Oppidum of Manching
The Oppidum of Manching was a large Celtic proto-urban or city-like settlement at modern-day Manching
Manching is a municipality in the district of Pfaffenhofen, in Bavaria, Germany. It is situated on the river Paar, 7 km southeast of Ingolstadt...

 (near Ingolstadt
Ingolstadt is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, in the Federal Republic of Germany. It is located along the banks of the Danube River, in the center of Bavaria. As at 31 March 2011, Ingolstadt had 125.407 residents...

), Bavaria
Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

). The settlement was founded in the 3rd century BC and existed until c. 50-30 BC. It reached its largest extent during the late La Tène
La Tène culture
The La Tène culture was a European Iron Age culture named after the archaeological site of La Tène on the north side of Lake Neuchâtel in Switzerland, where a rich cache of artifacts was discovered by Hansli Kopp in 1857....

 period (late 2nd century BC), when it had a size of 380 hectares. At that time, 5,000 to 10,000 people lived within its 7.2 km walls. Thus, the Manching oppidum was one of the largest settlements north of the Alps
The Alps is one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east through Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany to France in the west....

. The ancient name of the site is unknown, but it is assumed that it was the central site of the Celtic Vindelici tribe.

History of exploration

The enormous circular fortification around the site survived the demise of the settlement as a visible landscape feature. It had already been noted by the Romans
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 (see below); for centuries it remained an important landmark e.g. for the boundaries of parishes or bishoprics. A first description was penned by the schoolteacher J.A. Buchner (1776–1854) in 1831, under the erroneous assumption of having found the Roman
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 site of Vallatum. First excavations took place in 1892-93 under Joseph Fink (1859–1929). In 1903, Paul Reinecke recognised the site as a Celtic oppidum
Oppidum is a Latin word meaning the main settlement in any administrative area of ancient Rome. The word is derived from the earlier Latin ob-pedum, "enclosed space," possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *pedóm-, "occupied space" or "footprint."Julius Caesar described the larger Celtic Iron Age...


In 1936-38, during the Nazi remilitarisation of Germany, the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe is a generic German term for an air force. It is also the official name for two of the four historic German air forces, the Wehrmacht air arm founded in 1935 and disbanded in 1946; and the current Bundeswehr air arm founded in 1956....

 constructed an airfield at Manching. This led to the destruction of large proportions of the site; without providing the opportunity for systematic archaeological research. Only very few finds were recovered from the construction site. In 1938, the archaeologist Karl-Heinz Wagner started an excavation of the northeast part of the enclosure. Within the visible earthen bank, he discovered the remains of a wall, which he described as a murus gallicus
Murus Gallicus
Murus Gallicus or Gallic Wall is a method of construction of defensive walls used to protect Iron Age hillforts and oppida of the La Tene period in Western Europe.The distinctive features are:* earth or rubble fill...

according to Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general and statesman and a distinguished writer of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire....

's description of such structures. Due to the presence of the airfield, Manching was the target of multiple bombing raids during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, leading to further destruction of archaeological evidence.

Since 1955, the Römisch-Germanische Kommission (Romano-German Commission) of the German Archaeological Institute
German Archaeological Institute
The German Archaeological Institute is an institution of research within the field of archaeology , and a "scientific corporation", with parentage of the federal Foreign Office of Germany-Origin:...

 and the Bavarian State Archaeological Service have been conducting extensive excavations at the site:
  • 1955–1961 "Central Area" (directed by Werner Krämer)
  • 1962–1963 "East Gate" (Rolf Gensen)
  • 1965–1973 "Central Area" and Southern bypass (Franz Schubert - not the composer!)
  • 1984–1987 Northern bypass (Ferdinand Maier)

By 1987, c. 12 hectares of the settlement had been examined. Since 1996, a series of further rescue excavations ("Altenfeld" and the EADS
The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company N.V. is a global pan-European aerospace and defence corporation and a leading defence and military contractor worldwide...

 area) have been conducted by Susanne Sievers, increasing the excavated area to 26 hectares by 2002. As a result, Manching is most substantially explored oppidum in Central Europe
Central Europe
Central Europe or alternatively Middle Europe is a region of the European continent lying between the variously defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe...

