Brothers Grimm
Overview
The Brothers Grimm Jacob Grimm
Jacob Grimm
Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm was a German philologist, jurist and mythologist. He is best known as the discoverer of Grimm's Law, the author of the monumental Deutsches Wörterbuch, the author of Deutsche Mythologie and, more popularly, as one of the Brothers Grimm, as the editor of Grimm's Fairy...

 (January 4, 1785 – September 20, 1863) and Wilhelm Grimm
Wilhelm Grimm
Wilhelm Carl Grimm was a German author, the younger of the Brothers Grimm.-Life and work:...

 (February 24, 1786 – December 16, 1859), were German academics, linguists, cultural researchers, and authors who collected folklore
Folklore
Folklore consists of legends, music, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs, fairy tales and customs that are the traditions of a culture, subculture, or group. It is also the set of practices through which those expressive genres are shared. The study of folklore is sometimes called...

 and published several collections of it as Grimm's Fairy Tales
Grimm's Fairy Tales
Children's and Household Tales is a collection of German origin fairy tales first published in 1812 by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, the Brothers Grimm. The collection is commonly known today as Grimms' Fairy Tales .-Composition:...

, which became very popular. Jacob also did academic work in philology
Philology
Philology is the study of language in written historical sources; it is a combination of literary studies, history and linguistics.Classical philology is the philology of Greek and Classical Latin...

, related to how the sounds in words shift over time (Grimm's law
Grimm's law
Grimm's law , named for Jacob Grimm, is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European stops as they developed in Proto-Germanic in the 1st millennium BC...

); he was also a lawyer whose legal work, German Legal Antiquities in 1828, made him a valuable source of testimony about the origin and meaning of much legal historical idiom usage and symbolism.
Quotations

Und als sie ganz nahe herankamen, so sahen sie, daß das Häuslein aus Brot gebaut war und mit Kuchen gedeckt; aber die Fenster waren von hellem Zucker.

Translation: When they came closer, they saw that the house was made of bread, and the roof was made of cake and the windows of sparkling sugar.

Zur Zeit, wo das Wünschen noch geholfen hat, ward ein Königssohn von einer alten Hexe verwünscht, dass er im Walde in einem großen Eisenofen sitzen sollte.

Translation: In the days when wishing still helped, an old witch with her magic imprisoned a prince in a cast-iron stove deep in the forest.

Encyclopedia
The Brothers Grimm Jacob Grimm
Jacob Grimm
Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm was a German philologist, jurist and mythologist. He is best known as the discoverer of Grimm's Law, the author of the monumental Deutsches Wörterbuch, the author of Deutsche Mythologie and, more popularly, as one of the Brothers Grimm, as the editor of Grimm's Fairy...

 (January 4, 1785 – September 20, 1863) and Wilhelm Grimm
Wilhelm Grimm
Wilhelm Carl Grimm was a German author, the younger of the Brothers Grimm.-Life and work:...

 (February 24, 1786 – December 16, 1859), were German academics, linguists, cultural researchers, and authors who collected folklore
Folklore
Folklore consists of legends, music, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs, fairy tales and customs that are the traditions of a culture, subculture, or group. It is also the set of practices through which those expressive genres are shared. The study of folklore is sometimes called...

 and published several collections of it as Grimm's Fairy Tales
Grimm's Fairy Tales
Children's and Household Tales is a collection of German origin fairy tales first published in 1812 by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, the Brothers Grimm. The collection is commonly known today as Grimms' Fairy Tales .-Composition:...

, which became very popular. Jacob also did academic work in philology
Philology
Philology is the study of language in written historical sources; it is a combination of literary studies, history and linguistics.Classical philology is the philology of Greek and Classical Latin...

, related to how the sounds in words shift over time (Grimm's law
Grimm's law
Grimm's law , named for Jacob Grimm, is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European stops as they developed in Proto-Germanic in the 1st millennium BC...

