, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of 70548 square kilometres (27,238.7 sq mi), it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany. Bavaria is Germany's second most populous state (after North Rhine-Westphalia
) with almost 12.5 million inhabitants, more than any of the three sovereign states on its borders.
1647 Thirty Years' War: Bavaria, Cologne, France and Sweden sign the Truce of Ulm.
1740 Maria Theresa takes the throne of Austria. France, Prussia, Bavaria and Saxony refuse to honour the Pragmatic Sanction and the War of the Austrian Succession begins.
1810 First Oktoberfest: The Bavarian royalty invites the citizens of Munich to join the celebration of the marriage of Crown Prince Ludwig of Bavaria to Princess Therese von Sachsen-Hildburghausen.
1923 In Munich, Germany, police and government troops crush the Beer Hall Putsch in Bavaria. The failed coup is the work of the Nazis.
, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of 70548 square kilometres (27,238.7 sq mi), it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany. Bavaria is Germany's second most populous state (after North Rhine-Westphalia
) with almost 12.5 million inhabitants, more than any of the three sovereign states on its borders. Bavaria's capital is Munich
One of the oldest states of Europe, it was established as a duchy
in the mid first millennium
. In the 17th century, the Duke of Bavaria became a Prince-elector
of the Holy Roman Empire
. The Kingdom of Bavaria
existed from 1806 to 1918, and Bavaria has since been a free state (republic). Modern Bavaria also includes parts of the historical regions of Franconia
HistoryThe Bavarians emerged in a region north of the Alps
, originally inhabited by the Gauls
, which had been part of the Roman provinces of Raetia
. The Bavarians spoke Old High German
but, unlike other Germanic groups, did not migrate from elsewhere. Rather, they seem to have coalesced out of other groups left behind by Roman withdrawal late in the 5th century. These peoples may have included the Celtic Boii
, some remaining Romans
, Allemanni, Quadi
, Thuringians, Goths
, Scirians, Rugians
. The name "Bavarian" ("Baiuvarii") means "Men of Baia" which may indicate Bohemia
, the homeland of the Celtic Boii and later of the Marcomanni. They first appear in written sources c. 520. Saint Boniface
completed the people's conversion to Christianity in the early-8th century. Bavaria was, for the most part, unaffected by the Protestant Reformation
From about 554 to 788, the house of Agilolfing ruled the Duchy of Bavaria
, ending with Tassilo III who was deposed by Charlemagne
Three early dukes are named in Frankish
sources: Garibald I may have been appointed to the office by the Merovingian kings and married the Lombard
princess Walderada when the church forbade her to King Chlothar I in 555. Their daughter, Theodelinde, became Queen of the Lombards in northern Italy and Garibald was forced to flee to her when he fell out with his Frankish overlords. Garibald's successor, Tassilo I, tried unsuccessfully to hold the eastern frontier against the expansion of Slavs
and Avars around 600. Tassilo's son Garibald II
seems to have achieved a balance of power between 610 and 616.
After Garibald II little is known of the Bavarians until Duke Theodo I, whose reign may have begun as early as 680. From 696 onwards he invited churchmen from the west to organize churches and strengthen Christianity in his duchy (it is unclear what Bavarian religious life consisted of before this time). His son, Theudebert
, led a decisive Bavarian campaign to intervene in a succession dispute in the Lombard Kingdom
in 714, and married his sister Guntrud to the Lombard King Liutprand. At Theodo's death the duchy was divided among his sons, but reunited under his grandson Hucbert.
At Hucbert's death (735) the duchy passed to a distant relative named Odilo
, from neighbouring Alemannia (modern southwest Germany and northern Switzerland). Odilo issued a law code for Bavaria, completed the process of church organisation in partnership with St. Boniface (739), and tried to intervene in Frankish succession disputes by fighting for the claims of the Carolingian Grifo
. He was defeated near Augsburg
in 743 but continued to rule until his death in 748.
(b. 741 - d. after 794) succeeded his father at the age of eight after an unsuccessful attempt by Grifo to rule Bavaria. He initially ruled under Frankish oversight but began to function independently from 763 onwards. He was particularly noted for founding new monasteries and for expanding eastwards, fighting Slavs in the eastern Alps and along the River Danube and colonising these lands. After 781, however, his cousin Charlemagne began to pressure Tassilo to submit and finally deposed him in 788. The deposition was not entirely legitimate. Dissenters attempted a coup against Charlemagne at Tassilo's old capital of Regensburg
in 792, led by his own son Pépin the Hunchback
(Pronounced Pippin), and the king had to drag Tassilo out of imprisonment to formally renounce his rights and titles at the Assembly of Frankfurt in 794. This is the last appearance of Tassilo in the sources and he probably died a monk. As all of his family were also forced into monasteries, this was the end of the Agilolfing dynasty.
For the next 400 years numerous families held the duchy, rarely for more than three generations. With the revolt of duke Henry the Quarrelsome
in 976, Bavaria lost large territories in the south and south east. Among them a mark called "Ostarrichi" which was elevated to a duchy out of own right and given to the Babenberger family. This event marks the birth of Austria. The last, and one of the most important, of these dukes was Henry the Lion
of the house of Welf, founder of Munich, de facto the second most powerful man in the empire as the ruler of two duchies. When in 1180, Henry the Lion was deposed as Duke of Saxony
and Bavaria by his cousin, Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
(aka "Barbarossa" for his red beard), Bavaria was awarded as fief to the Wittelsbach
family, counts palatinate of Schyren ("Scheyern" in modern German), which ruled from 1180 to 1918. The Electoral Palatinate by Rhine ("Kurpfalz" in German) was also acquired by the House of Wittelsbach in 1214.
The first of several divisions of the duchy of Bavaria occurred in 1255. With the extinction of the Hohenstaufen in 1268 also Swabia
n territories were acquired by the Wittelsbach dukes. Emperor Louis the Bavarian
, Holland and Hainaut
for his House but released the Upper Palatinate
for the Palatinate branch of the Wittelsbach in 1329. In 1506 with the Landshut War of Succession
the other parts of Bavaria were reunited and Munich became the sole capital.
17th and 18th centuriesIn 1623 the Bavarian duke replaced his relative, the Count Palatine of the Rhine in the early days of the Thirty Years' War
and acquired the powerful prince-elector
al dignity in the Holy Roman Empire
, determining its Emperor thence forward, as well as special legal status under the empire's laws. The country became one of the Jesuit supported counter-reformation centers. During the early and mid-18th century the ambitions of the Bavarian prince electors led to several wars with Austria as well as occupations by Austria (Spanish succession, election of a Wittelsbach emperor instead of a Habsburger). From 1777 onwards and after the old Bavarian branch of the family had died out with elector Max III Joseph, Bavaria and the Electoral Palatinate were governed once again in personal union, now by the Palatinian lines.
