Ingolstadt (ˈɪŋɡɔlˌʃtat; locally [ˈɪŋl̩ʃtɔːd]) is a city in the Free State of Bavaria
Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

, in the Federal Republic of Germany. It is located along the banks of the Danube
The Danube is a river in the Central Europe and the Europe's second longest river after the Volga. It is classified as an international waterway....

 River, in the center of Bavaria. As at 31 March 2011, Ingolstadt had 125.407 residents. It is part of the Munich Metropolitan Area, which has a total population of more than 5 million.

The Illuminati
The Illuminati is a name given to several groups, both real and fictitious. Historically the name refers to the Bavarian Illuminati, an Enlightenment-era secret society founded on May 1, 1776...

, a Bavarian secret society
Secret society
A secret society is a club or organization whose activities and inner functioning are concealed from non-members. The society may or may not attempt to conceal its existence. The term usually excludes covert groups, such as intelligence agencies or guerrilla insurgencies, which hide their...

, was founded in Ingolstadt in the late 18th century.

Ingolstadt is the setting for the novel Frankenstein
Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel about a failed experiment that produced a monster, written by Mary Shelley, with inserts of poems by Percy Bysshe Shelley. Shelley started writing the story when she was eighteen, and the novel was published when she was twenty-one. The first...

by Mary Shelley
Mary Shelley
Mary Shelley was a British novelist, short story writer, dramatist, essayist, biographer, and travel writer, best known for her Gothic novel Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus . She also edited and promoted the works of her husband, the Romantic poet and philosopher Percy Bysshe Shelley...

, for the monster created by the scientist Victor Frankenstein.

It is the site of the headquarters of the German automobile manufacturer Audi
Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer, from supermini to crossover SUVs in various body styles and price ranges that are marketed under the Audi brand , positioned as the premium brand within the Volkswagen Group....

, defence aircraft manufacturer Cassidian Air Systems (formerly EADS DS) and electronic stores Media Markt
Media Markt
Media Markt is a German chain of stores selling consumer electronics with numerous branches throughout Europe. It is Europe's largest retailer of consumer electronics.-History:...

 and Saturn.

Ingolstadt Central Station
Ingolstadt Hauptbahnhof
is the Hauptbahnhof for the Bavarian city of Ingolstadt, situated in southern Germany.Ingolstadt station is an important junction in the net Deutsche Bahn network...

 has been connected to Nuremberg
Nuremberg[p] is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. Situated on the Pegnitz river and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it is located about north of Munich and is Franconia's largest city. The population is 505,664...

 by a high-speed rail link since May 2006. Ingolstadt also has a second passenger station at Ingolstadt Nord
Ingolstadt Nord station
The station of Ingolstadt Nord is the second, working, passenger station in the town of Ingolstadt, in the state of Bavaria in southern Germany, besides Ingolstadt Hauptbahnhof....


History and culture

Ingolstadt was first mentioned in a document of Charlemagne
Charlemagne was King of the Franks from 768 and Emperor of the Romans from 800 to his death in 814. He expanded the Frankish kingdom into an empire that incorporated much of Western and Central Europe. During his reign, he conquered Italy and was crowned by Pope Leo III on 25 December 800...

 on 6 February 806 as "Ingoldes stat", the place of Ingold. Circa 1250, Ingolstadt was granted city status.

Ingolstadt was the capital of the duchy Bavaria-Ingolstadt
Bavaria-Ingolstadt was a duchy which was part of the Holy Roman Empire from 1392 to 1447.-History:After the death of Stephen II in 1375, his sons Stephen III, Frederick, and John II jointly ruled Bavaria-Landshut. After seventeen years, the brothers decided to formally divide their inheritance...

 between 1392 and 1447. Ingolstadt was then united with Bavaria-Landshut. Louis VII, Duke of Bavaria
Louis VII, Duke of Bavaria
Duke Louis VII of Bavaria was Duke of Bavaria-Ingolstadt from 1413 until 1443. He was a son of Stephen III and Taddea Visconti.-Biography:...