); he was also a lawyer whose legal work, German Legal Antiquities in 1828, made him a valuable source of testimony about the origin and meaning of much legal historical idiom usage and symbolism. They can be counted along with Karl Lachmann
Karl Lachmann
Karl Konrad Friedrich Wilhelm Lachmann was a German philologist and critic.-Biography:He was born in Brunswick, in what is now Lower Saxony....

 and Georg Friedrich Benecke
Georg Friedrich Benecke
Georg Friedrich Benecke was a German philologist. In 1814 he became professor at the University of Göttingen. Benecke was editor of a dictionary to Hartmann von Aue's Ywain .- External links :...

 as founding fathers of Germanic philology
Philology
Philology is the study of language in written historical sources; it is a combination of literary studies, history and linguistics.Classical philology is the philology of Greek and Classical Latin...

 and German studies
German studies
German studies is the field of humanities that researches, documents, and disseminates German language and literature in both its historic and present forms. Academic departments of German studies often include classes on German culture, German history, and German politics in addition to the...

. Late in life they undertook the compilation of the first German dictionary
Deutsches Wörterbuch
Das Deutsche Wörterbuch / Deutsches Wörterbuch is one of the most important dictionaries of the German language...

: Wilhelm died in December 1859, having completed the letter D; Jacob survived his brother by nearly four years, completing the letters A, B, C and E, and was working on Frucht (fruit) when he collapsed at his desk.

The first collection of fairy tales Children's and Household Tales was published in 1812 and it contained more than 200 fairy tales. Some collections of the stories had already been written by Charles Perrault
Charles Perrault
Charles Perrault was a French author who laid the foundations for a new literary genre, the fairy tale, with his works derived from pre-existing folk tales. The best known include Le Petit Chaperon rouge , Cendrillon , Le Chat Botté and La Barbe bleue...

 in the late 1600s, with somewhat unexpected versions. In the original published forms, the Grimm's fairy tales were dark and violent, in contrast to the lighter, modern "Disney versions" of those tales.

They are among the best-known story tellers of European folk tales, and their work popularized such stories as "Cinderella
Cinderella
"Cinderella; or, The Little Glass Slipper" is a folk tale embodying a myth-element of unjust oppression/triumphant reward. Thousands of variants are known throughout the world. The title character is a young woman living in unfortunate circumstances that are suddenly changed to remarkable fortune...

" (Aschenputtel), "The Frog Prince
The Frog Prince (story)
"The Frog Prince; or, Iron Henry" is a fairy tale, best known through the Brothers Grimm's written version; traditionally it is the first story in their collection. In the tale, a spoiled princess reluctantly befriends a frog , who magically transforms into a handsome prince...

" (Der Froschkönig), "Hansel and Gretel
Hansel and Gretel
"Hansel and Gretel" is a well-known fairy tale of German origin, recorded by the Brothers Grimm and published in 1812. Hansel and Gretel are a young brother and sister threatened by a cannibalistic hag living deep in the forest in a house constructed of cake and confectionery. The two children...

" (Hänsel und Gretel), "Rapunzel
Rapunzel
"Rapunzel" is a German fairy tale in the collection assembled by the Brothers Grimm, and first published in 1812 as part of Children's and Household Tales. The Grimm Brothers' story is an adaptation of the fairy tale Persinette by Charlotte-Rose de Caumont de La Force originally published in 1698...

", "Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin is the eponymous character and protagonist of a fairy tale which originated in Germany . The tale was collected by the Brothers Grimm, who first published it in the 1812 edition of Children's and Household Tales...

" (Rumpelstilzchen), "Sleeping Beauty
Sleeping Beauty
Sleeping Beauty by Charles Perrault or Little Briar Rose by the Brothers Grimm is a classic fairytale involving a beautiful princess, enchantment, and a handsome prince...

" (Dornröschen), and "Snow White
Snow White
"Snow White" is a fairy tale known from many countries in Europe, the best known version being the German one collected by the Brothers Grimm...

" (Schneewittchen).

Origin and early life

Jacob Ludwig Karl Grimm
Jacob Grimm
Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm was a German philologist, jurist and mythologist. He is best known as the discoverer of Grimm's Law, the author of the monumental Deutsches Wörterbuch, the author of Deutsche Mythologie and, more popularly, as one of the Brothers Grimm, as the editor of Grimm's Fairy...

 (also Karl) and Wilhelm Karl Grimm
Wilhelm Grimm
Wilhelm Carl Grimm was a German author, the younger of the Brothers Grimm.-Life and work:...

were born on 4 January 1785 and 24 February 1786 respectively, in the Wolfgang section of Hanau
Hanau
Hanau is a town in the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany. It is located 25 km east of Frankfurt am Main. Its station is a major railway junction.- Geography :...