. The increasing degree of exploration does, however, coincide with a progressive destruction of the site, as much of the new excavations take place to retrieve information before areas are built on (see Rescue archaeology
Rescue archaeology
Rescue archaeology, sometimes called "preventive" or "salvage" archaeology, is archaeological survey and excavation carried out in areas threatened by, or revealed by, construction or other development...


Since 2006, finds from the oppidum are on display in the Keltisch-Römisches Museum Manching (Manching Celtic-Roman Museum), a branch of the Bavarian State Archaeological Collection
Bavarian State Archaeological Collection
The Bavarian State Archaeological Collection in Munich is the central museum of prehistory of the State of Bavaria and one of the most important archaeological collections and cultural history museums in Germany.-History:...


The settlement


Unlike other contemporary Celtic oppida, Manching was not located on a hilltop, but in a riverine plain. The site was placed in a strategic position at the crossing of two ancient trade routes, one running north-south, the other west-east. It was also near the meeting of the rivers Paar
The Paar is a river in Germany and a right tributary of the Danube. For several tens of kilometers it flows parallel to the Lech, at only a few km distance. Near Augsburg, the Paar leaves the Lech valley and turns north-east towards Ingolstadt. It flows into the Danube near Vohburg...

 and Danube
The Danube is a river in the Central Europe and the Europe's second longest river after the Volga. It is classified as an international waterway....

, giving access to navigation of the latter, further increasing the potential for long-distance trade. A distributary
A distributary, or a distributary channel, is a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. They are a common feature of river deltas. The phenomenon is known as river bifurcation. The opposite of a distributary is a tributary...

 of the Danube, northeast of the settlement, had been transformed into a harbour. Manching was probably the most important centre of trade and economy in the late La Tène period. It also had access to rich deposits of iron ore and gold
Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and an atomic number of 79. Gold is a dense, soft, shiny, malleable and ductile metal. Pure gold has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive, which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. Chemically, gold is a...

 in the immediate vicinity.


The settlement was designed and built according to a systematic plan
Urban planning
Urban planning incorporates areas such as economics, design, ecology, sociology, geography, law, political science, and statistics to guide and ensure the orderly development of settlements and communities....

. Oriented on the cardinal direction
Cardinal direction
The four cardinal directions or cardinal points are the directions of north, east, south, and west, commonly denoted by their initials: N, E, S, W. East and west are at right angles to north and south, with east being in the direction of rotation and west being directly opposite. Intermediate...

s, the area had been divided into individual parcels, each with a farmyard-like fence. The interpretation of these rectangular complexes remains controversial. They could represent autonomous farmsteads, reminiscent of Hallstatt
Hallstatt, Upper Austria is a village in the Salzkammergut, a region in Austria. It is located near the Hallstätter See . At the 2001 census it had 946 inhabitants...

 period "Manors
Manor house
A manor house is a country house that historically formed the administrative centre of a manor, the lowest unit of territorial organisation in the feudal system in Europe. The term is applied to country houses that belonged to the gentry and other grand stately homes...

" (Herrenhöfe). Such an essentially rural type of settlement is not suggested by recent research. It seems more likely that the rectangular parcels represent areas of specialised function, including aspects like agriculture
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

, craft production and cult
The word cult in current popular usage usually refers to a group whose beliefs or practices are considered abnormal or bizarre. The word originally denoted a system of ritual practices...

. Especially the excavations at "Altenfeld" support this conclusion, as they revealed a veritable artisan's quarter.

The central part of the settlement contained a cult complex (see below).

Along the east-west road, linking the known east gate with an assumed west one, there were small huts. Finds suggest that they were stalls for selling trade goods. There was probably a similar road leading northwards from the south gate.

Settlement density within the oppidum was not evenly distributed. Only the central area, right between the east gate and the assumed western one, was placed on relatively dry alluvial soils
Alluvium is loose, unconsolidated soil or sediments, eroded, deposited, and reshaped by water in some form in a non-marine setting. Alluvium is typically made up of a variety of materials, including fine particles of silt and clay and larger particles of sand and gravel...

 and most densely settled. Occupation was thinner towards the edges; a 500 m strip inside the wall shows no indication of settlement at all. This area may have been used for cultivation and grazing.


The settlement consisted of single-storeyed post houses with one or more rooms and an area of 40 to 100 m². Some of the buildings were probably half-timbered
Timber framing
Timber framing , or half-timbering, also called in North America "post-and-beam" construction, is the method of creating structures using heavy squared off and carefully fitted and joined timbers with joints secured by large wooden pegs . It is commonplace in large barns...