 ordered the building of the New Castle, whose form was strongly influenced by French Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

. In 1472 Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria
Louis IX, Duke of Bavaria
Louis IX , was Duke of Bavaria-Landshut from 1450. He was a son of Henry XVI the Rich and Margaret of Austria.-Biography:Louis succeeded his father in 1450...

 founded the Ludwig-Maximilians-University in Ingolstadt. In 1800 it was moved to Landshut
Landshut is a city in Bavaria in the south-east of Germany, belonging to both Eastern and Southern Bavaria. Situated on the banks of the River Isar, Landshut is the capital of Lower Bavaria, one of the seven administrative regions of the Free State of Bavaria. It is also the seat of the...

 and finally to Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...


On 30 April 1632, the German field marshal
Field Marshal
Field Marshal is a military rank. Traditionally, it is the highest military rank in an army.-Etymology:The origin of the rank of field marshal dates to the early Middle Ages, originally meaning the keeper of the king's horses , from the time of the early Frankish kings.-Usage and hierarchical...

 Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly died at Ingolstadt during a Swedish
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 siege of the city. The field marshal had been badly wounded in a previous engagement with the Swedes under King Gustavus Adolphus. Ingolstadt proved to be the first fortress in Germany
Catholic League (German)
The German Catholic League was initially a loose confederation of Roman Catholic German states formed on July 10, 1609 to counteract the Protestant Union , whereby the participating states concluded an alliance "for the defence of the Catholic religion and peace within the Empire." Modeled...

 that held out for the entire length of the Swedish siege, and the Swedes eventually withdrew.

The remains of Gustavus Adolphus' horse can be seen in the City Museum. The horse was shot from under the king by one of the cannons inside the fortress, a cannon known as "The Fig". When the Swedes withdrew, the city preserved the remains of the king's horse, eventually putting the form on display. It has remained thus for almost 400 years.

Originally a fortress city, Ingolstadt is enclosed by a medieval defensive wall. The Bavarian fortress (1537–1930) now holds the museum of the Bavarian army. During World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

, future French
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 president Charles de Gaulle
Charles de Gaulle
Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle was a French general and statesman who led the Free French Forces during World War II. He later founded the French Fifth Republic in 1958 and served as its first President from 1959 to 1969....

 was detained there as a prisoner of war
Prisoner of war
A prisoner of war or enemy prisoner of war is a person, whether civilian or combatant, who is held in custody by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict...

. A sapper
A sapper, pioneer or combat engineer is a combatant soldier who performs a wide variety of combat engineering duties, typically including, but not limited to, bridge-building, laying or clearing minefields, demolitions, field defences, general construction and building, as well as road and airfield...

s' drill ground lies next to the river, and two military air bases are located nearby, one used for testing aircraft. The long military tradition of the city is reflected in today's civil and cultural life. Former "off-limit" military training areas have been converted into well-used public parks.

Ingolstadt was the city where William IV, Duke of Bavaria
William IV, Duke of Bavaria
William IV of Bavaria was Duke of Bavaria from 1508 to 1550, until 1545 together with his younger brother Louis X, Duke of Bavaria....

 wrote and signed the Bavarian Reinheitsgebot
The Reinheitsgebot , sometimes called the "German Beer Purity Law" or the "Bavarian Purity Law" in English, was a regulation concerning the production of beer in Germany. In the original text, the only ingredients that could be used in the production of beer were water, barley and hops...

 in 1516. In 1748, Adam Weishaupt
Adam Weishaupt
Johann Adam Weishaupt was a German philosopher and founder of the Order of Illuminati, a secret society with origins in Bavaria.-Early life:...

, the founder of the Order of Illuminati
The Illuminati is a name given to several groups, both real and fictitious. Historically the name refers to the Bavarian Illuminati, an Enlightenment-era secret society founded on May 1, 1776...