Kingdom of Bavaria
in 1806, and its area doubled. Tirol
was temporarily united, Salzburg
temporarily reunited with Bavaria but finally ceded to Austria. In return the Rhenish Palatinate and Franconia
were annexed to Bavaria in 1815. Between 1799 and 1817 the leading minister count Montgelas followed a strict policy of modernisation and laid the foundations of administrative structures that survived even the monarchy and are (in their core) valid until today. In 1808 a first and in 1818 a more modern constitution (by the standards of the time) was passed, that established a bicameral Parliament with a House of Lords (Kammer der Reichsräte) and a House of Commons (Kammer der Abgeordneten). The constitution would last until the collapse of the monarchy at the end of World War I
Bavaria as a part of the German EmpireAfter the rise of Prussia
to prominence Bavaria managed to preserve its independence by playing off the rivalries of Prussia and Austria
. Allied to Austria, it was defeated in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War
and did not belong to the North German Federation of 1867, but the question of German unity was still alive. When France
attacked Prussia in 1870, the south German states Baden, Württemberg and Bavaria joined the Prussian forces and ultimately joined the Federation, which was renamed Deutsches Reich (German Empire)
in 1871. Bavaria continued as a monarchy, and it even had some special rights within the federation (such as an army, railways and a postal service of its own).
In the early-20th century Wassily Kandinsky
, Paul Klee
, Henrik Ibsen
, and other notable artists were drawn to Bavaria, notably to the Schwabing
district of Munich, later devastated by World War II
20th centuryOn November 12, 1918, Ludwig III
signed a document, the Anif declaration
, releasing both civil and military officers from their oaths; the newly-formed republican government of Socialist premier Kurt Eisner
interpreted this as an abdication. To date, however, no member of the house of Wittelsbach has ever formally declared renunciation of the throne. On the other hand, none has ever since officially called upon their Bavarian or Stewart claims. Family members are active in cultural and social life, including the head of the house, HRH Duke Franz in Bavaria. They step back from any announcements on public affairs, showing approval or disapproval solely by HRH's presence or absence.
Eisner was assassinated in February 1919 ultimately leading to a Communist revolt and the short lived Bavarian Socialist Republic being proclaimed 6 April 1919. After violent suppression by elements of the German Army and notably the Freikorps
, the Bavarian Socialist Republic fell in May 1919. The Bamberg Constitution () was enacted on 12 or 14 August 1919 and came into force on 15 September 1919 creating the Free State of Bavaria within the Weimar Republic. Extremist activity further increased, notably the 1923 Beer Hall Putsch
led by the National Socialists, and Munich and Nuremberg became Nazi
strongholds under the Third Reich. As a manufacturing center, Munich was heavily bombed during World War II and occupied by U.S. troops. The Rhenish Palatinate was detached from Bavaria in 1946 and made part of the new state Rhineland-Palatinate
Since World War II, Bavaria has been rehabilitated from a poor agrarian province into a prosperous industrial hub. A massive reconstruction effort restored much of Munich's and other places historic cores. The state capital hosted the 1972 Summer Olympics
and matches of the Football World Cups of 1974 and 2006 as well as European Track & Field championships. More recently, former state minister-president Edmund Stoiber
was the CDU/CSU candidate for chancellor in the 2002 federal election
which he lost, and native son Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger was elected Pope Benedict XVI
Coat of arms
- The Golden Lion: At the dexter chief, sable, a lionLion (heraldry)The lion is a common charge in heraldry. It traditionally symbolises bravery, valour, strength, and royalty, since traditionally, it is regarded as the king of beasts.-Attitudes:...
rampant Or, armed and langued gules. This represents the administrative region of Upper Palatinate.
- The "Franconian Rake": At the sinister chief, per fessFessIn heraldry, a fess or fesse is a charge on a coat of arms that takes the form of a band running horizontally across the centre of the shield. Writers disagree in how much of the shield's surface is to be covered by a fess or other ordinary, ranging from one-fifth to one-third...
dancetty, gules and argent. This represents the administrative regions of Upper, Middle and Lower Franconia.
- The Blue Panther: At the dexter base, argent, a panther rampant azure, armed Or and langued gules. This represents the regions of Lower and Upper Bavaria.
- The Three Lions: At the sinister base, Or, three lions passant guardant sable, armed and langued gules. This represents Swabia.
- The White-And-Blue inescutcheon: The inescutcheon of white and blue fusils askance was originally the coat of arms of the Counts of Bogen, adopted in 1247 by the Wittelsbachs House. The white-and-blue fusils are indisputably the emblem of Bavaria and these arms today symbolize Bavaria as a whole. Along with the People's Crown, it is officially used as the Minor Coat of Arms.
- The People's Crown: The coat of arms is surmounted by a crownCrown (heraldry)A Crown is often an emblem of the monarchy, a monarch's government, or items endorsed by it; see The Crown. A specific type of crown is employed in heraldry under strict rules....
with a golden band inset with precious stones and decorated with five ornamental leaves. This crown first appeared in the coat of arms to symbolize sovereignty of the peopleCommon People"Common People" is a song by English alternative rock band Pulp. It was released as a single in 1995, reaching number two on the UK singles chart. It also appears on the band's 1995 album Different Class. The song is about those who were perceived by the songwriter as wanting to be "like common...
after the royal crown was eschewed in 1923.
and the Czech Republic
as well as with Switzerland
(across Lake Constance
). Neighbouring states within Germany are Baden-Württemberg
. Two major rivers flow through the state, the Danube
(Donau) and the Main. The Bavarian Alps define the border with Austria, (including the Austrian federal-states of Vorarlberg, Tyrol and Salzburg) and within the range is the highest peak in Germany, the Zugspitze
. The Bavarian Forest
and the Bohemian Forest
form the vast majority of the frontier with the Czech Republic and Bohemia.
The major cities in Bavaria are Munich
Population and area
|Administrative region||Population (2010)||Area (km2)||No. municipalities|
| Lower Bavaria
Lower Bavaria is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of the state.- Geography :Lower Bavaria is subdivided into two regions - Landshut and Donau-Wald. Recent election results mark it as the most conservative part of Germany, generally giving huge...
| Lower Franconia
Lower Franconia is one of the three administrative regions of Franconia in Bavaria , Germany ....
| Upper Franconia
Upper Franconia is a Regierungsbezirk of the state of Bavaria, southern Germany. It forms part of the historically significant region of Franconia , all now part of the German Federal State of Bayern .With more than 200 independent breweries which brew...
| Middle Franconia
Middle Franconia is one of the three administrative regions of Franconia in Bavaria, Germany. It is in the west of Bavaria and adjoins the state of Baden-Württemberg...
| Upper Palatinate
The Upper Palatinate is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of Bavaria.- History :The region took its name first in the early 16th century, because it was by the Treaty of Pavia one of the main portions of the territory of the Wittelsbach Elector...
