German inventors and discoverers
This is a list of German inventors and discoverers. The following list comprises people from Germany or German-speaking Europe, also of people of predominantly German heritage, in alphabetical order of the surname. The main section includes existing articles, indicated by blue links, and possibly non-existing, indicated by red links. Please read the Notes section below for more information BEFORE adding an inventor or discoverer.

Existing A B C D E F G H  I   J  K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
Notes See also External links



  • Ernst Abbe: Invented the first refractometer
    A refractometer is a laboratory or field device for the measurement of an index of refraction . The index of refraction is calculated from Snell's law and can be calculated from the composition of the material using the Gladstone-Dale relation....

    , and many other devices.
  • Robert Adler
    Robert Adler
    Robert Adler was an Austrian-born American inventor who held numerous patents.-Achievements:Adler was born in Vienna in 1913. He earned a Ph.D. in Physics from the University of Vienna in 1937.Following Austria's annexation by Nazi Germany in 1939, Dr. Adler, a Jew, left the country...

    : Invented a better television remote control.
  • Udo Adelsberger: Invented the PTR Quartz clock
    Quartz clock
    A quartz clock is a clock that uses an electronic oscillator that is regulated by a quartz crystal to keep time. This crystal oscillator creates a signal with very precise frequency, so that quartz clocks are at least an order of magnitude more accurate than good mechanical clocks...

     among other things together with Adolf Scheibe.
  • Konrad Adenauer
    Konrad Adenauer
    Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer was a German statesman. He was the chancellor of the West Germany from 1949 to 1963. He is widely recognised as a person who led his country from the ruins of World War II to a powerful and prosperous nation that had forged close relations with old enemies France,...

    : Invented soya sausage (1916; "Kölner Wurst") and, together with Jean and Josef Oebel, [coarse] wholemeal bread (1917; Kölner Brot).
  • Alois Alzheimer
    Alois Alzheimer
    Aloysius "Alois" Alzheimer, was a German psychiatrist and neuropathologist and a colleague of Emil Kraepelin. Alzheimer is credited with identifying the first published case of "presenile dementia", which Kraepelin would later identify as Alzheimer's disease....

    : Psychiatrist who discovered Alzheimer´s disease, a degeneration of the brain in old age.
  • Manfred von Ardenne
    Manfred von Ardenne
    Manfred von Ardenne was a German research and applied physicist and inventor. He took out approximately 600 patents in fields including electron microscopy, medical technology, nuclear technology, plasma physics, and radio and television technology...

    : Self taught researcher, applied physicist and inventor. Inventor of television among other things. 600 patents in fields including electron microscopy, medical technology, nuclear technology, plasma physics, and radio and television technology.
  • Martin Leo Arons: Mercury-vapor lamp
    Mercury-vapor lamp
    A mercury-vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp that uses an electric arc through vaporized mercury to produce light. The arc discharge is generally confined to a small fused quartz arc tube mounted within a larger borosilicate glass bulb...

     together with Peter Cooper Hewitt.
  • Leopold Auerbach
    Leopold Auerbach
    Leopold Auerbach was a German anatomist and neuropathologist born in Breslau.Auerbach studied Medicine at the University of Breslau, the University of Berlin and the University of Leipzig. He became a doctor in 1850...

    : Discovery of Plexus myentericus Auerbachi, or Auerbach's plexus.
  • Max Abraham
    Max Abraham
    Max Abraham was a German physicist.Abraham was born in Danzig, Imperial Germany to a family of Jewish merchants. His father was Moritz Abraham and his mother was Selma Moritzsohn. Attending the University of Berlin, he studied under Max Planck. He graduated in 1897...

    : Physicist. Worked as Max Planck's assistant for three years. Developed theories on electrons.


  • Karl Ernst von Baer
    Karl Ernst von Baer
    Karl Ernst Ritter von Baer, Edler von Huthorn also known in Russia as Karl Maksimovich Baer was an Estonian naturalist, biologist, geologist, meteorologist, geographer, a founding father of embryology, explorer of European Russia and Scandinavia, a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, a...

    : Discovered mammal ovum.
  • Oscar Barnack: The father of the first mass marketed 35mm camera and Leica
    Leica Camera AG, a German optics company, produces Leica cameras. The predecessor of the company, formerly known as Ernst Leitz GmbH, is now three companies: Leica Camera AG, Leica Geosystems AG, and Leica Microsystems AG, producing cameras, geosurvey equipment, and microscopes, respectively...

  • Wilhelm Bauer
    Wilhelm Bauer
    Wilhelm Bauer was the German inventor and engineer, who built several hand-powered submarines.-Biography:...

    : Inventor and engineer, who built several hand-powered submarines.
  • Hans Beck
    Hans Beck
    Hans Beck was the German inventor of the toy Playmobil. He is thus often called "The Father of Playmobil."...

    : Inventor of the toy Playmobil
    Playmobil is a line of toys produced by the Brandstätter Group , headquartered in Zirndorf, Germany.New products and product lines developed by a 50-strong development team are frequently introduced by Brandstätter. Some of these, such as promotional products, are only produced in limited quantities...

  • Martin Behaim
    Martin Behaim
    Martin Behaim , was a German mariner, artist, cosmographer, astronomer, philosopher, geographer and explorer in service to the King of Portugal.-Biography:The Behaim family had immigrated to Nuremberg because of religious persecution around...

    : Inventor of the first globe of the world (Erdapfel
    The Erdapfel produced by Martin Behaim in 1492 is considered to be the oldest surviving terrestrial globe. It is constructed of a laminated linen ball in two halves, reinforced with wood and overlaid with a map painted by Georg Glockendon....

  • Hans Bethe
    Hans Bethe
    Hans Albrecht Bethe was a German-American nuclear physicist, and Nobel laureate in physics for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis. A versatile theoretical physicist, Bethe also made important contributions to quantum electrodynamics, nuclear physics, solid-state physics and...

    : Nuclear physicist and Nobel laureate in physics
  • Emil Adolf von Behring
    Emil Adolf von Behring
    Emil Adolf von Behring was a German physiologist who received the 1901 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, the first one so awarded.-Biography:...