, Germany near Frankfurt in Hessen, the sons of Philipp Wilhelm Grimm, a jurist
Jurist
A jurist or jurisconsult is a professional who studies, develops, applies, or otherwise deals with the law. The term is widely used in American English, but in the United Kingdom and many Commonwealth countries it has only historical and specialist usage...

 and bailiff
Bailiff
A bailiff is a governor or custodian ; a legal officer to whom some degree of authority, care or jurisdiction is committed...

 with offices at Schlüchtern
Schlüchtern
Schlüchtern is a town in the Main-Kinzig district, in Hessen, Germany. It is located on the river Kinzig at the southwest of a hill called Landrücken, approx. 30 km southwest of Fulda.-History:...

 and Steinau
Steinau an der Straße
Steinau an der Straße is a town in the Main-Kinzig district, in Hesse, Germany. It is situated on the river Kinzig, 32 km southwest of Fulda.-History:...

, originally from Hanau, and Dorothea Grimm, née Zimmer, a former neighbor and the daughter of an apothecary
Apothecary
Apothecary is a historical name for a medical professional who formulates and dispenses materia medica to physicians, surgeons and patients — a role now served by a pharmacist and some caregivers....

. They were among a family of nine children, six of whom survived infancy. Their early childhood was spent in the countryside. The Grimm family lived near the magistrate's house between 1790 and 1796 while the father was employed by the Prince of Hessen.

When the eldest brother, Jacob, was 11 years old, their father, Philip Wilhelm, died and the family moved into a cramped urban residence. Two years later, the children's grandfather also died, leaving their mother to struggle to support them in reduced circumstances. "They urged fidelity to the spoken text, without embellishments, and though it has been shown that they did not always practice what they preached, the idealized 'orality' of their style was much closer to reality than the literary retellings previously thought necessary." Others argue that "scholars and psychiatrists have thrown a camouflaging net over the stories with their relentless, albeit fascinating, question of 'What does it mean?'" Another possible environmental influence can be discerned in the selection of stories such as The Twelve Brothers
The Twelve Brothers
The Twelve Brothers is a German fairy tale collected by the Brothers Grimm, tale number 9. Andrew Lang included it in The Red Fairy Book.It is Aarne-Thompson type 451, the brothers who were turned into birds...

, which mirrors the collectors' family structure of one girl and several brothers overcoming opposition.

Kassel and educational career

Both brothers Jacob and Wilhelm were educated at the Friedrichs-Gymnasium
Friedrichsgymnasium Kassel
The Friedrichsgymnasium is a Gymnasium in Kassel, Hesse, Germany. The course work is all inclusive with an emphasis on music and foreign languages.- History :The Friedrichsgymnasium was founded in 1779 as Lyceum Fridericianum by Landgrave Friedrich II...

 in Kassel
Kassel
Kassel is a town located on the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany. It is the administrative seat of the Kassel Regierungsbezirk and the Kreis of the same name and has approximately 195,000 inhabitants.- History :...

 and later both studied law at the University of Marburg. There they were inspired by their professor Friedrich von Savigny
Friedrich Carl von Savigny
Friedrich Carl von Savigny was one of the most respected and influential 19th-century jurists and historians.-Early life and education:...

, who awakened an interest in the past. They were in their early twenties when they began the linguistic and philological
Philology
Philology is the study of language in written historical sources; it is a combination of literary studies, history and linguistics.Classical philology is the philology of Greek and Classical Latin...

 studies that would culminate in both Grimm's law
Grimm's law
Grimm's law , named for Jacob Grimm, is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European stops as they developed in Proto-Germanic in the 1st millennium BC...

 and their collected editions of fairy and folk tales. Though their collections of tales became immensely popular, they were essentially a by-product of the linguistic research, which was the brothers' primary goal.

In 1808, Jacob Grimm was appointed court librarian to the King of Westphalia
Jérôme Bonaparte
Jérôme-Napoléon Bonaparte, French Prince, King of Westphalia, 1st Prince of Montfort was the youngest brother of Napoleon, who made him king of Westphalia...