Swabia (administrative region)
Swabia is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany.- Geography :Swabia is located in southwest Bavaria. It was formed out of the part of the historic region of Swabia which was annexed by Bavaria in 1803. It was once formally ruled by dukes of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. During...
| Upper Bavaria
Upper Bavaria is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany.- Geography :Upper Bavaria is located in the southern portion of Bavaria, and is centered around the city of Munich. It is subdivided into four regions : Ingolstadt, Munich, Bayerisches Oberland , and Südostoberbayern...
31 December 2000
31 December 2005
31 December 2008
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...
Nuremberg[p] is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. Situated on the Pegnitz river and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it is located about north of Munich and is Franconia's largest city. The population is 505,664...
Augsburg is a city in the south-west of Bavaria, Germany. It is a university town and home of the Regierungsbezirk Schwaben and the Bezirk Schwaben. Augsburg is an urban district and home to the institutions of the Landkreis Augsburg. It is, as of 2008, the third-largest city in Bavaria with a...
Regensburg is a city in Bavaria, Germany, located at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers, at the northernmost bend in the Danube. To the east lies the Bavarian Forest. Regensburg is the capital of the Bavarian administrative region Upper Palatinate...
Würzburg is a city in the region of Franconia which lies in the northern tip of Bavaria, Germany. Located at the Main River, it is the capital of the Regierungsbezirk Lower Franconia. The regional dialect is Franconian....
Ingolstadt is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, in the Federal Republic of Germany. It is located along the banks of the Danube River, in the center of Bavaria. As at 31 March 2011, Ingolstadt had 125.407 residents...
The city of Fürth is located in northern Bavaria, Germany in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. It is now contiguous with the larger city of Nuremberg, the centres of the two cities being only 7 km apart....
Erlangen is a Middle Franconian city in Bavaria, Germany. It is located at the confluence of the river Regnitz and its large tributary, the Untere Schwabach.Erlangen has more than 100,000 inhabitants....
Bamberg is a city in Bavaria, Germany. It is located in Upper Franconia on the river Regnitz, close to its confluence with the river Main. Bamberg is one of the few cities in Germany that was not destroyed by World War II bombings because of a nearby Artillery Factory that prevented planes from...
Aschaffenburg is a city in northwest Bavaria, Germany. The town of Aschaffenburg is not considered part of the district of Aschaffenburg, but is the administrative seat.Aschaffenburg is known as the Tor zum Spessart or "gate to the Spessart"...
Landshut is a city in Bavaria in the south-east of Germany, belonging to both Eastern and Southern Bavaria. Situated on the banks of the River Isar, Landshut is the capital of Lower Bavaria, one of the seven administrative regions of the Free State of Bavaria. It is also the seat of the...
Rosenheim is a town in Bavaria at the confluence of the rivers Inn and Mangfall. It is seat of administration of the district of Rosenheim, but is not a part of it.-Geography:...
Neu-Ulm is a town in Bavaria, capital of the Neu-Ulm district. Neighbouring towns include Ulm, Senden, Pfaffenhofen an der Roth, Holzheim, Nersingen and Elchingen. The population is 51,110 .-History:...
Schweinfurt is a city in the Lower Franconia region of Bavaria in Germany on the right bank of the canalized Main, which is here spanned by several bridges, 27 km northeast of Würzburg.- History :...
Passau is a town in Lower Bavaria, Germany. It is also known as the Dreiflüssestadt or "City of Three Rivers," because the Danube is joined at Passau by the Inn from the south and the Ilz from the north....
Freising is a town in Bavaria, Germany, and capital of the district Freising. Total population 48,500.The city is located north of Munich at the Isar river, near the Munich International Airport...
Straubing is an independent city in Lower Bavaria, southern Germany. It is seat of the district of Straubing-Bogen. Annually in August the Gäubodenvolksfest, the second largest fair in Bavaria, is held....
Regierungsbezirke (administrative districts)
- Upper FranconiaUpper FranconiaUpper Franconia is a Regierungsbezirk of the state of Bavaria, southern Germany. It forms part of the historically significant region of Franconia , all now part of the German Federal State of Bayern .With more than 200 independent breweries which brew...
- Middle FranconiaMiddle FranconiaMiddle Franconia is one of the three administrative regions of Franconia in Bavaria, Germany. It is in the west of Bavaria and adjoins the state of Baden-Württemberg...
- Lower FranconiaLower FranconiaLower Franconia is one of the three administrative regions of Franconia in Bavaria , Germany ....
- SwabiaSwabia (administrative region)Swabia is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany.- Geography :Swabia is located in southwest Bavaria. It was formed out of the part of the historic region of Swabia which was annexed by Bavaria in 1803. It was once formally ruled by dukes of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. During...
- Upper PalatinateUpper PalatinateThe Upper Palatinate is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of Bavaria.- History :The region took its name first in the early 16th century, because it was by the Treaty of Pavia one of the main portions of the territory of the Wittelsbach Elector...
- Upper BavariaUpper BavariaUpper Bavaria is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany.- Geography :Upper Bavaria is located in the southern portion of Bavaria, and is centered around the city of Munich. It is subdivided into four regions : Ingolstadt, Munich, Bayerisches Oberland , and Südostoberbayern...
- Lower BavariaLower BavariaLower Bavaria is one of the seven administrative regions of Bavaria, Germany, located in the east of the state.- Geography :Lower Bavaria is subdivided into two regions - Landshut and Donau-Wald. Recent election results mark it as the most conservative part of Germany, generally giving huge...
BezirkeBezirke (districts) are the third communal layer in Bavaria; the others are the Landkreise and the Gemeinden or Städte.
In the larger states of Germany (including Bavaria) there are Regierungsbezirke which are only administrative divisions and not self-governing entities as the Bezirke in Bavaria.
The Bezirke in Bavaria are territorially identical with the Regierungsbezirke (e.g. Regierung von Oberbayern), but are a different form of administration (having their own parliaments etc.).
