged hills of Sugarloaf Ridge State Park and discharging to San Pablo Bay, the northern arm of San Francisco Bay. The watershed drained by...

. The rainbow trout of New Zealand still show the steelhead tendency to run up rivers in winter to spawn. The closest resemblance of seema trout and other trout family can be found in the Himalayan Region
Himalayas
The Himalaya Range or Himalaya Mountains Sanskrit: Devanagari: हिमालय, literally "abode of snow"), usually called the Himalayas or Himalaya for short, is a mountain range in Asia, separating the Indian subcontinent from the Tibetan Plateau...

 of India, Nepal, Bhutan, Pakistan and in Tian Shan
Tian Shan
The Tian Shan , also spelled Tien Shan, is a large mountain system located in Central Asia. The highest peak in the Tian Shan is Victory Peak , ....

 mountains of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan , officially the Kyrgyz Republic is one of the world's six independent Turkic states . Located in Central Asia, landlocked and mountainous, Kyrgyzstan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the southwest and China to the east...

.

Diet

Trout generally feed on other fish, and soft bodied aquatic invertebrate
Invertebrate
An invertebrate is an animal without a backbone. The group includes 97% of all animal species – all animals except those in the chordate subphylum Vertebrata .Invertebrates form a paraphyletic group...

s, such as flies
Diptera
Diptera , or true flies, is the order of insects possessing only a single pair of wings on the mesothorax; the metathorax bears a pair of drumstick like structures called the halteres, the remnants of the hind wings. It is a large order, containing an estimated 240,000 species, although under half...

, mayflies
Mayfly
Mayflies are insects which belong to the Order Ephemeroptera . They have been placed into an ancient group of insects termed the Palaeoptera, which also contains dragonflies and damselflies...

, caddisflies
Trichoptera
The caddisflies are an order, Trichoptera, of insects with approximately 12,000 described species. Also called sedge-flies or rail-flies, they are small moth-like insects having two pairs of hairy membranous wings...

, stoneflies
Plecoptera
Plecoptera are an order of insects, commonly known as stoneflies. There are some 3,500 described species worldwide, with new species still being discovered. Stoneflies are found worldwide, except Antarctica...

, mollusks and dragonflies
Odonata
Odonata is an order of insects, encompassing dragonflies and damselflies . The word dragonfly is also sometimes used to refer to all Odonata, but the back-formation odonate is a more correct English name for the group as a whole...

. In lakes, various species of zooplankton
Plankton
Plankton are any drifting organisms that inhabit the pelagic zone of oceans, seas, or bodies of fresh water. That is, plankton are defined by their ecological niche rather than phylogenetic or taxonomic classification...

 often form a large part of the diet. In general, trout longer than about 300 millimetres (11.8 in) prey almost exclusively on fish, where they are available. Adult trout will devour smaller fish up to 1/3 their length. Trout may feed on shrimp, mealworms, bloodworms, insects, small animal parts, and eel.

1fillet of trout (79g) contains:
  • Calories :117
  • Fat(g): 5.22
  • Carbohydrates(g): 0
  • Fibers(g): 0
  • Protein(g): 16.41
  • Cholesterol(mg): 46

As food

As a group, trout are somewhat bony, but the flesh is generally considered to be tasty. The flavor of the flesh is heavily influenced by the diet of the fish. For example, trout that have been feeding on crustaceans tend to be more flavorful than those feeding primarily on insect life. Additionally, they provide a good fight when caught with a hook
Fish hook
A fish hook is a device for catching fish either by impaling them in the mouth or, more rarely, by snagging the body of the fish. Fish hooks have been employed for centuries by fishermen to catch fresh and saltwater fish. In 2005, the fish hook was chosen by Forbes as one of the top twenty tools...

 and line
Fishing line
A fishing line is a cord used or made for angling. Important parameters of a fishing line are its length, material, and weight...

, and are sought after recreationally. Because of their popularity, trout are often raised on fish farms and planted into heavily fished waters, in an effort to mask the effects of overfishing
Overfishing
Overfishing occurs when fishing activities reduce fish stocks below an acceptable level. This can occur in any body of water from a pond to the oceans....

. While they can be caught with a normal rod and reel
Fishing reel
A fishing reel is a "cylindrical device attached to a fishing rod used in winding the line". Modern fishing reels usually have fittings which make it easier to retrieve the line and deploy it for better accuracy or distance. Fishing reels are traditionally used in the recreational sport of angling...

, fly fishing
Fly fishing
Fly fishing is an angling method in which an artificial 'fly' is used to catch fish. The fly is cast using a fly rod, reel, and specialized weighted line. Casting a nearly weightless fly or 'lure' requires casting techniques significantly different from other forms of casting...

 is a distinctive method developed primarily for trout, and now extended to other species. Farmed trout and char are also sold commercially as food fish
Seafood
Seafood is any form of marine life regarded as food by humans. Seafoods include fish, molluscs , crustaceans , echinoderms . Edible sea plants, such as some seaweeds and microalgae, are also seafood, and are widely eaten around the world, especially in Asia...

.

According to the British Nutrition Foundation
British Nutrition Foundation
The British Nutrition Foundation is a British registered charity.-Aims:According to its entry in the Charity Commission's register, the aims of the British Nutrition Foundation are:...

, trout contain one of the lowest amounts of dioxins
Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds
Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds are by-products of various industrial processes, and are commonly regarded as highly toxic compounds that are environmental pollutants and persistent organic pollutants . They include:...

 (a type of environmental contaminant) of all oily fishes.

River fishing

Understanding how moving water shapes the stream channel will improve your chances of finding trout. In most streams, the current creates a Riffle-Run-Pool pattern that repeats itself over and over. A deep pool may hold a big brown trout
Brown trout
The brown trout and the sea trout are fish of the same species....

, but rainbows and smaller browns are likely found in runs. Riffles are where you will find small trout, called troutlet, during the day and larger trout crowding in during morning and evening feeding periods.
  • Riffles have a fast current and shallow water. This gives way to a bottom of gravel, rubble or boulder. Riffles are morning and evening feeding areas. Trout usually spawn just above or below riffles, but may spawn right in them.

  • Runs are deeper than riffles with a moderate current and are found between riffles and pools. The bottom is made up of small gravel or rubble. These hot spots hold trout almost anytime, if there is sufficient cover.

  • Pools are smoother and look darker than the other areas of the stream. The deep, slow-moving water generally has a bottom of silt, sand, or small gravel. Pools make good midday resting spots for medium to large trout.

  • It is recommended that when fishing for trout, that the fisher(s) should use line in the 4-8 lb test for streamfish, and stronger line with the same diameter for trout from the sea or from a large lake, such as Lake Michigan. It is also recommended to use a hook size 8-5 for trout of all kind. Trout, especially farm-raised ones, tend to like salmon eggs, worms, minnows, cut bait, corn, or marshmallows.

External links

  • Trout Species
  • Trout.co.uk - Website focused purely on trout fishing.
  • TU.ORG - Conserving, protecting and restoring North America's coldwater fisheries and their watersheds.
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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