    : Discovered the diphtheria antitoxin. It was the world's first cure for a disease (1891). He was awarded history's first Nobel Prize in Physiology of Medicine in 1901.
  • Melitta Bentz
    Melitta Bentz
    Amalie Auguste Melitta Bentz , born Amalie Auguste Melitta Liebscher, was a German entrepreneur, who invented the coffee filter in 1908.-Biography:Bentz was born in Dresden, Germany...

    : Inventor of the coffee filter, 1908.
  • Karl Benz
    Karl Benz
    Karl Friedrich Benz, was a German engine designer and car engineer, generally regarded as the inventor of the gasoline-powered car, and together with Bertha Benz pioneering founder of the automobile manufacturer Mercedes-Benz...

    : Father and inventor of the gasoline-powered automobile, 1885, and pioneering founder of automobile manufacturing.

  • Johann Elert Bode
    Johann Elert Bode
    Johann Elert Bode was a German astronomer known for his reformulation and popularization of the Titius-Bode law. Bode determined the orbit of Uranus and suggested the planet's name.-Biography:...

     Discovered the Titus-Bode Law
  • Carl Bosch
    Carl Bosch
    Carl Bosch was a German chemist and engineer and Nobel laureate in chemistry. He was a pioneer in the field of high-pressure industrial chemistry and founder of IG Farben, at one point the world's largest chemical company....

    : Chemist and Nobel laureate, discovered the processes of industrial high pressure chemistry.
  • Robert Bosch
    Robert Bosch
    Robert Bosch was a German industrialist, engineer and inventor, founder of Robert Bosch GmbH.-Biography:...

    : He invented, engineered and launched various innovations for the motor vehicle.
  • Karlheinz Brandenburg
    Karlheinz Brandenburg
    Karlheinz Brandenburg is an audio engineer who has contributed to the audio compression format MPEG Audio Layer 3, more commonly known as MP3.- Biography :...

    : Inventor and audio engineer; father of audio compression format MPEG Audio Layer 3, more commonly known as MP3.
  • Wernher von Braun
    Wernher von Braun
    Wernher Magnus Maximilian, Freiherr von Braun was a German rocket scientist, aerospace engineer, space architect, and one of the leading figures in the development of rocket technology in Nazi Germany during World War II and in the United States after that.A former member of the Nazi party,...

    : The preeminent rocket engineer of the 20th century. Developed the V2 rocket for Germany. Built Saturn V rocket in USA which put man on the moon.
  • Carl Friedrich Bückling: Inventor of the first German steam-powered machine.
  • Robert Bunsen
    Robert Bunsen
    Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen was a German chemist. He investigated emission spectra of heated elements, and discovered caesium and rubidium with Gustav Kirchhoff. Bunsen developed several gas-analytical methods, was a pioneer in photochemistry, and did early work in the field of organoarsenic...

    : Chemist who developed the Bunsen burner
    Bunsen burner
    A Bunsen burner, named after Robert Bunsen, is a common piece of laboratory equipment that produces a single open gas flame, which is used for heating, sterilization, and combustion.- Operation:...

    , and with Gustav Kirchhoff
    Gustav Kirchhoff
    Gustav Robert Kirchhoff was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects...

     he discovered caesium (1860) and rubidium (1861).
  • Wilhelm Busch
    Wilhelm Busch
    Wilhelm Busch was an influential German caricaturist, painter, and poet who is famed for his satirical picture stories with rhymed texts....

    : Caricaturist, painter and poet; father of comics.
  • Walther Bothe
    Walther Bothe
    Walther Wilhelm Georg Bothe was a German nuclear physicist, who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1954 with Max Born....

    : nuclear physicist, who shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1954 with Max Born.


  • Georg Cantor
    Georg Cantor
    Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor was a German mathematician, best known as the inventor of set theory, which has become a fundamental theory in mathematics. Cantor established the importance of one-to-one correspondence between the members of two sets, defined infinite and well-ordered sets,...

    : Mathematician, discoverer of the set theory
    Set theory
    Set theory is the branch of mathematics that studies sets, which are collections of objects. Although any type of object can be collected into a set, set theory is applied most often to objects that are relevant to mathematics...

     (1870s), which has become a fundamental theory in mathematics.
  • Carl von Clausewitz
    Carl von Clausewitz
    Carl Philipp Gottfried von Clausewitz was a Prussian soldier and German military theorist who stressed the moral and political aspects of war...

    : The father of modern military theory.
  • Claus-Frenz Claussen
    Claus-Frenz Claussen
    Claus-Frenz Claussen, is a German ENT-Medician and University teacher, author, editor, artist and inventor...

    : Robot-Auto for seniors "Auto-Cyberno-Mobil“ around 2007.
  • Justus Claproth
    Justus Claproth
    Justus Claproth was a German jurist and inventor of the deinking process of recycled paper....

    : Jurist and inventor of recyclable Paper and deinking
    Deinking is the industrial process of removing printing ink from paperfibers of recycled paper to make deinked pulp.The key in the deinking process is the ability to detach ink from the fibers. This is achieved by a combination of mechanical action and chemical means. In Europe the most common...

  • Heinrich Clobes: Engineer who invented first mechanical street sweeper, patented 1909.
  • Manfred Curry
    Manfred Curry
    Manfred Curry was a German born American scientist, physician, inventor, sailor and author. Born in Munich, Germany to American parents.An accomplished olympic yachtsman he sailed more than 1400 regattas many of which he won...

    : Curryklemme for Sheet (sailing)
    Sheet (sailing)
    In sailing, a sheet is a line used to control the movable corner of a sail.- Fore-and-aft rigs:Fore-and-aft rigs comprise the vast majority of sailing vessels in use today, including effectively all dinghies and yachts. The sheet on a fore-and-aft sail controls the angle of the sail to the wind,...

     and sailboats, discoverer of the pseudoscientific phenomenon of "geomagnetic lines" called the Curry Grid.


  • Gottlieb Daimler
    Gottlieb Daimler
    Gottlieb Daimler was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist born in Schorndorf , in what is now Germany. He was a pioneer of internal-combustion engines and automobile development...

    : He invented the first high-speed petrol engine and the first four-wheel automobile, also the first internal combustion motorcycle, the Reitwagen
    Daimler Reitwagen
    The Daimler Reitwagen or Einspur was a motor vehicle made by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in 1885, and is widely recognized as the first motorcycle. Daimler is often called "the father of the motorcycle" for this invention...