Gemeinden (municipalities)The 71 administrative districts are on the lowest level divided into 2031 municipalities
(called Gemeinden, singular Gemeinde). Together with the 25 independent cities (which are in effect municipalities independent of Landkreis administrations), there are a total of 2056 municipalities in Bavaria.
In 44 of the 71 administrative districts, there are a total of 215 unincorporated area
s (as of January 1, 2005, called gemeindefreie Gebiete, singular gemeindefreies Gebiet), not belonging to any municipality, all uninhabited, mostly forested areas, but also four lakes (Chiemsee
-without islands, Starnberger See-without island Roseninsel, Ammersee
, which are the three largest lakes of Bavaria, and Waginger See
PoliticsBavaria has a multi-party system where the biggest parties are the conservative Christian Social Union of Bavaria (CSU)
, which has dominated politics since 1945 and won every election since then, and the center-left Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD)
. The German green party, Alliance '90/The Greens
is represented in the parliament as well. Since 2008 Germany's liberal party, the Free Democratic Party (FDP)
and the Free Voters
are represented in Bavaria's parliament as well. CSU and FDP agreed in October 2008 to form a coalition, while SPD, Free Voters and the Greens form the opposition.
Bavaria has a unicameral Landtag
, or state parliament, elected by universal suffrage. Until December 1999, there was also a Senat, or Senate
, whose members were chosen by social and economic groups in Bavaria, but following a referendum in 1998, this institution was abolished. The head of government is the Minister-President
In 1995 Bavaria introduced direct democracy
on the local level in a referendum
. This was initiated bottom-up by an association called Mehr Demokratie (More Democracy). This is a grass-roots organization which campaigns for the right to citizen-initiated referendums. In 1997 the Bavarian Supreme Court aggravated the regulations considerably (e.g. by introducing a turn-out quorum). Nevertheless, Bavaria has the most advanced regulations on local direct democracy in Germany. This has led to a spirited citizens' participation in communal and municipal affairs—835 referenda took place from 1995 through 2005.
In the 2003 elections
the CSU won more than two thirds of the seats in Landtag
—something no party had ever achieved in post-war German history. In the following 2008 elections
the CSU lost its absolute majority in the Landtag for the first time in 46 years.
This loss is probably attributed to its push for an anti-smoking law, the most stringent in Germany, which became one of the most controversial laws ever enacted in Bavaria. As result, the CSU changed its stance and weakened the anti-smoking law to allow some more loopholes. However, the citizens held a successful petition drive in November–December 2009 to call for a total smoking ban. The CSU dismissed the petition and demands as unnecessary and frivilous, but the referendum proceeded and the voters voted for the smoking ban.
Minister-presidents of Bavaria since 1945
|Minister-presidents of Bavaria|
|No.||Name||Born-Died||Party affiliation||Begin of Tenure||End of Tenure|
|| Fritz Schäffer
Fritz Schäffer was a German politician for the Bavarian People's Party and the Christian Social Union . In 1945 he became the first Bavarian Minister-President after World War II...
Christian Social Union of Bavaria
The Christian Social Union in Bavaria is a Christian democratic and conservative political party in Germany. It operates only in the state of Bavaria, while its sister party, the Christian Democratic Union , operates in the other 15 states of Germany...
|| Wilhelm Hoegner
Wilhelm Hoegner was the second Bavarian prime minister after World War II and father of the Bavarian constitution. He has been the only Social Democrat to hold this office....
|| Hans Ehard
Hans Ehard was a German lawyer and politician, a member of the Christian Social Union party.-Life:...
|| Wilhelm Hoegner
Wilhelm Hoegner was the second Bavarian prime minister after World War II and father of the Bavarian constitution. He has been the only Social Democrat to hold this office....
|| Hanns Seidel
Hanns Seidel was a German politician and Bavarian prime minister from 1957 to 1960. He belonged to the conservative Christian Social Union of Bavaria party.-Life:...
|| Hans Ehard
Hans Ehard was a German lawyer and politician, a member of the Christian Social Union party.-Life:...
|| Alfons Goppel
Alfons Goppel was a German politician of the CSU party and Prime Minister of Bavaria .-Life:...
|| Franz Josef Strauß
Franz Josef Strauß
Franz Josef Strauss was a German politician. He was the leader of the Christian Social Union, member of the federal cabinet in different positions and long-time minister-president of the state of Bavaria....
|| Max Streibl
Max Streibl was a German politician of the CSU party and former Minister President of Bavaria.-Life:Max Streibel was born in Oberammergau in 1932, where his parents owned a hotel business...
|| Edmund Stoiber
Edmund Rüdiger Stoiber is a German politician, former minister-president of the state of Bavaria and former chairman of the Christian Social Union...
|| Günther Beckstein
Günther Beckstein is a Bavarian CSU politician and was Minister-President of Bavaria from 9 October 2007 to 27 October 2008...
|| Horst Seehofer
Horst Lorenz Seehofer is a German politician . He was Federal Minister for Health and Social Security from 1992 to 1998 and served as Federal Minister of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection in the cabinet of Angela Merkel from 2005 to 2008...
German-Bavarian relationsThe Bayernpartei
(Bavaria Party) advocates Bavarian independence from Germany. Bavaria was the only state to reject the West German constitution in 1949, but this did not prevent its implementation. One of Germany's principal political parties, the Christian Democratic Union
(CDU), is replaced in Bavaria by the Christian Social Union of Bavaria
(CSU), but in practice the two parties cooperate fully in the Bundestag
. Bavaria had its own border police force
, separate from the Federal Border Guard, until Austria
's EU accession in 1995.
Furthermore, the people from the three northern districts of Bavaria known as Franconia
(Mittelfranken, Oberfranken and Unterfranken), do not all consider themselves as Bavarian. They have their own history and celebrate their own identity, which is distinct from southern Bavaria, and symbolized by the Franconian rake (Fränkischer Rechen). The flag is often seen during local festivals. Some Franconians would also like to see their own Bundesland Franken "Federal State of Franconia".
EconomyBavaria has long had one of the largest and healthiest economies of any region in Germany, or Europe for that matter. Its GDP in 2007 exceeded 434 billion Euros (about 600 bn US$). This makes Bavaria itself one of the largest economies in Europe and only 17 countries in the world have higher GDP. Some large companies headquartered in Bavaria include BMW
, Rohde & Schwarz
, Munich Re
, Infineon, MAN, Wacker Chemie
, Puma AG
, and Adidas
AG. Bavaria has a GDP per capita of over $48 000 US, meaning that if it were its own independent country it would rank 7th or 8th in the world.