. The picture is completed by long house
Long house
A longhouse or long house is a type of long, proportionately narrow, single-room building built by peoples in various parts of the world including Asia, Europe and North America....

s, pit dwellings
A Grubenhaus is a type of sunken floored building built in many parts of northern Europe between the 5th and 12th centuries AD...

, storage structures on stilts, storage pits, workshops, and wells. Many ground plans have measurements that can be identified as multiples of half a Celtic foot (15.45 cm). Franz Schubert even found a rod on which bronze rings mark that length, suggesting that it is a measuring rod.


The first enclosure wall was erected around 150 BC in the murus gallicus
Murus Gallicus
Murus Gallicus or Gallic Wall is a method of construction of defensive walls used to protect Iron Age hillforts and oppida of the La Tene period in Western Europe.The distinctive features are:* earth or rubble fill...

technique. It has been calculated that more than 8 tons of nails must have been used in the construction of the 7.2 km of fortification. The exact reasons for its construction are not known, but apart from a potential threat to the settlement, aspects of prestige may also have played an important role. This is suggested especially by the monumental gate complexes. On the inside, the wall was reinforced by an earthen ramp of 9 m width. The second wall was erected around 104 BC as a Pfostenschlitzmauer
Pfostenschlitzmauer is a method of constructing defensive walls protecting Iron Age hillforts and oppida in Central Europe, including Bavaria and the Czech Republic. It is characterized by vertical wooden posts set into the front stone facing. The rampart is constructed from a timber lattice...

incorporating the old wall within its body. The Pfostenschlitzmauer technique was also used for a third phase. Before excavation, part of the walls were still visible as a 4 m high earth rampart. Manching appears to be the only known case where murus gallicus (a mostly western Celtic phenomenon) and Pfostenschlitzwall (common further east) occur in a single site.

The Igelsbach stream, approaching the site from the southwest was channeled so as to run into the Paar along the wall. Previously, it had run right through the settlement area. Thus, the southwest part of the walls also possessed an external moat
A moat is a deep, broad ditch, either dry or filled with water, that surrounds a castle, other building or town, historically to provide it with a preliminary line of defence. In some places moats evolved into more extensive water defences, including natural or artificial lakes, dams and sluices...


The east gate has been especially well studied. Its remains can be visited, as can a reconstruction (further south). It was a Zangentor, i.e. the wall protruded on both sides in front of the actual entrance, thus making it more defensible, as well as more imposing. The gate's superstructure is unknown. This gate was destroyed by fire in 80 BC, its ruins were never cleared, suggesting that the road which it had served was out of use by that time.


There is a variety of evidence to suggest that some agricultural activity took place inside the settlement. Especially the edge of the oppidum may have served as fields. But during its heyday, the oppidum must also have depended on agricultural produce from surrounding areas. The main cultivated food plants were barley
Barley is a major cereal grain, a member of the grass family. It serves as a major animal fodder, as a base malt for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods...

 and spelt
Spelt is a hexaploid species of wheat. Spelt was an important staple in parts of Europe from the Bronze Age to medieval times; it now survives as a relict crop in Central Europe and northern Spain and has found a new market as a health food. Spelt is sometimes considered a subspecies of the...

. Proso millet
Proso millet
Proso millet is also known as common millet, hog millet or white millet. Both the wild ancestor and the location of domestication of proso millet are unknown, but it first appears as a crop in both Transcaucasia and China about 7,000 years ago, suggesting that it may have been domesticated...

, einkorn, emmer
Emmer wheat , also known as farro especially in Italy, is a low yielding, awned wheat. It was one of the first crops domesticated in the Near East...

, avena
The oats are a genus of 10-15 species of true grasses . They are native to Europe, Asia and northwest Africa. One species is widely cultivated elsewhere, and several have become naturalized in many parts of the world...

, wheat
Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. In 2007 world production of wheat was 607 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize and rice...

 and rye
Rye is a grass grown extensively as a grain and as a forage crop. It is a member of the wheat tribe and is closely related to barley and wheat. Rye grain is used for flour, rye bread, rye beer, some whiskeys, some vodkas, and animal fodder...

 were also grown. Lentil
The lentil is an edible pulse. It is a bushy annual plant of the legume family, grown for its lens-shaped seeds...

s, vicia faba
Vicia faba
This article refers to the Broad Bean plant. For Broadbean the company, see Broadbean, Inc.Vicia faba, the Broad Bean, Fava Bean, Field Bean, Bell Bean or Tic Bean, is a species of bean native to north Africa and southwest Asia, and extensively cultivated elsewhere. A variety is provisionally...