  • Adolf "Adi" Dassler
    Adolf Dassler
    Adolf "Adi" Dassler was the founder of the German sportswear company Adidas....

    : Sports shoes with and without spikes. (Adidas
    Adidas AG is a German sports apparel manufacturer and parent company of the Adidas Group, which consists of the Reebok sportswear company, TaylorMade-Adidas golf company , and Rockport...

  • Rudolf Dassler
    Rudolf Dassler
    Rudolf Dassler was the German founder of the sportswear company PUMA and the older brother of Adidas founder, Adolf "Adi" Dassler. The brothers were partners in a shoe company Adi started, Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik...

    : First sport shoes with screw-in shoe spikes, 1949. (Puma
    Puma SE, officially branded as PUMA, is a major German multinational company that produces high-end athletic shoes, lifestyle footwear and other sportswear. Formed in 1924 as Gebrüder Dassler Schuhfabrik by Adolf and Rudolf Dassler, relationships between the two brothers deteriorated until the two...

  • Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach
    Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach
    Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach was a German surgeon who specialized in skin transplantation and plastic surgery. His work in rhinoplastic and maxillofacial surgery established many modern techniques of reconstructive surgery. He endeavours comprehended subcutaneous operations such as tenotomy, the...

    : Pioneer of skin transplantation and cosmetic surgery.
  • Rudolf Diesel
    Rudolf Diesel
    Rudolf Christian Karl Diesel was a German inventor and mechanical engineer, famous for the invention of the diesel engine.-Early life:Diesel was born in Paris, France in 1858 the second of three children of Theodor and Elise Diesel. His parents were Bavarian immigrants living in Paris. Theodor...

    : Inventor of the diesel engine
    Diesel engine
    A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

  • Christian Doppler
    Christian Doppler
    Christian Andreas Doppler was an Austrian mathematician and physicist.-Life and work:Christian Doppler was raised in Salzburg, Austria, the son of a stonemason. Doppler could not work in his father's business because of his generally weak physical condition...

    : Discovered the Doppler effect
    Doppler effect
    The Doppler effect , named after Austrian physicist Christian Doppler who proposed it in 1842 in Prague, is the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave. It is commonly heard when a vehicle sounding a siren or horn approaches, passes, and recedes from...

  • Walter Robert Dornberger: Co-inventor of the V2 rocket.
  • Karl Drais
    Karl Drais
    Karl Drais was a German inventor and invented the Laufmaschine , also later called the velocipede, draisine or "draisienne" , also nicknamed the dandy horse. This incorporated the two-wheeler principle that is basic to the bicycle and motorcycle and was the beginning of mechanized personal...

    : Inventor of the bicycle and typewriter (1821) among other things.
  • Peter Ferdinand Drucker: Invented the science of modern management.


  • Paul Ehrlich
    Paul Ehrlich
    Paul Ehrlich was a German scientist in the fields of hematology, immunology, and chemotherapy, and Nobel laureate. He is noted for curing syphilis and for his research in autoimmunity, calling it "horror autotoxicus"...

    : Scientist in the fields of hematology, immunology, and chemotherapy, and Nobel laureate. Developed an effective treatment against syphilis.
  • Albert Einstein
    Albert Einstein
    Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics and one of the most prolific intellects in human history...

    : Godfather of Theoretical Physics, inventor and discoverer.


  • Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit: Physicist and engineer who invented the alcohol thermometer
    Alcohol thermometer
    The Alcohol thermometer or spirit thermometer is an alternative to the mercury-in-glass thermometer, and functions in a similar way. But unlike mercury-in-glass thermometer, the contents of an alcohol thermometer are less toxic and will evaporate away fairly quickly...

     (1709), the mercury thermometer (1714), and a temperature scale now named after him
    Fahrenheit is the temperature scale proposed in 1724 by, and named after, the German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit . Within this scale, the freezing of water into ice is defined at 32 degrees, while the boiling point of water is defined to be 212 degrees...

  • Hermann Emil Fischer
    Hermann Emil Fischer
    Hermann Emil Fischer, Emil Fischer was a German chemist and 1902 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. He discovered the Fischer esterification. He developed the Fischer projection, a symbolic way of drawing asymmetric carbon atoms.-Early years:Fischer was born in Euskirchen, near Cologne,...

    : Discoveries in chemistry.
  • Joseph von Fraunhofer
    Joseph von Fraunhofer
    Joseph von Fraunhofer was a German optician. He is known for the discovery of the dark absorption lines known as Fraunhofer lines in the Sun's spectrum, and for making excellent optical glass and achromatic telescope objectives.-Biography:Fraunhofer was born in Straubing, Bavaria...

    : Discovery of the dark absorption lines known as Fraunhofer lines in the Sun's spectrum, and for making excellent optical glass and achromatic telescope objectives.
  • Nikolaus Friedreich
    Nikolaus Friedreich
    Nikolaus Friedreich was a German pathologist and neurologist, and a third generation physician in the Friedreich family...

    : Discovery of Friedreich-Auerbach disease (together with Leopold Auerbach) among other things.

  • Klaus Fuchs
    Klaus Fuchs
    Klaus Emil Julius Fuchs was a German theoretical physicist and atomic spy who in 1950 was convicted of supplying information from the American, British and Canadian atomic bomb research to the USSR during and shortly after World War II...

    : Theoretical physicist


  • Brothers Grimm
    Brothers Grimm
    The Brothers Grimm , Jacob Grimm and Wilhelm Grimm , were German academics, linguists, cultural researchers, and authors who collected folklore and published several collections of it as Grimm's Fairy Tales, which became very popular...

    : Academic pioneers of linguistics
    Linguistics is the scientific study of human language. Linguistics can be broadly broken into three categories or subfields of study: language form, language meaning, and language in context....

     and storytelling; Grimm's law
    Grimm's law
    Grimm's law , named for Jacob Grimm, is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European stops as they developed in Proto-Germanic in the 1st millennium BC...

  • Johann Carl Friedrich Gauß
    Carl Friedrich Gauss
    Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss was a German mathematician and scientist who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, geophysics, electrostatics, astronomy and optics.Sometimes referred to as the Princeps mathematicorum...