Company namesThe motorcycle
(Bayerische Motoren-Werke, or Bavarian Motor Works) and Audi, Allianz, Grundig
(consumer electronics), Siemens (electricity, telephones, informatics, medical instruments), Continental
(Automotive Tire and Electronics), Adidas, Puma
, HypoVereinsbank (UniCredit Group), Infineon and Krauss-Maffei Wegmann
have (or had) a Bavarian industrial base.
Bavaria has also given its name to the largest Colombia
n brewery (Cervecería Bavaria
) and a major Dutch
brewery (Biermerk Bavaria).
ReligionWhile 56.4% of the population adhere to the Catholic Church, 21% are affiliated with the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Bavaria
Most of Bavaria is predominantly Roman Catholic
, but the Evangelical Lutheran Church
has a strong presence in large parts of Franconia
. Only Saarland
has a higher percentage of Catholics among the German states.
The current pope
, Benedict XVI (Joseph Alois Ratzinger)
, was born in Marktl am Inn
in Upper Bavaria
and was Cardinal-Archbishop of Munich and Freising.
TraditionsBavarians commonly emphasize pride in their traditions. Traditional costumes collectively known as Tracht
are worn on special occasions and include in Altbayern
for males and Dirndl
for females. Centuries-old folk music is performed. The Maibaum, or Maypole (which in the Middle Ages served as the community's yellow pages, as figurettes on the pole represent the trades of the village), and the bagpipes in the Upper Palatinate region bear witness to the ancient Celtic and Germanic
remnants of cultural heritage of the region.
Whether actually in Bavaria, overseas or full of citizens from other nations they continue to cultivate their traditions. They hold festivals and dances to keep their traditions alive. In New York
the German American Cultural Society is a larger umbrella group for others such as the Bavarian organizations, which represent a specific part of Germany. They proudly put forth a German Parade called Steuben Parade each year. Various affiliated events take place amongst its groups, one of which is the Bavarian Dancers.
Food and drinkBavarians tend to place a great value on food and drink
. In addition to their renowned dishes, Bavarians also consume many items of food and drink which are unusual elsewhere in Germany; for example ("white sausage") or in some instances a variety of entrails. At folk festivals and in many beer gardens, beer is traditionally served by the litre (the so-called ). Bavarians are particularly proud of the traditional , or purity law, initially established by the Duke of Bavaria for the City of Munich (e.g. the court) in 1487 and the duchy in 1516. According to this law, only three ingredients were allowed in beer: water, barley
, and hops
. In 1906 the made its way to all-German law, and remained a law in Germany until the EU
struck it down recently as incompatible with the European common market. German breweries, however, cling to the principle. Bavarians are also known as some of the world's most beer-loving people with an average annual consumption of 170 litres per person, although figures have been declining in recent years.
Bavaria is also home to the Franconia wine region
, which is situated along the Main River
in Franconia. The region has produced wine (Frankenwein) for over 1,000 years and is famous for its use of the Bocksbeutel
wine bottle. The production of wine forms an integral part of the regional culture, and many of its villages and cities hold their own wine festivals (Weinfeste) throughout the year.
Language and dialectsThree German dialects are spoken in Bavaria: Austro-Bavarian
in Old Bavaria (South-East and East), Swabian German
(an Alemannic German
dialect) in the Bavarian part of Swabia (South West) and East Franconian German
in Franconia (North).
EthnographyBavarians consider themselves to be egalitarian and informal. Their sociability can be experienced at the annual Oktoberfest
, the world's largest beer festival, which welcomes around six million visitors every year, or in the famous beer garden
s. In traditional Bavarian beer gardens, patrons may bring their own food and only buy beer from the brewery that runs the beer garden.
In the United States, particularly among German American
s, Bavarian culture is viewed somewhat nostalgically, and many "Bavarian villages", most notably Frankenmuth, Michigan
and Leavenworth, Washington
, have been founded. Since 1962, the latter has been styled with a Bavarian theme; it is also home to "one of the world's largest collections of nutcracker
s" and an Oktoberfest celebration it claims is among the most attended in the world outside of Munich.
Famous peopleThere are many famous people who were born or lived in present-day Bavaria:
- Popes Pope Benedict XVIPope Benedict XVIBenedict XVI is the 265th and current Pope, by virtue of his office of Bishop of Rome, the Sovereign of the Vatican City State and the leader of the Catholic Church as well as the other 22 sui iuris Eastern Catholic Churches in full communion with the Holy See...
(baptismal name: Joseph Ratzinger)—the current PopePopeThe Pope is the Bishop of Rome, a position that makes him the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church . In the Catholic Church, the Pope is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter, the Apostle...
of the Roman Catholic ChurchRoman Catholic ChurchThe Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...
; Pope Damasus IIPope Damasus IIPope Damasus II , born Poppo, Pope from July 17, 1048 to August 9, 1048, was the second of the German pontiffs nominated by Emperor Henry III . A native of Bavaria, he was the third German to become Pope and had one of the shortest papal reigns...
and Pope Victor IIPope Victor IIPope Victor II , born Gebhard, Count of Calw, Tollenstein, and Hirschberg, was Pope from 1055 to 1057. He was one of a series of German reform Popes.-Life:...
- Painters such as Hans Holbein the ElderHans Holbein the ElderHans Holbein was a German painter.He was born in Augsburg, Bavaria and died in Isenheim, Alsace. He and his brother Sigismund Holbein painted religious works in the late Gothic style...
, Albrecht DürerAlbrecht DürerAlbrecht Dürer was a German painter, printmaker, engraver, mathematician, and theorist from Nuremberg. His prints established his reputation across Europe when he was still in his twenties, and he has been conventionally regarded as the greatest artist of the Northern Renaissance ever since...
, Albrecht AltdorferAlbrecht AltdorferAlbrecht Altdorfer was a German painter, printmaker and architect of the Renaissance era.-Biography:Altdorfer was born in Regensburg or Altdorf around 1480....
, Lucas CranachLucas Cranach the ElderLucas Cranach the Elder , was a German Renaissance painter and printmaker in woodcut and engraving...
, Carl SpitzwegCarl SpitzwegCarl Spitzweg was a German romanticist painter and poet. He is considered to be one of the most important artists of the Biedermeier era....
, Franz von LenbachFranz von LenbachFranz von Lenbach was a German painter of Realist style.-Biography:Lenbach was born at Schrobenhausen, in Bavaria. His father was a mason, and the boy was intended to follow his father's trade or be a builder. With this view he was sent to school at Landsberg, and then to the polytechnic at Augsburg...
, Franz von StuckFranz StuckFranz Stuck , Franz Ritter von Stuck after 1906, was a German symbolist/Art Nouveau painter, sculptor, engraver, and architect.-Life and career:...