, was born in Ingolstadt.

Adolf Scherzer composed the "Bayerischen Defiliermarsch". Mary Shelley's Frankenstein
Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel about a failed experiment that produced a monster, written by Mary Shelley, with inserts of poems by Percy Bysshe Shelley. Shelley started writing the story when she was eighteen, and the novel was published when she was twenty-one. The first...

was set at the Ingolstädter Alte Anatomie (Old Anatomy Building), now a museum for medical history. The famous writer Marieluise Fleißer
Marieluise Fleißer
Marieluise Fleißer was a German author and playwright.Her best known works are two plays, Purgatory in Ingolstadt and Pioneers in Ingolstadt . Bertolt Brecht persuaded the director Moriz Seeler to stage the first play, which Seeler retitled; Fleißer's original title was The Washing of Feet....

 wrote Pioniere in Ingolstadt in 1928.

Main sights

As one of five ducal residences of medieval Bavaria — besides Landshut, Munich, Straubing and Burghausen — the city of Ingolstadt features many Gothic buildings, such as the Herzogskasten (Old ducal castle; ca. 1255) and the New Castle, which was built from 1418 onwards. The largest church is the Gothic hall, Church of Our Lady, which was begun in 1425. Also the churches of Saint Maurice (1235) and of the Gnadenthal and Franciscans monasteries date from the Gothic era. The Kreuztor
Kreuztor (Ingolstadt)
The Kreuztor, built in 1385, is the western gateway to the medieval city center of Ingolstadt. The tower's name is derived from the leper house belonging to the Church of the Holy Cross , which stood to the west of the city walls until its destruction in the Schmalkaldic War in 1546.This...

 (1385) is one of the remaining gates of the old city wall. The Gothic Old City Hall was constructed in the 14th century, and later altered several times.

The Baroque era is represented by the Old Anatomy Building of the university (1723–1736, designed by Gabriel de Gabrieli) and the church St. Maria de Victoria, which was built by the Asam brothers
Asam brothers
The Asam Brothers were sculptors, workers in stucco, painters, and architects, who worked mostly together and in southern Germany...

 (1732–1736). The church of the Augustinians of Johann Michael Fischer
Johann Michael Fischer
Johann Michael Fischer was a German architect in the late Baroque period....

 (1736) was completely destroyed in World War II.

Many buildings of the neo-classical fortification of Leo von Klenze
Leo von Klenze
Leo von Klenze was a German neoclassicist architect, painter and writer...

 have been preserved, such as the Reduit Tilly and the towers Baur and Triva.

Ingolstadt School of Management

Ingolstadt is home of one of Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

's foremost business schools: the Ingolstadt School of Management
WFI - Ingolstadt School of Management
The WFI - Ingolstadt School of Management is the youngest of the eight faculties of the Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt.-External links:* * * * * *...

. It is the department of business administration and economics of the Catholic University of Eichstaett-Ingolstadt. In national rankings, the B-school regularly scores among the top ten, which is due to its high academic quality and excellent student:professor ratio. The faculty maintains a large network of partner universities for international educational exchange.

The Ingolstadt School of Management offers bachelor's
Bachelor's degree
A bachelor's degree is usually an academic degree awarded for an undergraduate course or major that generally lasts for three or four years, but can range anywhere from two to six years depending on the region of the world...

 and master's degree
Master's degree
A master's is an academic degree granted to individuals who have undergone study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice...

s in business administration . Among the academic programs offered are also an executive MBA and doctoral degrees.

University of Applied Sciences

The University of Applied Sciences Ingolstadt is a new and dynamic university for technology, computer sciences and business administration. With around 2,500 students the University is the biggest institution of learning in Ingolstadt.

Classes are small and students receive individual attention. The close interaction between professors, instructors and students creates a pleasant contrast to studying at a larger universities.

Several scholarship programs supported by companies such as Siemens and Temic provide gifted students with financial assistance during their studies. These students deepen their practical experience by working at these organizations.