. In 1812 the brothers published their first volume of fairy tales, Tales of Children and the Home. They had collected the stories from peasants and villagers; they were also aided by their close friend August von Haxthausen
August von Haxthausen
August Franz Ludwig Maria, Baron von Haxthausen-Abbenburg was a German agricultural scientist, economist, lawyer, writer, and collector of folk songs, best known for his account of conditions in Russia as revealed by his 1843 visit.- Life :August was the last of eight sons of Werner Adolf,...

. In their collaboration, Jacob did more of the research, while Wilhelm, less sturdy in stature and intellect, put the work into a literary form that would appeal to children and the masses. They were also interested in folklore and primitive literature. In 1816 Jacob became a librarian
Librarian
A librarian is an information professional trained in library and information science, which is the organization and management of information services or materials for those with information needs...

 in Kassel, where Wilhelm was also employed. Between 1816 and 1818, they published two volumes of German legends and a volume of early literary history.

The German Grammar

In time, the brothers became interested in older languages and their relation to German. Jacob began to specialize in the history and structure of the Germanic languages, devising a theory that became known as Grimm's law, based on immense amounts of data. In 1825, Wilhelm Grimm married Henriette Dorothea (Dortchen) Wild, (Jacob never married and lived most of his life in his brother's home). In 1830, they moved together to Göttingen
Göttingen
Göttingen is a university town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is the capital of the district of Göttingen. The Leine river runs through the town. In 2006 the population was 129,686.-General information:...

, where both secured positions at the University of Göttingen. Jacob was named professor and head librarian in 1830, Wilhelm a professor in 1835.

In 1837, the Brothers Grimm joined five of their colleague professors at the University of Göttingen, later known as the Göttingen Seven
Göttingen Seven
The Göttingen Seven were a group of seven professors from Göttingen. In 1837 they protested against the abolition or alteration of the constitution of the Kingdom of Hanover by Ernest Augustus and refused to swear an oath to the new king of Hanover...

, in protesting against the abrogation of the liberal constitution
Constitution
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is...

 of the Kingdom of Hanover
Hanover
Hanover or Hannover, on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony , Germany and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of Great Britain, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg...

 by King Ernest Augustus I
Ernest Augustus I of Hanover
Ernest Augustus I was King of Hanover from 20 June 1837 until his death. He was the fifth son and eighth child of George III, who reigned in both the United Kingdom and Hanover...

, the reactionary son of King George III
George III of the United Kingdom
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of these two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death...

. They were fired from their university posts and three were deported, including Jacob Grimm, who with Wilhelm settled in Kassel, outside Ernest's realm, at the home of their brother Ludwig. However, the next year brought an invitation to Berlin from the King of Prussia.

German Dictionary

Jacob and Wilhelm were ignored in the appointment of a chief librarian place in Kassel. A year later, in 1830 the two brothers moved away from Kassel to Göttingen, where they had also a common household. They spent time in writing a definitive dictionary
Dictionary
A dictionary is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often listed alphabetically, with usage information, definitions, etymologies, phonetics, pronunciations, and other information; or a book of words in one language with their equivalents in another, also known as a lexicon...

, the German Dictionary, in German: Deutsches Wörterbuch
Deutsches Wörterbuch
Das Deutsche Wörterbuch / Deutsches Wörterbuch is one of the most important dictionaries of the German language...

, the first volume being published in 1854. The work was carried on by future generations.
Jacob then got a job as a librarian and professor of German Classical Studies. His brother William was also a librarian in Göttingen and a year later, Associate Professor. In his teaching, Wilhelm was often compromised by disease. Around 1832, the first volume of Jacob Grimm's "German Mythology" (Vol. 2: 1844, Volume 3: 1854) was published. This edition had an inspiring effect on many fairy tales and legends collectors. (retrieved 28-03-2011)

Between then and 1837, Jacob published two more volumes of "German Grammar". The two brothers then dealt with animal fables and in the same year, 1834, Jacob Grimm finalized a work he began in 1811, "Reinhart (Reineke) Fox", which was the first publication of this traditional animal epic, and the first coherent documentation of its vernacular versions. Subsequently, in 1835 he published his work on "German Mythology"; in this work Jacob examined pre-Christian beliefs and superstitions. This work had enormous influence on the research of myths. The third edition of the Children's and Household Tales was written in 1837 by Wilhelm alone. In 1838, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm began their joint work on the German dictionary. (retrieved 28-03-2011)