    : Inventor of the first electromagnetic telegraph; discoverer of many things in mathematics and physics, known as "the Prince of Mathematicians".
  • Walter Gerlach
    Walter Gerlach
    Walter Gerlach was a German physicist who co-discovered spin quantization in a magnetic field, the Stern-Gerlach effect.-Education:Gerlach was born in Biebrich, Hessen-Nassau....

    : Physicist who co-discovered spin quantization in a magnetic field, the Stern-Gerlach effect.
  • Heinrich Göbel
    Heinrich Göbel
    Heinrich Göbel, later Henry Goebel , born in Springe, Germany, was a precision mechanic. He emigrated in 1848 to New York City and lived there until his death. In 1865 he changed his nationality....

    : Inventor of the first light bulb in 1854.
  • Kurt Gödel
    Kurt Gödel
    Kurt Friedrich Gödel was an Austrian logician, mathematician and philosopher. Later in his life he emigrated to the United States to escape the effects of World War II. One of the most significant logicians of all time, Gödel made an immense impact upon scientific and philosophical thinking in the...

    : Important discoveries in math and logic, such as the incompleteness theorems
  • Peter Carl Goldmark
    Peter Carl Goldmark
    Peter Carl Goldmark was a German-Hungarian engineer who, during his time with Columbia Records, was instrumental in developing the long-playing microgroove 33-1/3 rpm vinyl phonograph disc, the standard for incorporating multiple or lengthy recorded works on a single disc for two generations...

    : Engineer who was instrumental in developing the long-playing (LP) microgroove 33-1/3 rpm vinyl phonograph disc.
  • Heinz Guderian
    Heinz Guderian
    Heinz Wilhelm Guderian was a German general during World War II. He was a pioneer in the development of armored warfare, and was the leading proponent of tanks and mechanization in the Wehrmacht . Germany's panzer forces were raised and organized under his direction as Chief of Mobile Forces...

    : The father of modern mechanized warfare.
  • Otto von Guericke
    Otto von Guericke
    Otto von Guericke was a German scientist, inventor, and politician...

    : Discovered vacuum pump.
  • Johannes Gutenberg: Inventor of the technology of printing with movable type.


  • Fritz Haber
    Fritz Haber
    Fritz Haber was a German chemist, who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1918 for his development for synthesizing ammonia, important for fertilizers and explosives. Haber, along with Max Born, proposed the Born–Haber cycle as a method for evaluating the lattice energy of an ionic solid...

    :German chemist and Nobel laureate who pioneered synthetic ammonia and chemical warfare.
  • Otto Hahn
    Otto Hahn
    Otto Hahn FRS was a German chemist and Nobel laureate, a pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry. He is regarded as "the father of nuclear chemistry". Hahn was a courageous opposer of Jewish persecution by the Nazis and after World War II he became a passionate campaigner...

    : German chemist and Nobel laureate who pioneered the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry. "The father of nuclear chemistry" and the "founder of the atomic age". Discovered nuclear fission.
  • Henry J. Heinz
    Henry J. Heinz
    Henry John Heinz was an American businessman who founded the H. J. Heinz Company.-Early life:Heinz was one of eight children born to John Henry Heinz and Anna Margaretha Heinz...

    : Tomato ketchup and fifty six other things.
  • Werner Heisenberg
    Werner Heisenberg
    Werner Karl Heisenberg was a German theoretical physicist who made foundational contributions to quantum mechanics and is best known for asserting the uncertainty principle of quantum theory...

    : Theoretical physicist who made fundamental contributions to quantum mechanics. Discovered a particle's position and velocity cannot be known at the same time. Discovered atomic nuclei are made of protons and neutrons.
  • Rudolf Hell
    Rudolf Hell
    Rudolf Hell was a German inventor. He was born in Eggmühl, Germany.From 1919 to 1923 he studied electrical engineering in Munich....

    : Inventor of the first fax machine (Hellschreiber
    The Hellschreiber or Feldhellschreiber is a facsimile-based teleprinter invented by Rudolf Hell. Compared to contemporary teleprinters that were based on typewriter systems, the Hellschreiber was much simpler and more robust, with only two moving parts...

  • Richard Hellmann
    Hellmann's and Best Foods
    Hellmann's and Best Foods are brand names that are used for the same line of mayonnaise and other food products. The Hellmann's brand is sold in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains, and also in Latin America, Europe, Middle East and Canada...

    : Hellmann's (Blue Ribbon) Mayonnaise, 1905.

  • Hermann von Helmholtz
    Hermann von Helmholtz
    Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz was a German physician and physicist who made significant contributions to several widely varied areas of modern science...

    : Discovered the principal of the conservation of energy.
  • Peter Henlein
    Peter Henlein
    Peter Henlein , a locksmith and watchmaker from Nuremberg, is often considered the inventor of the portable timekeeper, making him the inventor of the watch, but this claim is disputed...

    : Inventor of the watch.
  • Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel: Discovered infrared radiation among other things.
  • Heinrich Hertz: Physicist, Discoverer of electromagnetic/radio waves.
  • Victor Francis Hess
    Victor Francis Hess
    Victor Francis Hess was an Austrian-American physicist, and Nobel laureate in physics, who discovered cosmic rays.-Early years:...

    : Discovered Cosmic rays. Also won the Nobel Prize
    Nobel Prize
    The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...

  • David Hilbert
    David Hilbert
    David Hilbert was a German mathematician. He is recognized as one of the most influential and universal mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries. Hilbert discovered and developed a broad range of fundamental ideas in many areas, including invariant theory and the axiomatization of...

    : Influential Mathematician, discovered and developed a broad range of fundamental ideas in math.
  • Albert Hoffman
    Albert Hoffman
    Albert Hoffman may refer to:*Albert Hoffman , American artist*Albert Hoffmann , German politician and Nazi Gauleiter*Albert Hoffmann , German rosarian...

    : Discovered the chemical properties of chitin
    Chitin n is a long-chain polymer of a N-acetylglucosamine, a derivative of glucose, and is found in many places throughout the natural world...

     and lysergic acid diethylamide.
  • Felix Hoffmann
    Felix Hoffmann
    Felix Hoffmann was a German chemist, credited for the first synthesized medically useful forms of heroin and aspirin, though some sources maintain that Arthur Eichengrün was the real creator of the latter. Hoffmann was born in Ludwigsburg and studied Chemistry in Munich...