The University of Applied Sciences Ingolstadt offers several Undergraduate and Graduate Programs. Every Program is listed under the top 25 in Germany.

Literary references

Ingolstadt is one of the many settings in Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein
Frankenstein; or, The Modern Prometheus is a novel about a failed experiment that produced a monster, written by Mary Shelley, with inserts of poems by Percy Bysshe Shelley. Shelley started writing the story when she was eighteen, and the novel was published when she was twenty-one. The first...

. Primarily, Victor Frankenstein attends university in Ingolstadt. The musical version of the novel, Frankenstein - A New Musical
Frankenstein - A New Musical
Frankenstein — A New Musical is a musical with music by Mark Baron, lyrics by Jeffrey Jackson, and a book by Jackson and Gary P. Cohen, based on the Mary Shelley novel of the same name...

 has many scenes set in Ingolstadt.

Ingolstadt is also a pivotal location in The Illuminatus! Trilogy
The Illuminatus! Trilogy
The Illuminatus! Trilogy is a series of three novels written by Robert Shea and Robert Anton Wilson first published in 1975. The trilogy is a satirical, postmodern, science fiction-influenced adventure story; a drug-, sex-, and magick-laden trek through a number of conspiracy theories, both...

by Robert Shea
Robert Shea
Robert Joseph Shea was an American novelist and former journalist best known as co-author with Robert Anton Wilson of the science fantasy trilogy Illuminatus!. It became a cult success and was later turned into a marathon-length stage show put on at the British National Theatre and elsewhere. In...

 and Robert Anton Wilson
Robert Anton Wilson
Robert Anton Wilson , known to friends as "Bob", was an American author and polymath who became at various times a novelist, philosopher, psychologist, essayist, editor, playwright, poet, futurist, civil libertarian and self-described agnostic mystic...


Dr. Faust
Faust is the protagonist of a classic German legend; a highly successful scholar, but also dissatisfied with his life, and so makes a deal with the devil, exchanging his soul for unlimited knowledge and worldly pleasures. Faust's tale is the basis for many literary, artistic, cinematic, and musical...

 is mentioned in an old and short local tale.

The sixth scene of "Mother Courage and Her Children
Mother Courage and Her Children
Mother Courage and Her Children is a play written in 1939 by the German dramatist and poet Bertolt Brecht with significant contributions from Margarete Steffin...

" by "Bertolt Brecht
Bertolt Brecht
Bertolt Brecht was a German poet, playwright, and theatre director.An influential theatre practitioner of the 20th century, Brecht made equally significant contributions to dramaturgy and theatrical production, the latter particularly through the seismic impact of the tours undertaken by the...

" is set in Ingolstadt, when count Tilly died in 1632, during the "Thirty Years War"

The X-Files
The X-Files
The X-Files is an American science fiction television series and a part of The X-Files franchise, created by screenwriter Chris Carter. The program originally aired from to . The show was a hit for the Fox network, and its characters and slogans became popular culture touchstones in the 1990s...

episode "The Post-Modern Prometheus" makes a reference to the University of Ingolstadt
University of Ingolstadt
The University of Ingolstadt was founded in 1472 by Louis the Rich, the Duke of Bavaria at the time, and its first Chancellor was the Bishop of Eichstätt. It consisted of five faculties: humanities, sciences, theology, law and medicine, all of which were contained in the Hoheschule...

. This was an allusion to Frankenstein, as the episode was filled with Frankenstein references, and the full title of Frankenstein is actually "Frankenstein: or, The Modern Prometheus" (also see: Prometheus
In Greek mythology, Prometheus is a Titan, the son of Iapetus and Themis, and brother to Atlas, Epimetheus and Menoetius. He was a champion of mankind, known for his wily intelligence, who stole fire from Zeus and gave it to mortals...