Grimms Tales

The Brothers Grimm began collecting folk tales around 1806, in response to a wave of awakened interest in German folklore that followed the publication of Ludwig Achim von Arnim
Ludwig Achim von Arnim
Ludwig Achim von Arnim was a German poet and novelist born in Berlin.-Life:Arnim was descended from a Prussian noble family. His father was Joachim Erdmann von Arnim , associated with the Prussian court and, among other roles, active as the Director of the Berlin theater...

 and Clemens Brentano
Clemens Brentano
Clemens Brentano, or Klemens Brentano was a German poet and novelist.-Overview:He was born in Ehrenbreitstein, near Koblenz, Germany. His sister was Bettina von Arnim, Goethe's correspondent. His father's family was of Italian descent. He studied in Halle and Jena, afterwards residing at...

's folksong collection Des Knaben Wunderhorn
Des Knaben Wunderhorn
Des Knaben Wunderhorn is a collection of German folk poems edited by Achim von Arnim and Clemens Brentano, and published in Heidelberg, in the Grand Duchy of Baden, between 1805 and 1808...

("The Youth's Magic Horn"), 1805–08. By 1810 the Grimms produced a manuscript collection of several dozen tales, which they had recorded by inviting storytellers to their home and transcribing what they heard. However, these oral tales were heavily edited and many of the tales had its roots in written sources. The brothers were bound to come across the same story more than once. When they did, the brothers used a technique of “contamination”, meaning they would strip away the similarities and try to rediscover the core of the story. Buchmärchen (‘book tales’) is a term used to imply a mix of written and oral work. Some of the Grimm tales were referred to as this. Although they were said to have collected tales from peasants, many of their informants were middle-class or aristocratic, recounting tales they had heard from their servants. For example; it was Dortchen Wild’s family and their nursery maid who told the brothers some of the more famous tales, such as “Hansel and Gretel” and “Sleeping Beauty”. Several of the informants were of Huguenot
Huguenot
The Huguenots were members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France during the 16th and 17th centuries. Since the 17th century, people who formerly would have been called Huguenots have instead simply been called French Protestants, a title suggested by their German co-religionists, the...

 ancestry and told tales that were French in origin. Marie Hassenpflug, an educated woman of the French Huguenot ancestry, was just one of the women who shared her stories. They then adapted it . It is possible that these informants could have been familiar with Charles Perrault’s tales because certain Grimm works are similar to those of Perrault's. Some scholars have theorized that certain elements of the stories were "purified" for the brothers, who were devout Christians. Aside from the added Christian elements, gender role models emerged and, over time, edited to become more ‘homey and cute’ to appeal to children.

In 1812, the Brothers published a collection of 86 German fairy tales in a volume titled Kinder- und Hausmärchen (Children's and Household Tales
Grimm's Fairy Tales
Children's and Household Tales is a collection of German origin fairy tales first published in 1812 by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, the Brothers Grimm. The collection is commonly known today as Grimms' Fairy Tales .-Composition:...

). In this volume, Wilhelm said that their stories came from the oral tradition of tales, which was a tradition they wanted to save. They published a second volume of 70 fairy tales in 1814 ("1815" on the title page), which together make up the first edition of the collection, containing 156 stories. They wrote a two-volume work titled Deutsche Sagen, which included 585 German legends; these were published in 1816 and 1818. The legends are organized in the chronological order of historical events to which they were related. The brothers arranged the regional legends thematically for each folktale creature, such as dwarfs, giants, monsters, etc. not in any historical order. These legends were not as popular as the fairytales.

A second edition of the Children's and Household Tales followed in 1819–22, expanded to 170 tales. Five more editions were issued during the Grimms' lifetimes, in which stories were added or subtracted. The seventh edition of 1857 contained 211 tales. Many of the changes were made in light of unfavorable reviews, particularly those that objected that not all the tales were suitable for children, despite the title. The tales were also criticized for being insufficiently German; this not only influenced the tales the brothers included, but their language. They changed "fee" (fairy) to an enchantress or wise woman, every prince to a king's son, every princess to a king's daughter. (It has long been recognized that some of these later-added stories were derived from printed rather than oral sources.) These editions, equipped with scholarly notes, were intended as serious works of folklore. The Brothers also published the Small Edition (German: Kleine Ausgabe), containing a selection of 50 stories expressly designed for children (as opposed to the more formal Large Edition (German: Große Ausgabe). Ten printings of the "small edition" were issued between 1825 and 1858.