, poppy
A poppy is one of a group of a flowering plants in the poppy family, many of which are grown in gardens for their colorful flowers. Poppies are sometimes used for symbolic reasons, such as in remembrance of soldiers who have died during wartime....

, hazelnut
A hazelnut is the nut of the hazel and is also known as a cob nut or filbert nut according to species. A cob is roughly spherical to oval, about 15–25 mm long and 10–15 mm in diameter, with an outer fibrous husk surrounding a smooth shell. A filbert is more elongated, being about twice...

 and various fruit were also consumed.

An enormous amount of animal bones indicates intense husbandry; perhaps Manching also served as a supra-regional livestock mart. Most common were pig
A pig is any of the animals in the genus Sus, within the Suidae family of even-toed ungulates. Pigs include the domestic pig, its ancestor the wild boar, and several other wild relatives...

 and cattle
Cattle are the most common type of large domesticated ungulates. They are a prominent modern member of the subfamily Bovinae, are the most widespread species of the genus Bos, and are most commonly classified collectively as Bos primigenius...

 (the latter may also have been used for traction), followed by sheep (wool) and goat
The domestic goat is a subspecies of goat domesticated from the wild goat of southwest Asia and Eastern Europe. The goat is a member of the Bovidae family and is closely related to the sheep as both are in the goat-antelope subfamily Caprinae. There are over three hundred distinct breeds of...

 (milk/cheese). Chicken
The chicken is a domesticated fowl, a subspecies of the Red Junglefowl. As one of the most common and widespread domestic animals, and with a population of more than 24 billion in 2003, there are more chickens in the world than any other species of bird...

 played no important role. Horse
The horse is one of two extant subspecies of Equus ferus, or the wild horse. It is a single-hooved mammal belonging to the taxonomic family Equidae. The horse has evolved over the past 45 to 55 million years from a small multi-toed creature into the large, single-toed animal of today...

 and dog
The domestic dog is a domesticated form of the gray wolf, a member of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora. The term is used for both feral and pet varieties. The dog may have been the first animal to be domesticated, and has been the most widely kept working, hunting, and companion animal in...

 were also consumed, but probably not specifically bred for that purpose.

The position of the site near several streams and rivers always suggested that fish was part of the diet. In recent years, the intensive study of pit fills has proved this to be true. Even traces of the typical mediterranean fish sauce (garum
Garum, similar to liquamen, was a type of fermented fish sauce condiment that was an essential flavour in Ancient Roman cooking, the supreme condiment....

) have been recovered.


Manching was the site of an extensive iron industry, which mainly produced goods for local use. The iron ore was extracted in the region. Products included a variety of specialised tools, clearly indicating a lively craft tradition. Manching was a centre of production for glass beads and bracelets, most of them of blue glass. There was also a developed production of pottery
Pottery is the material from which the potteryware is made, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain. The place where such wares are made is also called a pottery . Pottery also refers to the art or craft of the potter or the manufacture of pottery...

, jewellery
Jewellery or jewelry is a form of personal adornment, such as brooches, rings, necklaces, earrings, and bracelets.With some exceptions, such as medical alert bracelets or military dog tags, jewellery normally differs from other items of personal adornment in that it has no other purpose than to...

 and textiles.

Finds like Baltic
Baltic Sea
The Baltic Sea is a brackish mediterranean sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. It is bounded by the Scandinavian Peninsula, the mainland of Europe, and the Danish islands. It drains into the Kattegat by way of the Øresund, the Great Belt and...

 amber and Mediterranean wine
Wine is an alcoholic beverage, made of fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast...

An amphora is a type of vase-shaped, usually ceramic container with two handles and a long neck narrower than the body...

e show that Manching was part of trade networks spanning all of Europe. Further evidence is provided by luxury tableware (campana), bronze vessels and imported jewellery.