    : Aspirin (Bayer), 1897.
  • Gottlob Honold
    Gottlob Honold
    thumb|220px|Gottlob Honold 1910Gottlob Honold was the leading engineer in the workshop of Robert Bosch and, with Bosch, was the inventor of the spark plug and the modern internal combustion engine, as well as headlights...

    : Inventor of the spark plug and the modern internal combustion engine, as well as headlights.
  • Christian Huelsmeyer: Inventor of Radar.
  • Alexander von Humboldt
    Alexander von Humboldt
    Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander Freiherr von Humboldt was a German naturalist and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt...

    : Naturalist and explorer. His quantitative work on botanical geography was foundational to the field of biogeography.
  • Wilhelm von Humboldt
    Wilhelm von Humboldt
    Friedrich Wilhelm Christian Karl Ferdinand Freiherr von Humboldt was a German philosopher, government functionary, diplomat, and founder of Humboldt Universität. He is especially remembered as a linguist who made important contributions to the philosophy of language and to the theory and practice...

    : Originator of the linguistic relativity
    Linguistic relativity
    The principle of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects the ways in which its speakers are able to conceptualize their world, i.e. their world view...



  • Otmar Issing
    Otmar Issing
    Otmar Issing is a German economist, presintent of the Center for Financial Studies and former member of the board of the Deutsche Bundesbank and of the Executive Board of the European Central Bank . He is advisor for Goldman Sachs...

    : Economist who invented the "pepet pillar" decision algorithm now used by the ECB
    European Central Bank
    The European Central Bank is the institution of the European Union that administers the monetary policy of the 17 EU Eurozone member states. It is thus one of the world's most important central banks. The bank was established by the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1998, and is headquartered in Frankfurt,...



  • Hugo Junkers
    Hugo Junkers
    Hugo Junkers was an innovative German engineer, as his many patents in varied areas show...

    : Pioneer of all-metal aircraft construction with the Junkers J 1
    Junkers J 1
    The Junkers J 1, nicknamed the Blechesel , was the world's first practical all-metal aircraft. Built early in World War I, when aircraft designers relied largely on fabric-covered wooden structures, the Junkers J 1 was a revolutionary development in aircraft design, being built and flown only 12...



  • Donald J. Kessler
    Donald J. Kessler
    Donald J. Kessler is an American astrophysicist and former NASA scientist known for his studies regarding space debris.Kessler worked at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, as part of NASA's Environmental Effects Project Office...

     - Astrophysicist, known for developing the Kessler syndrome
    Kessler syndrome
    The Kessler syndrome , proposed by NASA scientist Donald J...

  • Johannes Kepler
    Johannes Kepler
    Johannes Kepler was a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. A key figure in the 17th century scientific revolution, he is best known for his eponymous laws of planetary motion, codified by later astronomers, based on his works Astronomia nova, Harmonices Mundi, and Epitome of Copernican...

    : Discovered the laws of planetary motion.
  • Erhard Kietz
    Erhard Kietz
    thumb|Erhard KietzDr. Erhard Karl Kietz was a German-born physicist, who researched frequency constancy of video signals.-Life:...

    : Pioneer discoverer of video technology.
  • Gustav Kirchhoff
    Gustav Kirchhoff
    Gustav Robert Kirchhoff was a German physicist who contributed to the fundamental understanding of electrical circuits, spectroscopy, and the emission of black-body radiation by heated objects...

    : Discovery of the principles upon which spectrum analysis
    Spectrum analysis
    Spectrum, also known as emission spectrochemical analysis, is the original scientific method of charting and analyzing the chemical properties of matter and gases by looking at the bands in their optical spectrum...

     is founded.
  • Martin Heinrich Klaproth
    Martin Heinrich Klaproth
    Martin Heinrich Klaproth was a German chemist.Klaproth was born in Wernigerode. During a large portion of his life he followed the profession of an apothecary...

    : Discovered the element Uranium
    Uranium is a silvery-white metallic chemical element in the actinide series of the periodic table, with atomic number 92. It is assigned the chemical symbol U. A uranium atom has 92 protons and 92 electrons, of which 6 are valence electrons...

  • Robert Koch
    Robert Koch
    Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch was a German physician. He became famous for isolating Bacillus anthracis , the Tuberculosis bacillus and the Vibrio cholerae and for his development of Koch's postulates....

    : Physician, discoverer, inventor and Nobel Prize winner. He became famous for isolating Bacillus anthracis (1877), the Tuberculosis bacillus (1882) and the Vibrio cholera (1883) and for his development of Koch's postulates.
  • Arthur Korn
    Arthur Korn
    Arthur Korn was a German-born physicist, mathematician and inventor, who was of Jewish ancestry...

    : Inventor involved in development of the fax machine, specifically the transmission of photographs or telephotography, known as the Bildetelegraph.
  • Julius H. Kroehl
    Julius H. Kroehl
    Julius Hermann Kröhl was a German-born American inventor and engineer. He built the submarine, Sub Marine Explorer, technically advanced for its era, but destined to failure, because of decompression sickness, which may not have been well understood at that time by Kroehl and others...

    : Inventor and engineer, who built the first functioning submarine in the world.
  • Alfred Krupp: Pioneer in metal casting and metal working process and procedures.


  • Eugen Langen
    Eugen Langen
    Eugen Langen was a German entrepreneur, engineer and inventor, involved in the development of the petrol engine and the Wuppertal monorail. In 1857 he worked in his father's sugar factory, JJ Langen & Söhne, after an extensive technical training at the Polytechnic institute in Karlsruhe.-Otto and...

    : Entrepreneur, engineer and inventor, involved in the development of the petrol engine and the Wuppertal monorail.
  • Max von Laue
    Max von Laue
    Max Theodor Felix von Laue was a German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914 for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals...

    : Discoveries regarding the diffraction of X-rays in crystals.
  • Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz: Philosopher known for discovering the mathematical field of calculus and coherently laying down its basic operations in 1684.
  • Justus von Liebig
    Justus von Liebig
    Justus von Liebig was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and worked on the organization of organic chemistry. As a professor, he devised the modern laboratory-oriented teaching method, and for such innovations, he is regarded as one of the...

    : Discoveries in chemistry.
  • Otto Lilienthal
    Otto Lilienthal
    Otto Lilienthal was a German pioneer of human aviation who became known as the Glider King. He was the first person to make well-documented, repeated, successful gliding flights. He followed an experimental approach established earlier by Sir George Cayley...