The Grimms were not the first to publish collections of folktales. There were others, including a German collection by Johann Karl August Musäus
Johann Karl August Musaus
Johann Karl August Musäus was a German author from Jena. He studied theology at the university of Jena, and would have become the pastor of a parish but for the resistance of some peasants, who objected that he had been known to dance.From 1760–62 Musäus published in three volumes his first...

 published in 1782–87. The earlier collections, however, made little pretence to strict fidelity to sources. The Brothers Grimm were the first workers in this genre to present their stories as faithful renditions of the kind of direct folkloric materials that underlay the sophistication of an adapter such as Perrault
Charles Perrault
Charles Perrault was a French author who laid the foundations for a new literary genre, the fairy tale, with his works derived from pre-existing folk tales. The best known include Le Petit Chaperon rouge , Cendrillon , Le Chat Botté and La Barbe bleue...

. In doing so, the Grimms took a basic and essential step toward modern folklore
Folklore
Folklore consists of legends, music, oral history, proverbs, jokes, popular beliefs, fairy tales and customs that are the traditions of a culture, subculture, or group. It is also the set of practices through which those expressive genres are shared. The study of folklore is sometimes called...

 studies, leading to the work of folklorists like Peter and Iona Opie
Peter and Iona Opie
Iona Archibald Opie and Peter Mason Opie were a husband-and-wife team of folklorists, who applied modern techniques to children's literature, summarized in their studies, The Oxford Dictionary of Nursery Rhymes and The Lore and Language of Schoolchildren...

 and others.

The Grimms' method was common in their historical era. Arnim and Brentano edited and adapted the folksongs of Des Knaben Wunderhorn; in the early 19th century Brentano collected folktales in much the same way as the Grimms. The early researchers did their work before academic practices for such collections had been codified.

Linguistics

In the very early 19th century, the time in which the Brothers Grimm lived, the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

 had recently dissolved, and the modern nation of Germany did not exist. In its place was a confederacy of 39 small- to medium-size German states, many of which had been newly created by Napoleon as client states. The major unifying factor for the German people of the time was a common language. Part of what motivated the Brothers in their writings and in their lives was the desire to help create a German identity.

Less well known to the general public outside of Germany is the Brothers' work on a German dictionary, the Deutsches Wörterbuch
Deutsches Wörterbuch
Das Deutsche Wörterbuch / Deutsches Wörterbuch is one of the most important dictionaries of the German language...

. It was extensive, having 33 volumes and weighing 84 kg (185 lbs). It is still considered the standard reference for German etymology
Etymology
Etymology is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.For languages with a long written history, etymologists make use of texts in these languages and texts about the languages to gather knowledge about how words were used during...

. Work began in 1838, but by the end of their lifetime, only sections from the letter 'A' to part of the letter 'F' were completed. The work was not considered complete until 1960.

Jacob is recognized for enunciating Grimm's law
Grimm's law
Grimm's law , named for Jacob Grimm, is a set of statements describing the inherited Proto-Indo-European stops as they developed in Proto-Germanic in the 1st millennium BC...

, the Germanic Sound Shift, that was first observed by the Danish philologist Rasmus Christian Rask
Rasmus Christian Rask
Rasmus Rask was a Danish scholar and philologist.-Biography:...

. Grimm's law was the first non-trivial systematic sound change
Sound change
Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation or sound system structures...

 to be discovered.

Books, film and television

From the 1930s to the present, some of the Grimms' best known fairy tales have been adapted by Walt Disney Animation Studios as animated feature films and other media: Snow White
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937 film)
Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is a 1937 American animated film based on Snow White, a German fairy tale by the Brothers Grimm. It was the first full-length cel-animated feature in motion picture history, as well as the first animated feature film produced in America, the first produced in full...

 (1937), Sleeping Beauty
Sleeping Beauty (1959 film)
Sleeping Beauty is a 1959 American animated film produced by Walt Disney and based on the fairy tale "La Belle au bois dormant" by Charles Perrault...