Trade was facilitated by the fact that Manching had its own mint. A local system of coinage, including small silver coins (quinarii
thumb|right|A quinariusThe quinarius was a small silver Roman coin valued at half a denarius.The quinarius was struck for a few years, along with the silver sestertius, following the introduction of the denarius in 211 BC. At this time the quinarius was valued at 5 asses...

) and impure bronze ones served mainly internal trade. External trade relied on coins of gold and (from the early 1st century BC onwards) silver. Like much Celtic coinage, the gold coins minted at Manching are distinctively concave, even cup-shaped, (in German, such coins are traditionally known as Regenbogenschüsselchen or rainbow cups, a term derived from the belief that they are connected with the treasure to be found at the foot of a rainbow). False coinage, e.g. bronze coins with a thin gold covering, has also been found. Fine weighing scales were used to monitor the authenticity and value of coins.

The large variety of keys and locks from the settlement is remarkable. They indicate that people had property worth protecting, and that the cohabitation of so many people in a small area made physical measures necessary to that effect. Different locks appear to have been used for gates, doors, or furniture.

Secondary use of metal

The "Altenfeld" excavation revealed evidence for the extensive reuse (recycling) of scrap metal, the reasons for which remain unknown. As the finds in question are from the final phase of settlement at Manching, they may be connected with the decline that eventually led to the abandonment of the settlement. Perhaps the reuse of raw materials was necessitated by economic problems.


At the centre of the settlement, a temple
A temple is a structure reserved for religious or spiritual activities, such as prayer and sacrifice, or analogous rites. A templum constituted a sacred precinct as defined by a priest, or augur. It has the same root as the word "template," a plan in preparation of the building that was marked out...

 or shrine was found. Along with a cemetery (see below), this complex appears to represent the earliest activity on the site, suggesting that the settlement developed around them. The complex was in use from the 4th to the 2nd, perhaps even the 1st, century. Deposits of weaponry, horse trapping and parts of cauldrons, a paved plaza and a large amount of bones from human infants and children indicate the cult use of the area. Three further complexes elsewhere in the settlement have been found to contain special building, suggesting a cult.

Human bone remains

Copious human bone remains were scattered throughout the settled area. Initially, these were interpreted as proof for a violent end to the oppidum. Nowadays, it is assumed that they are related to cult behaviour (ancestor cult). A detailed interpretation has not been produced so far. There is definite evidence for secondary burial
In archaeology and anthropology, the term, excarnation , refers to the burial practice of removing the flesh and organs of the dead, leaving only the bones....

. Parts of partially decomposed bodies, especially long bones were removed and kept (perhaps as relics?) or deposited separately, e.g. as nests of skulls near the gates.

The end of the oppidum

It used to be commonly assumed that the Roman occupation of Southern Germany entailed the violent destruction of the Manching settlement. However, a conquest or complete destruction of the site is considered unlikely today, although Manching may have been involved in some military conflict connected to the migrations of the Cimbri
The Cimbri were a tribe from Northern Europe, who, together with the Teutones and the Ambrones threatened the Roman Republic in the late 2nd century BC. The Cimbri were probably Germanic, though some believe them to be of Celtic origin...

 and Teutoni, c. 120 BC. The reason for the final demise of the oppidum is now seen in the collapse of Celtic economic systems caused by Gaius Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general and statesman and a distinguished writer of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire....

's conquest of Gaul
Gallic Wars
The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes. They lasted from 58 BC to 51 BC. The Gallic Wars culminated in the decisive Battle of Alesia in 52 BC, in which a complete Roman victory resulted in the expansion of the...

. Manching apparently underwent a long-term loss of population, leading to the abandonment of much of the settled area and the dilapidation of its walls, which could not be maintained any more. By the time of the Roman arrival around 15 BC, ruins of the imposing walls were all that remained of a city that had flourished a century earlier.


Two cemeteries
A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. The term "cemetery" implies that the land is specifically designated as a burying ground. Cemeteries in the Western world are where the final ceremonies of death are observed...

, "Hundsrucken" and "Steinbichel" are associated with the oppidum. Both came into existence in the late 4th century BC and were used until the 2nd century. The Hundsrucken cemetery (22 graves) lies within the limits of the later walls, in the northeast of the oppidum. It probably went out of use because of the expansion of the settlement. "Steinbichel" (43 graves) is located across the river Paar. Both cemeteries probably only served the elite of society, as is suggested by the large proportion of graves containing weaponry ("warrior graves") and the rich grave offerings in the women's graves. Here, as generally in southern Germany, the number of individuals represented by bone material from the 4th to 2nd century is relatively small compared to the assumed populations of settlements. This is probably because only a fraction of the total human population was buried in ways recognisable to modern archaeology.