, Franz MarcFranz MarcFranz Marc was a German painter and printmaker, one of the key figures of the German Expressionist movement...
, Paul Klee, Erwin EischErwin EischErwin Eisch is a German artist who works with glass. He is also a painter, draughtsman and printmaker. With that of his friend and colleague in glass, Harvey Littleton, Eisch's work in glass embodies the ideas of the international Studio Glass movement...
, Gabriele MünterGabriele MünterGabriele Münter was a German expressionist painter who was at the forefront of the Munich avant-garde in the early 20th century. Artists and writers associated with German Expressionism shared a rebellious attitude toward the materialism and mores of German imperial and bourgeois society...
- Musicians such as Johannes HeestersJohannes HeestersJohan Marius Nicolaas "Johannes" Heesters is a Dutch actor, singer and entertainer with a -year career, almost exclusively in the German-speaking world. In Germany and Austria, Heesters is mainly known for his acting career...
, Orlando di LassoOrlande de LassusOrlande de Lassus was a Franco-Flemish composer of the late Renaissance...
, Christoph Willibald GluckChristoph Willibald GluckChristoph Willibald Ritter von Gluck was an opera composer of the early classical period. After many years at the Habsburg court at Vienna, Gluck brought about the practical reform of opera's dramaturgical practices that many intellectuals had been campaigning for over the years...
, Richard WagnerRichard WagnerWilhelm Richard Wagner was a German composer, conductor, theatre director, philosopher, music theorist, poet, essayist and writer primarily known for his operas...
(originally from Saxony), Richard StraussRichard StraussRichard Georg Strauss was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. He is known for his operas, which include Der Rosenkavalier and Salome; his Lieder, especially his Four Last Songs; and his tone poems and orchestral works, such as Death and Transfiguration, Till...
, Carl OrffCarl OrffCarl Orff was a 20th-century German composer, best known for his cantata Carmina Burana . In addition to his career as a composer, Orff developed an influential method of music education for children.-Early life:...
, Johann PachelbelJohann PachelbelJohann Pachelbel was a German Baroque composer, organist and teacher, who brought the south German organ tradition to its peak. He composed a large body of sacred and secular music, and his contributions to the development of the chorale prelude and fugue have earned him a place among the most...
and Theobald BoehmTheobald BoehmTheobald Böhm was a German inventor and musician, who perfected the modern Western concert flute and its improved fingering system...
, the inventor of the modern fluteFluteThe flute is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. Unlike woodwind instruments with reeds, a flute is an aerophone or reedless wind instrument that produces its sound from the flow of air across an opening...
, and countertenorCountertenorA countertenor is a male singing voice whose vocal range is equivalent to that of a contralto, mezzo-soprano, or a soprano, usually through use of falsetto, or far more rarely than normal, modal voice. A pre-pubescent male who has this ability is called a treble...
Klaus NomiKlaus NomiKlaus Sperber , better known as Klaus Nomi, was a German countertenor noted for his wide vocal range and an unusual, otherworldly stage persona....
- Modern musicians Klaus DoldingerKlaus DoldingerKlaus Doldinger is a German saxophonist, especially well-known for jazz and as a composer of film music. He was the recipient of 1997's Bavarian Film Awards .-Life and work:...
, Barbara DennerleinBarbara DennerleinBarbara Dennerlein , is a hard bop and post-bop Hammond B3 organist.-Early years:At age 11, Dennerlein began playing electronic organ. After starting organ lessons, she learned to play the two manual organ with a bass pedalboard. After one and a half years of lessons she continued to study without...
, Hans-Jürgen Buchner.
- Opera singers like Jonas KaufmannJonas KaufmannJonas Kaufmann is a German operatic tenor. Although he has sung a variety of leading roles including both the Mozart and Wagner repertoire, he is particularly known for his performances in spinto roles such as Don José in Carmen, Cavaradossi in Tosca, Maurizio in Adriana Lecouvreur, and the title...
and Diana DamrauDiana DamrauDiana Damrau is a German lyric coloratura soprano of the operatic stage.-Biography:Diana Damrau was born in 1971 in Günzburg, Bavaria, Germany, and began her operatic studies with Carmen Hanganu at the Musikhochschule in Würzburg. After graduating from music conservatory she worked in Salzburg...
- Writers, poets and playwrights like Hans SachsHans SachsHans Sachs was a German meistersinger , poet, playwright and shoemaker.-Biography:Hans Sachs was born in Nuremberg . His father was a tailor. He attended Latin school in Nuremberg...
, Jean PaulJean PaulJean Paul , born Johann Paul Friedrich Richter, was a German Romantic writer, best known for his humorous novels and stories.-Life and work:...
, Frank WedekindFrank WedekindBenjamin Franklin Wedekind , usually known as Frank Wedekind, was a German playwright...
, Christian MorgensternChristian MorgensternChristian Otto Josef Wolfgang Morgenstern was a German author and poet from Munich. Morgenstern married Margareta Gosebruch von Liechtenstern on March 7, 1910...
, Oskar Maria GrafOskar Maria GrafOskar Maria Graf was a German author.He wrote several socialist-anarchist novels and narratives about life in Bavaria, mostly autobiographical.In the beginning Graf wrote under his real name Oskar Graf...
, Bertolt BrechtBertolt BrechtBertolt Brecht was a German poet, playwright, and theatre director.An influential theatre practitioner of the 20th century, Brecht made equally significant contributions to dramaturgy and theatrical production, the latter particularly through the seismic impact of the tours undertaken by the...
, Lion FeuchtwangerLion FeuchtwangerLion Feuchtwanger was a German-Jewish novelist and playwright. A prominent figure in the literary world of Weimar Germany, he influenced contemporaries including playwright Bertolt Brecht....
, Thomas MannThomas MannThomas Mann was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist, essayist, and 1929 Nobel Prize laureate, known for his series of highly symbolic and ironic epic novels and novellas, noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and the intellectual...
and his sons KlausKlaus Mann- Life and work :Born in Munich, Klaus Mann was the son of German writer Thomas Mann and his wife, Katia Pringsheim. His father was baptized as a Lutheran, while his mother was from a family of secular Jews. He began writing short stories in 1924 and the following year became drama critic for a...
and Golo MannGolo MannGolo Mann , born Angelus Gottfried Thomas Mann, was a popular German historian, essayist and writer. He was the third child of the novelist Thomas Mann and his wife Katia Mann.-Life:...
, Karl MarxKarl MarxKarl Heinrich Marx was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. His ideas played a significant role in the development of social science and the socialist political movement...
lived in Munich for a few years, Ludwig ThomaLudwig ThomaLudwig Thoma was a German author, publisher and editor, who gained popularity through his partially exaggerated description of a Bavarian workday....