    : Father of Aviation and first successful aviator. Main discovery was the properties and shape of the wing
    A wing is an appendage with a surface that produces lift for flight or propulsion through the atmosphere, or through another gaseous or liquid fluid...



  • Ernst Mach
    Ernst Mach
    Ernst Mach was an Austrian physicist and philosopher, noted for his contributions to physics such as the Mach number and the study of shock waves...

    : Discovered many effects of high speed projectiles; the Mach number
    Mach number
    Mach number is the speed of an object moving through air, or any other fluid substance, divided by the speed of sound as it is in that substance for its particular physical conditions, including those of temperature and pressure...

     is dedicated to his memory.
  • Georg Hans Madelung
    Georg Hans Madelung
    Georg Hans Madelung was a German academic and aeronautical engineer.Madelung studied at a several German Technical Universities before his service as a pilot in the First World War. After the war he lectured and worked in Germany and the United States, working on a number of significant...

    : Academic and aeronautical engineer; a participant in the development of the Junkers F.13
    Junkers F.13
    The Junkers F.13 was the world's first all-metal transport aircraft, developed in Germany at the end of World War I. It was an advanced cantilever-wing monoplane, with enclosed accommodation for four passengers. Over 300 were sold...

  • Karl Marx
    Karl Marx
    Karl Heinrich Marx was a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, historian, journalist, and revolutionary socialist. His ideas played a significant role in the development of social science and the socialist political movement...

    : Political economist and philosopher, who discovered the mechanics of Marxism
    Marxism is an economic and sociopolitical worldview and method of socioeconomic inquiry that centers upon a materialist interpretation of history, a dialectical view of social change, and an analysis and critique of the development of capitalism. Marxism was pioneered in the early to mid 19th...

     and whose ideas influence the world we now live in.
  • Wilhelm Maybach
    Wilhelm Maybach
    Wilhelm Maybach was an early German engine designer and industrialist. During the 1890s he was hailed in France, then the world centre for car production, as the "King of constructors"....

    : Together with Gottlieb Daimler the first gasoline-powered motorcycle, power-engined boat and later, 1902, the Mercedes car model.
  • Ottomar von Mayenburg: Inventor of "Chlorodont", the first commercial brand of toothpaste.
  • Lise Meitner
    Lise Meitner
    Lise Meitner FRS was an Austrian-born, later Swedish, physicist who worked on radioactivity and nuclear physics. Meitner was part of the team that discovered nuclear fission, an achievement for which her colleague Otto Hahn was awarded the Nobel Prize...

    : Nuclear physicist, who, together with Otto Hahn
    Otto Hahn
    Otto Hahn FRS was a German chemist and Nobel laureate, a pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry. He is regarded as "the father of nuclear chemistry". Hahn was a courageous opposer of Jewish persecution by the Nazis and after World War II he became a passionate campaigner...

    , provided a theoretical account of nuclear fission.
  • Gregor Mendel
    Gregor Mendel
    Gregor Johann Mendel was an Austrian scientist and Augustinian friar who gained posthumous fame as the founder of the new science of genetics. Mendel demonstrated that the inheritance of certain traits in pea plants follows particular patterns, now referred to as the laws of Mendelian inheritance...

    : Discoveries in genetics.
  • Johannes Peter Müller
    Johannes Peter Müller
    Johannes Peter Müller , was a German physiologist, comparative anatomist, and ichthyologist not only known for his discoveries but also for his ability to synthesize knowledge.-Early years and education:...

    : Discoveries in physiology.


  • Thomas Nast
    Thomas Nast
    Thomas Nast was a German-born American caricaturist and editorial cartoonist who is considered to be the "Father of the American Cartoon". He was the scourge of Boss Tweed and the Tammany Hall machine...

    : "Father of the American Cartoon".
  • Walther Nernst
    Walther Nernst
    Walther Hermann Nernst FRS was a German physical chemist and physicist who is known for his theories behind the calculation of chemical affinity as embodied in the third law of thermodynamics, for which he won the 1920 Nobel Prize in chemistry...

    : Inventor of the Nernst lamp
    Nernst lamp
    Nernst lamps were an early form of electrically powered incandescent lamps. Nernst lamps did not use a glowing tungsten filament. Instead, they used a ceramic rod that was heated to incandescence...

     and Nobel laureate.
  • Karl Nessler
    Karl Nessler
    Karl Ludwig Nessler was the inventor of the permanent wave....

    : Inventor of the permanent wave
    Permanent wave
    A permanent wave, commonly called a perm, involves the use of chemicals to break and reform the bonds of the hair. The hair is washed and wrapped on a perm rod and waving lotion is applied with a base. This solution creates a chemical reaction that softens the inner structure of the hair by...



  • Hermann Oberth
    Hermann Oberth
    Hermann Julius Oberth was an Austro-Hungarian-born German physicist and engineer. He is considered one of the founding fathers of rocketry and astronautics.- Early life :...

    : Pioneer of rocket science and discoverer of the Oberth effect
    Oberth effect
    In astronautics, the Oberth effect is where the use of a rocket engine when travelling at high speed generates much more useful energy than one at low speed...

  • Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain
    Hans von Ohain
    Hans Joachim Pabst von Ohain was a German engineer, one of the inventors of jet propulsion.Frank Whittle, who patented in 1930 in the United Kingdom, and Hans von Ohain, who patented in 1936 in Germany, developed the concept independently during the late 1930s...

    : The modern jet engine in 1933, patented in 1936.
  • Nikolaus August Otto: Inventor of the first internal-combustion engine to efficiently burn fuel directly in a piston chamber.


  • Max Planck
    Max Planck
    Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck, ForMemRS, was a German physicist who actualized the quantum physics, initiating a revolution in natural science and philosophy. He is regarded as the founder of the quantum theory, for which he received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918.-Life and career:Planck came...

    : Physicist, Scientist. He is considered to be the founder of the quantum theory, and one of the most important physicists of the twentieth century.
  • Robert Wichard Pohl
    Robert Pohl
    Robert Wichard Pohl was a German physicist.In 1938 Robert Pohl and Rudolf Hilsch, from the University of Göttingen, built the first functioning solid-state amplifier using salt as the semiconductor ....