Important finds

Some pieces among the thousands of individual finds have become famous.

In 1999, a gold coin hoard was discovered near the harbour. It included 483 Boian
The Boii were one of the most prominent ancient Celtic tribes of the later Iron Age, attested at various times in Cisalpine Gaul , Pannonia , in and around Bohemia, and Transalpine Gaul...

 shell stater
The stater was an ancient coin used in various regions of Greece.-History:The stater is mostly of Macedonian origin. Celtic tribes brought it in to Europe after using it as mercenaries in north Greece. It circulated from the 8th century BC to 50 AD...

s and a 217 g lump of gold. Three small bronze rings indicate that it was originally stored in a container made of some organic material.

In 1984, during excavations for the northern bypass, a golden cult tree was found. It had a wooden trunk, covered in gold leaf, with a side branch. Bronze leaves (ivy), gilt buds and fruit (acorns) are attached to it. It was found in a wooden box, also decorated with gold leaf. The cult tree is normally interpreted as an ivy
Ivy, plural ivies is a genus of 12–15 species of evergreen climbing or ground-creeping woody plants in the family Araliaceae, native to western, central and southern Europe, Macaronesia, northwestern Africa and across central-southern Asia east to Japan and Taiwan.-Description:On level ground they...

-covered young oak
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus , of which about 600 species exist. "Oak" may also appear in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus...

 tree. It belongs to the 3rd century BC.

A horse sculpture from the 2nd century may represent a cult statue. Unlike comparable pieces elsewhere, it is not made of bronze, but of sheet iron. Only the head (minus the ears) and parts of the legs were found.

Roman activity at the site

In the 1st century AD, a Roman mansio
In the Roman Empire, a mansio was an official stopping place on a Roman road, or via, maintained by the central government for the use of officials and those on official business whilst travelling.-Background:The roads which traversed the Ancient World, were later surveyed,...

(waystation) was built near the former oppidum. Its name, Vallatum (Latin for walled place, referring to the remains of the oppidum), is known from Roman itineraries
An itinerarium was an Ancient Roman road map in the form of a listing of cities, villages and other stops, with the intervening distances. One surviving example is the Peutinger Table; another is the Antonine Itinerary....

. They also used limestone from the walls as a raw material, burning it in limekiln
A lime kiln is used to produce quicklime through the calcination of limestone . The chemical equation for this reaction is...

s (several have been found). When a castrum (a fort) was constructed in the mid-1st century, nearby Oberstimm hill was chosen as its location, probably because the bed of the Danube had moved away from the Manching site.

Selected bibliography

  • The German Archaeological Institute
    German Archaeological Institute
    The German Archaeological Institute is an institution of research within the field of archaeology , and a "scientific corporation", with parentage of the federal Foreign Office of Germany-Origin:...

     has published a series of (so far) 16 columes about the site (series title: Ausgrabungen in in Manching http://www.dainst.org/index_107_de.html.
  • Susanne Sievers: Manching: Die Keltenstadt. Theiss, Stuttgart 2003, ISBN 3-8062-1765-3 http://www.dainst.org/spuren/index_3354_de.html.
  • Sabine Rieckhof: Der Untergang der Städte. Der Zusammenbruch des keltischen Wirtschafts- und Gesellschaftssystems. In: C. Dobiat/S. Sievers/Th. Stöllner (eds.): Dürrnberg und Manching. Wirtschaftsarchäologie im ostkeltischen Raum. Akten des internationalen Kolloquiums in Hallein 1998, Bonn 2002[2003], S. 359–379, ISBN 3-7749-3027-9.
  • Hermann Dannheimer and Gebhard Rupert (eds.): Das keltische Jahrtausend. Exhibition Catalogue Prähistorische Staatssammlung München
    Bavarian State Archaeological Collection
    The Bavarian State Archaeological Collection in Munich is the central museum of prehistory of the State of Bavaria and one of the most important archaeological collections and cultural history museums in Germany.-History:...

    , Museum für Vor- und Frühgeschichte. Zabern, Mainz 1993, ISBN 3-8053-1514-7.

External links

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