- Scientists such as Max PlanckMax PlanckMax Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, ForMemRS, was a German physicist who actualized the quantum physics, initiating a revolution in natural science and philosophy. He is regarded as the founder of the quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.-Life and career:Planck came...
, Wilhelm Conrad RöntgenWilhelm Conrad RöntgenWilhelm Conrad Röntgen was a German physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901....
, and Werner HeisenbergWerner HeisenbergWerner Karl Heisenberg was a German theoretical physicist who made foundational contributions to quantum mechanics and is best known for asserting the uncertainty principle of quantum theory...
, as well as Adam RiesAdam RiesAdam Ries was a German mathematician. He is also known by the name Adam Riese.- Life :Almost nothing is known about Ries' childhood, youth and education. It is not even possible to determine the year of his birth with certainty. The caption on the only known contemporary portrait of the...
, Joseph von FraunhoferJoseph von FraunhoferJoseph von Fraunhofer was a German optician. He is known for the discovery of the dark absorption lines known as Fraunhofer lines in the Sun's spectrum, and for making excellent optical glass and achromatic telescope objectives.-Biography:Fraunhofer was born in Straubing, Bavaria...
, Georg OhmGeorg OhmGeorg Simon Ohm was a German physicist. As a high school teacher, Ohm began his research with the recently-invented electrochemical cell, invented by Italian Count Alessandro Volta. Using equipment of his own creation, Ohm determined that there is a direct proportionality between the potential...
, Johannes StarkJohannes StarkJohannes Stark was a German physicist, and Physics Nobel Prize laureate who was closely involved with the Deutsche Physik movement under the Nazi regime.-Early years:...
, Carl von LindeCarl von LindeProfessor Doctor Carl Paul Gottfried von Linde was a German engineer who developed refrigeration and gas separation technologies...
, Rudolf Moessbauer, Lothar Rohde and Hermann SchwarzHermann SchwarzKarl Hermann Amandus Schwarz was a German mathematician, known for his work in complex analysis. He was born in Hermsdorf, Silesia and died in Berlin...
, Helmut Hirt and Robert HuberRobert HuberRobert Huber is a German biochemist and Nobel laureate.He was born 20 February 1937 in Munich where his father, Sebastian, was a bank cashier. He was educated at the Humanistisches Karls-Gymnasium from 1947 to 1956 and then studied chemistry at the Technische Hochschule, receiving his diploma in 1960...
- Well-known inventors such as Martin BehaimMartin BehaimMartin Behaim , was a German mariner, artist, cosmographer, astronomer, philosopher, geographer and explorer in service to the King of Portugal.-Biography:The Behaim family had immigrated to Nuremberg because of religious persecution around...
, Levi StraussLevi StraussLevi Strauss was a German-Jewish immigrant to the United States who founded the first company to manufacture blue jeans. His firm, Levi Strauss & Co., began in 1853 in San Francisco, California.-Origins:...
and Rudolf DieselRudolf DieselRudolf Christian Karl Diesel was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the diesel engine.-Early life:Diesel was born in Paris, France in 1858 the second of three children of Theodor and Elise Diesel. His parents were Bavarian immigrants living in Paris. Theodor...
- Physicians like Max Joseph von PettenkoferMax Joseph von PettenkoferMax Joseph von Pettenkofer , Bavarian chemist and hygienist, was born in Lichtenheim, near Neuburg an der Donau, now part of Weichering. He was a nephew of Franz Xaver Pettenkofer , who from 1823 was surgeon and apothecary to the Bavarian court and was the author of some chemical investigations on...
, Sebastian KneippSebastian KneippSebastian Kneipp was a Bavarian priest and one of the founders of the Naturopathic medicine movement...
and the neurologistNeurologyNeurology is a medical specialty dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Specifically, it deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of disease involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue,...
Alois AlzheimerAlois AlzheimerAloysius "Alois" Alzheimer, was a German psychiatrist and neuropathologist and a colleague of Emil Kraepelin. Alzheimer is credited with identifying the first published case of "presenile dementia", which Kraepelin would later identify as Alzheimer's disease....
, who first described Alzheimer's DiseaseAlzheimer's diseaseAlzheimer's disease also known in medical literature as Alzheimer disease is the most common form of dementia. There is no cure for the disease, which worsens as it progresses, and eventually leads to death...
- Football players like Max MorlockMax MorlockMaximilian Morlock was one of the most popular German football players in the 1950s and early 1960s. In his time with the West German national team, he earned 26 caps and scored 21 goals...
, Karl MaiKarl MaiKarl Mai was a German footballer. He was born in Fürth.He was part of the West German team that won the 1954 FIFA World Cup. In total he earned 21 caps and scored one goal for West Germany...
, Franz BeckenbauerFranz BeckenbauerFranz Anton Beckenbauer is a German football coach, manager, and former player, nicknamed Der Kaiser because of his elegant style, his leadership, his first name "Franz" , and his dominance on the football pitch...
, Sepp Maier, Gerd MüllerGerd MüllerGerhard "Gerd" Müller is a former German football player and one of the most prolific goalscorers of all time.With national records of 68 goals in 62 international appearances, 365 goals in 427 Bundesliga games and the international record of 66 goals in 74 European Club games, he was one of the...
, Paul BreitnerPaul BreitnerPaul Breitner is a former German football player. One of Germany's most controversial players, he was capped 48 times for his country.-Playing career:...
, Bernd SchusterBernd SchusterBernhard Schuster is a German football manager and former player, currently unemployed. His nickname is "der Blonde Engel" .-Club career:...
, Klaus AugenthalerKlaus AugenthalerKlaus "Auge" Augenthaler is a former football player and now manager.-Playing years:...
, Lothar MatthäusLothar MatthäusLothar Herbert Matthäus , is a German football manager and former player.In 1990, he was named European Footballer of the Year and World Soccer Player of the Year after captaining West Germany to victory in the 1990 World Cup...
, Philipp LahmPhilipp LahmPhilipp Lahm is a German footballer who plays for Bayern Munich and Germany. Lahm is also the captain for both the national team and Bayern....
, Bastian SchweinsteigerBastian SchweinsteigerBastian Schweinsteiger is a German footballer who plays as a midfielder for Bayern Munich and the German national team. A right-footed player, he is capable of playing out wide or in a more central role....
, Holger BadstuberHolger BadstuberHolger Badstuber is a German footballer who plays as a defender for Bayern Munich in the Bundesliga and the German national football team...