    : In 1938, together with Rudolf Hilsch, built first functioning solid-state amplifier using salt as the semiconductor.


  • Johann Philipp Reis
    Johann Philipp Reis
    Johann Philipp Reis was a self-taught German scientist and inventor. In 1861, he constructed the first make-and-break telephone, today called the Reis telephone.- Early life and education :...

    : Inventor of the first phone transmitter in 1861, he also invented the term Telephone.
  • Ralf Reski
    Ralf Reski
    Ralf Reski is a German Professor of Plant Biotechnology and former Dean of the Faculty of Biology of the University of Freiburg...

    : Moss bioreactor
    Moss bioreactor
    thumb|350px|Moss bioreactor with [[Physcomitrella patens]]A moss bioreactor is a photobioreactor used for the cultivation and propagation of mosses...


  • Paul Julius Freiherr von Reuter
    Paul Reuter
    Paul Julius Freiherr von Reuter was a German entrepreneur and later naturalized British citizen...

    : Communications pioneer.
  • Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
    Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen
    Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen was a German physicist, who, on 8 November 1895, produced and detected electromagnetic radiation in a wavelength range today known as X-rays or Röntgen rays, an achievement that earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901....

    : Physicist and discoverer of x-rays/Röntgen rays (8 November 1895), this earned him the first Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.
  • Fritz Reiche
    Fritz Reiche
    Fritz Reiche was a student of Max Planck and a colleague of Albert Einstein,who was active in, and made important contributions to the early development of quantum mechanics including co-authoring the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule....

    : was a student of Max Planck and a colleague of Albert Einstein,who was active in, and made important contributions to the early development of quantum mechanics including co-authoring the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule


  • Hans Sauer: Inventor of miniature high power relays; 309 patents worldwide in relay conceptions.
  • Adolf Scheibe: Invented the PTR Quartz clock
    Quartz clock
    A quartz clock is a clock that uses an electronic oscillator that is regulated by a quartz crystal to keep time. This crystal oscillator creates a signal with very precise frequency, so that quartz clocks are at least an order of magnitude more accurate than good mechanical clocks...

     (1930) among other things together with Udo Adelsberger.
  • Heinrich Schliemann
    Heinrich Schliemann
    Heinrich Schliemann was a German businessman and amateur archaeologist, and an advocate of the historical reality of places mentioned in the works of Homer. Schliemann was an archaeological excavator of Troy, along with the Mycenaean sites Mycenae and Tiryns...

    : Father of archaeology
    Archaeology, or archeology , is the study of human society, primarily through the recovery and analysis of the material culture and environmental data that they have left behind, which includes artifacts, architecture, biofacts and cultural landscapes...

    , among other things he discovered Homeric Troy
    Troy was a city, both factual and legendary, located in northwest Anatolia in what is now Turkey, southeast of the Dardanelles and beside Mount Ida...

  • Bernhard Schmidt
    Bernhard Schmidt
    Bernhard Woldemar Schmidt was a German optician. In 1930 he invented the Schmidt telescope which corrected for the optical errors of spherical aberration, coma, and astigmatism, making possible for the first time the construction of very large, wide-angled reflective cameras of short exposure time...

    : Discovered major improvements to the telescope.
  • Paul Schmidt (inventor): Developed since 1928 his idea of a new drive, the "pulsating incineration", also used in the V1-Rocket (engine was called "Argus-Schmidtrohr"); pulsejet was a development by Schmidt.
  • Johann Lukas Schönlein
    Johann Lukas Schönlein
    Johann Lukas Schönlein was a German naturalist, and professor of medicine, born in Bamberg. He studied medicine at Landshut, Jena, Göttingen, and Würzburg...

    : Professor of medicine, he discovered among other things the parasitic cause of ringworm or favus (Achorion Schönleinii).
  • Marx Schwab: Silversmith, invented coining with the screw press around 1550.
  • Theodor Schwann
    Theodor Schwann
    Theodor Schwann was a German physiologist. His many contributions to biology include the development of cell theory, the discovery of Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system, the discovery and study of pepsin, the discovery of the organic nature of yeast, and the invention of the term...

    : Discovery of properties of cells in animals.
  • Werner Sell: (Georg Robert Werner Sell) invented airplane kitchens, fitted kitchens and the prefabricated house among other things.
  • Friedrich Sertürner
    Friedrich Sertürner
    Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Sertürner was a German pharmacist, who discovered morphine in 1804.-Biography:He was born on 19 June 1783 in Neuhaus ....

    : First to isolate morphine
    Morphine is a potent opiate analgesic medication and is considered to be the prototypical opioid. It was first isolated in 1804 by Friedrich Sertürner, first distributed by same in 1817, and first commercially sold by Merck in 1827, which at the time was a single small chemists' shop. It was more...

     from the opium poppy
    Opium poppy
    Opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, is the species of plant from which opium and poppy seeds are extracted. Opium is the source of many opiates, including morphine , thebaine, codeine, papaverine, and noscapine...

    , discovering morphine.
  • Ernst Werner von Siemens
    Ernst Werner von Siemens
    Ernst Werner Siemens, von Siemens since 1888, was a German inventor and industrialist. Siemens' name has been adopted as the SI unit of electrical conductance, the siemens...

    : Dynamo, pointer telegraph that used a needle to point to the right letter, first electric elevator, trolleybus.
  • Georg Wilhelm Steller
    Georg Wilhelm Steller
    Georg Wilhelm Steller was a German botanist, zoologist, physician and explorer, who worked in Russia and is considered the discoverer of Alaska and a pioneer of Alaskan natural history.-Biography:...

    : Discoverer of Alaska (1741) and pioneer of Alaskan Natural History.
  • Otto Stern
    Otto Stern
    Otto Stern was a German physicist and Nobel laureate in physics.-Biography:Stern was born in Sohrau, now Żory in the German Empire's Kingdom of Prussia and studied at Breslau, now Wrocław in Lower Silesia....

    : Nobel laureate; contributed to the discovery of spin quantization in the Stern-Gerlach experiment with Walther Gerlach in 1922.
  • Eduard Suess
    Eduard Suess
    Eduard Suess was a geologist who was an expert on the geography of the Alps. He is responsible for hypothesising two major former geographical features, the supercontinent Gondwana and the Tethys Ocean.Born in London to a Jewish Saxon merchant, when he was three his family relocated toPrague,...