International relations

Several other cities are sister cities to Ingolstadt:
-Climate:-Main sights:The ancient core of the city is Káptalan Hill at the confluence of three rivers: the Danube, Rába and Rábca. Püspökvár, the residence of Győr’s bishops can be easily recognised by its incomplete tower. Győr’s oldest buildings are the 13th-century dwelling tower and the...

, Hungary Kirkcaldy
Kirkcaldy is a town and former royal burgh in Fife, on the east coast of Scotland. The town lies on a shallow bay on the northern shore of the Firth of Forth; SSE of Glenrothes, ENE of Dunfermline, WSW of Dundee and NNE of Edinburgh...

, Fife, Scotland, UK Grasse
-See also:*Route Napoléon*Ancient Diocese of Grasse*Communes of the Alpes-Maritimes department-External links:*...

, France Carrara
Carrara is a city and comune in the province of Massa-Carrara , notable for the white or blue-grey marble quarried there. It is on the Carrione River, some west-northwest of Florence....

, Italy Kragujevac
Kragujevac is the fourth largest city in Serbia, the main city of the Šumadija region and the administrative centre of Šumadija District. It is situated on the banks of the Lepenica River...

, Serbia Manisa
Manisa is a large city in Turkey's Aegean Region and the administrative seat of Manisa Province.Modern Manisa is a booming center of industry and services, advantaged by its closeness to the international port city and the regional metropolitan center of İzmir and by its fertile hinterland rich in...

, Turkey Opole
Opole is a city in southern Poland on the Oder River . It has a population of 125,992 and is the capital of the Upper Silesia, Opole Voivodeship and, also the seat of Opole County...

, Poland Central District, Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, Russia Murska Sobota
Murska Sobota
Murska Sobota is a city in northeastern Slovenia. It is located in the eponymous municipality near the Mura River in the region of Prekmurje and is the regional capital.-Name:...

, Slovenia

Organizations and clubs

  • MTV 1881 Ingolstadt
    MTV Ingolstadt
    The Männer-Turn-Verein von 1881 Ingolstadt or Men's Gymnastics Club of 1881 Ingolstadt is a general sports club in Ingolstadt, Bavaria. It was founded on 18 July 1881....

    , Ingolstadt's major sports club
  • FC Ingolstadt 04
    FC Ingolstadt 04
    FC Ingolstadt 04 is a German football club based in Ingolstadt, Bavaria. The club was founded in 2004 out of the merger of the football sides of two other clubs: ESV Ingolstadt and MTV Ingolstadt.-ESV Ingolstadt:...

    , Footballclub in 2. Bundesliga
    2. Fußball-Bundesliga
    - Changes in division set-up :* Number of clubs: currently 18. From 1974 to 1981 there were two conferences, each of 20 teams. In 1981–91 it had 20...

  • Grün-Weiß Ingolstadt
    Grün-Weiß Ingolstadt
    FC Grün-Weiß Ingolstadt is a German association football club based in Ingolstadt, Bavaria. Founded in 1953 the sports club has departments for football and taekwando.The team play in the Bavarian Kreisliga.-External links:*...

    , Footballclub in Kreisklasse (IX)
  • Ingolstadt Schanzer, Baseball team in 2. Bundesliga
    Bundesliga (baseball)
    The Baseball-Bundesliga is the elite competition for the sport of baseball in Germany. In it, the men's German championship is determined annually. Like most European sports leagues, the Bundesliga uses a system of promotion and relegation...

  • ERC Ingolstadt
    ERC Ingolstadt
    The ERC Ingolstadt are a member of the Deutsche Eishockey Liga. Commonly known as the Panthers, they play their games in Ingolstadt, Germany at the Saturn Arena. During the 2004–05 NHL lockout, Ingolstadt signed NHLers Marco Sturm, Andy McDonald, Jamie Langenbrunner and Aaron Ward...

    , Ice hockey
    Ice hockey
    Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

     team in DEL (I)
  • The Bavarian Illuminati

External links

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