, Thomas MüllerThomas MüllerThomas Müller was a German Waffen-SS Colonel who commanded the 9th SS Panzer Division Hohenstaufen, 17th SS Panzergrenadier Division Götz von Berlichingen and the 27. SS-Freiwilligen-Grenadier-Division Langemarck during World War II...
, Dietmar HamannDietmar HamannDietmar "Didi" Hamann is a German footballer who was most recently manager at Stockport County. Throughout his career, he has played for Bayern Munich, Newcastle United, Liverpool, and Manchester City primarily in a defensive midfield position. He also spent time at Milton Keynes Dons as a...
and Stefan ReuterStefan ReuterStefan Reuter is a German football coach and former player.-Career:A right sided defender who started his career with TSV 1860 Dinkelsbühl. 1982 he played for 1. FC Nuremberg, first in the 2. Bundesliga and since 1985 in the German Bundesliga. In exactly 100 games he scored 10 goals...
- Other sportspeople such as golfer Bernhard LangerBernhard LangerBernhard Langer is a German professional golfer. He is a two-time Masters champion, and was one of the world's leading golfers throughout the 1980s and 90s, being the first official number one ranked player in 1986...
and basketball player Dirk NowitzkiDirk NowitzkiDirk Werner Nowitzki is a German professional basketball player who plays for the Dallas Mavericks of the National Basketball Association...
- Actors like Werner Stocker, Helmut FischerHelmut FischerHelmut Fischer was a popular award winning German actor.-Life:Helmut Fischer was the son of a businessman and a tailor and grew up in the Munich district of Neuhausen in Donnersbergerstraße 50a, where he also went to school...
, Walter SedlmayrWalter SedlmayrWalter Sedlmayr was a Bavarian stage, television, and movie actor.-Career:After his 1945 wartime Abitur, Sedlmayr served as a Flakhelfer towards the end of World War II...
, Gustl BayrhammerGustl BayrhammerGustl Bayrhammer was a German actor. He appeared in 79 films and television shows between 1964 and 1993. He starred in the 1970 film o.k., which was entered into the 20th Berlin International Film Festival. However, the competition was cancelled and no prizes were awarded, over controversy...
, Ottfried FischerOttfried FischerOttfried Fischer is a German actor and Kabarett artist best known for his role as Benno Berghammer in the popular German TV series Der Bulle von Tölz...
, Ruth DrexelRuth DrexelRuth Drexel was a German actress, director, and theatre director/manager. Her best-known role was as "Resi Berghammer" in the German television series,...
, Elmar WepperElmar WepperElmar Wepper is a German actor. His television credits include Der Kommissar, Unsere schönsten Jahre and Zwei Münchner in Hamburg, the latter starring with Uschi Glas. His film credits include Cherry Blossoms, Café Europa, Lammbock and Dreiviertelmond....
, Fritz WepperFritz WepperFritz Wepper is a German television actor.- Life and work :He has been married to Angela Prinzessin von Hohenzollern since 1979, and they have one daughter, Sophie...
, Uschi GlasUschi GlasUschi Glas is a German film and television actress.Born in Landau, Bavaria, Glas started appearing in films in 1965...
, Yank AzmanYank Azman-Early life:Azman was born in a displaced persons camp in Bad Wörishofen, Germany to Cesia , a sales clerk and Kuba Zajfman, a tailor and furrier, Holocaust survivors from Chmielnik, Poland...
- Film directors Rainer Werner FassbinderRainer Werner FassbinderRainer Werner Maria Fassbinder was a German movie director, screenwriter and actor. He is considered one of the most important representatives of the New German Cinema.He maintained a frenetic pace in film-making...
, Joseph VilsmaierJoseph VilsmaierJoseph Vilsmaier is a German film director.-Work:After attending a boarding school near Augsburg, he was trained as a technician to make film cameras and then spent nine years at a music conservatory. Following this he was a member of a jazz group...
, Werner HerzogWerner HerzogWerner Herzog Stipetić , known as Werner Herzog, is a German film director, producer, screenwriter, actor, and opera director.He is often considered as one of the greatest figures of the New German Cinema, along with Rainer Werner Fassbinder, Margarethe von Trotta, Volker Schlöndorff, Werner...
, Franz Xaver Bogner.
- Mysterious people: Kaspar HauserKaspar HauserKaspar Hauser was a German youth who claimed to have grown up in the total isolation of a darkened cell. Hauser's claims, and his subsequent death by stabbing, sparked much debate and controversy....
(the famous foundling), The Smith of KochelThe Smith of KochelThe Smith of Kochel is a figure from Bavarian myth. According to this myth, he was a soldier in the Habsburg-Ottoman Wars . Armed with nothing but a bar, he supposedly stove in the gates of Belgrade...
- Legendary outlaws such as Mathias KneißlMathias KneißlMathias Kneißl, known as Robber Kneißl , 4 August 1875, Unterweikertshofen — 21 February 1902, was a German outlaw, poacher and popular social rebel in the Dachau district, in the Kingdom of Bavaria...
, the legendary robber or Matthias KlostermayrMatthias KlostermayrMatthias Klostermayr, known as Bavarian Hiasl was a renowned German outlaw, poacher and social rebel who had come to be described, particularly in accounts written in the English-speaking world, as the Bavarian Robin Hood.A native of the municipality of Kissing...
, better known as Bavarian Hiasl
- Noted automobile designer Peter SchreyerPeter SchreyerPeter Schreyer is an automobile designer, widely known for his design contributions to the Audi TT and as the Chief Design Officer at Kia Motors ....
, born in Bad ReichenhallBad ReichenhallBad Reichenhall is a spa town, and administrative center of the Berchtesgadener Land district in Upper Bavaria, Germany. It is located near Salzburg in a basin encircled by the Chiemgauer Alps ....
- Fictional characters such as X-Men's Nightcrawler (comics)Nightcrawler (comics)Nightcrawler is a fictional character, a comic book superhero in the Marvel Universe. He has been associated with both the X-Men and Excalibur, originally appearing in comic books published by Marvel Comics. Created by writer Len Wein and artist Dave Cockrum, he debuted in Giant-Size X-Men #1...
- Outline of Germany
- List of rulers of Bavaria
- List of Premiers of Bavaria
- Former countries in Europe after 1815Former countries in Europe after 1815This article gives a detailed listing of all the countries, , that have existed in Europe since the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to the present day...
- Extensive pictures of Bavaria in addition to those shown below are linked from in :Category:Bavaria, where they are organized (predominantly) by locale.
- Template:User Bavarian Ancestry Bavarian ancestry infobox