    : Discoveries in geology.
  • Friedrich Albert Moritz Schlick
    Moritz Schlick
    Friedrich Albert Moritz Schlick was a German philosopher, physicist and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle.-Early life and works:...

    : was a German philosopher, physicist and the founding father of logical positivism and the Vienna Circle.
  • Walter H. Schottky
    Walter H. Schottky
    Walter Hermann Schottky was a German physicist who played a major early role in developing the theory of electron and ion emission phenomena, invented the screen-grid vacuum tube in 1915 and the pentode in 1919 while working at Siemens, and later made many significant contributions in the areas of...

    :played a major early role in developing the theory of electron and ion emission phenomena, invented the screen-grid vacuum tube and the pentode.


  • Dietrich "Diedrich" Uhlhorn: Engineer, mechanic and inventor, who invented the first mechanical tachometer (1817), between 1817 and 1830 inventor of the Presse Monétaire (level coin press known as Uhlhorn Press) which bears his name.


  • Abraham Vater
    Abraham Vater
    Abraham Vater was a German anatomist from Wittenberg. He received his doctorate in philosophy from the University of Wittenberg in 1706, and his medical degree from the University of Leipzig in 1710...

    : Ampulla of Vater.
  • Hans Vogt
    The Tri-Ergon sound-on-film system was patented from 1919 on by German inventors Josef Engl , Hans Vogt , and Joseph Massolle . The name Tri-Ergon was derived from Greek and means "the work of three." In 1926, William Fox of Fox Film Corporation purchased the U. S...

    : Invented sound-on-film (idea 1905) together with Jo Engl and Joseph Massolle, first sound-on-film for the public on 17 September 1922 in Filmtheater Alhambra , Berlin, Germany.
  • Woldemar Voigt
    Woldemar Voigt
    Woldemar Voigt was a German physicist, who taught at the Georg August University of Göttingen. Voigt eventually went on to head the Mathematical Physics Department at Göttingen and was succeeded in 1914 by Peter Debye, who took charge of the theoretical department of the Physical Institute...

    : Physicist, who taught at the Georg August University of Göttingen. He worked on crystal physics, thermodynamics and electro-optics. He discovered the Voigt effect in 1898.
  • Waldemar Voigt (aerospace engineer): Chief designer at Messerschmitt's
    Messerschmitt AG was a famous German aircraft manufacturing corporation named for its chief designer, Willy Messerschmitt, and known primarily for its World War II fighter aircraft, notably the Bf 109 and Me 262...

     Oberammergau offices and pioneer of the Me 163 and Me 264, project leader of the development of Me P. 1101, Me P. 1106, Me P. 1110, Me P. 1111 und Me P. 1116.


  • Hellmuth Walter
    Hellmuth Walter
    Hellmuth Walter was a German engineer who pioneered research into rocket engines and gas turbines...

    : Engineer who pioneered research into rocket engines and gas turbines.
  • Felix Wankel
    Felix Wankel
    Felix Heinrich Wankel was a German mechanical engineer and inventor after whom the Wankel engine was named. He is the only twentieth century engineer to have designed an internal combustion engine which went into production.-Early life:Wankel was born in Lahr, Baden, in the upper Rhine Valley...

    : Inventor of the Rotary Motor.
  • Max Weber
    Max Weber
    Karl Emil Maximilian "Max" Weber was a German sociologist and political economist who profoundly influenced social theory, social research, and the discipline of sociology itself...

    : Discovered the mass effects of capitalism and modernity.
  • Wilhelm Eduard Weber
    Wilhelm Eduard Weber
    Wilhelm Eduard Weber was a German physicist and, together with Carl Friedrich Gauss, inventor of the first electromagnetic telegraph.-Early years:...

    : Inventor of the first electromagnetic telegraph together with Carl Friedrich Gauss.
  • Gustav Weißkopf: Aviation pioneer - Worlds First Motorized Flight: August 14, 1901.
  • Clemens Alexander Winkler: Chemist who discovered the element germanium in 1886.
  • August Wöhler
    August Wöhler
    August Wöhler was a German engineer, best remembered for his systematic investigations of metal fatigue.Born in the town of Soltau, the son of local teacher Georg Heinrich Wöhler showed early mathematical ability and won a scholarship to study at the Technische Hochschule in Hannover, under the...

    : Investigated fatigue phenomena in the behavior of materials
  • Friedrich Wöhler
    Friedrich Wöhler
    Friedrich Wöhler was a German chemist, best known for his synthesis of urea, but also the first to isolate several chemical elements.-Biography:He was born in Eschersheim, which belonged to aau...

    : The first to synthesis urea
    Urea or carbamide is an organic compound with the chemical formula CO2. The molecule has two —NH2 groups joined by a carbonyl functional group....




  • Carl Zeiss
    Carl Zeiss
    Carl Zeiss was a German maker of optical instruments commonly known for the company he founded, Carl Zeiss Jena . Zeiss made contributions to lens manufacturing that have aided the modern production of lenses...

    : Pioneered glass casting and allied procedures and processes for high quality optics.
  • Ferdinand Graf von Zeppelin (1838–1917): Inventor of the airship named after him. Start of the airship LZ1 in 1900.
  • Karl Zimmer
    Karl Zimmer
    Karl Günter Zimmer was a German physicist and radiation biologist, known for his work on the effects of ionizing radiation on DNA. In 1935, he published the major work, Über die Natur der Genmutation und der Genstruktur, with N. V...

    : Discovered the effects of ionizing radiation
    Ionizing radiation
    Ionizing radiation is radiation composed of particles that individually have sufficient energy to remove an electron from an atom or molecule. This ionization produces free radicals, which are atoms or molecules containing unpaired electrons...

     on DNA
    Deoxyribonucleic acid is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms . The DNA segments that carry this genetic information are called genes, but other DNA sequences have structural purposes, or are involved in...

  • Konrad Zuse
    Konrad Zuse
    Konrad Zuse was a German civil engineer and computer pioneer. His greatest achievement was the world's first functional program-controlled Turing-complete computer, the Z3, which became operational in May 1941....

    : Inventor of the first computing machine/computer, and the first high-level programming language
    High-level programming language
    A high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer. In comparison to low-level programming languages, it may use natural language elements, be easier to use, or be from the specification of the program, making the process of...


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