(1959), The Princess and the Frog (2009) which is an adaptation of "The Frog Prince," Tangled (2010) as an adaptation of "Rapunzel". Hansel and Gretel is no exception having had numerous opera, movies, and television adaptations. A live action adaptation of "Snow White", tentatively titled Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, is in development at the Disney Studios, with Francis Lawrence
Francis Lawrence
Francis Lawrence is an American music video and film director.-Life and career:Lawrence was born in Vienna, Austria. His father is a physicist who taught at California State University, Northridge and his mother is V.P. Technology at a PR agency. He moved to Los Angeles at the age of three...

, the director of I Am Legend
I Am Legend (film)
I Am Legend is a 2007 post-apocalyptic science fiction film directed by Francis Lawrence and starring Will Smith. It is the third feature film adaptation of Richard Matheson's 1954 novel of the same name, following 1964's The Last Man on Earth and 1971's The Omega Man. Smith plays virologist Robert...

, at the helm.

Henry Levin
Henry Levin
Henry Levin began as a stage actor and director but was most notable as an American film director of over fifty feature films. He broke into film in 1943 as a dialogue director for the films Dangerous Blondes and Appointment in Berlin for Columbia Pictures...

 and George Pal
George Pál
George Pal , born György Pál Marczincsak, was a Hungarian-born American animator and film producer, principally associated with the science fiction genre...

 released the 1962's United States movie The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm
The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm
The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm is a 1962 American film directed by Henry Levin and George Pal. The latter was the producer and also in charge of the stop motion animation. The film was one of the highest grossing films of 1962. It won one Oscar and was nominated for three additional...

, with a cast including Barbara Eden
Barbara Eden
Barbara Eden is an American film and television actress and singer who is best known for her starring role in the sitcom I Dream of Jeannie.-Early years:...

, Russ Tamblyn
Russ Tamblyn
Russell Irving "Russ" Tamblyn is an American film and television actor, who is arguably best known for his performance in the 1961 movie musical West Side Story as Riff, the leader of the Jets gang....

, Yvette Mimieux
Yvette Mimieux
Yvette Carmen Mimieux is a retired American movie and television actress.-Early life and career:Yvette Mimieux was born in Los Angeles, California, to a French father and Mexican mother, Carmen Montemayor...

 and other high-profile stars of the time. Directed by Henry Levin, the movie intertwined a fictionalised version of the Grimm brothers' lives as young men with fantasy productions of some of their fairy tales (directed by George Pal). It went on to win the 1963 Oscar for costume design and was nominated in several other categories.

A made-for-TV musical called Once Upon a Brothers Grimm
Once Upon a Brothers Grimm
Once Upon a Brothers Grimm is a musical children's fantasy film directed by Norman Campbell. It follows the Brothers Grimm as they make their way to a king's palace with their fairy tales. It was originally released for TV...

was released in 1977, aired in the United States. It starred Dean Jones
Dean Jones
Dean Jones is the name of:*Dean Jones , an Australian cricketer*Dean Jones , an American actor*Dean Jones , the singer of Extreme Noise TerrorSee also:*Jones...

 as Jacob and Paul Sand
Paul Sand
Paul Sand is an American comedic actor.-Background:Sand was born Paul Sanchez in Santa Monica, California, the son of Sonia Borodiansky, a writer, and Ernest Rivera Sanchez, an aerospace tool designer. His father was Mexican and his mother of Russian descent.-Career:At the age of 11, he started at...

 as Wilhelm. The basic plot presented the brothers traveling and getting lost in a forest, and encountering various characters from the tales that made them famous. In the late 1980s and early 1990s Nickelodeon
Nickelodeon (TV channel)
Nickelodeon, often simply called Nick and originally named Pinwheel, is an American children's channel owned by MTV Networks, a subsidiary of Viacom International. The channel is primarily aimed at children ages 7–17, with the exception of their weekday morning program block aimed at preschoolers...

 aired a cartoon series called "Grimm's Fairy Tale Classics
Grimm's Fairy Tale Classics
is a Japanese animated anthology series by Nippon Animation. The episodes are adaptations of a variety of folk and fairy tales, and not limited to Grimm's Fairy Tales....

" as a part of its daytime Nick Jr.
Nick Jr.
Nick Jr. was a programming block on the Nickelodeon television channel, seen on Nickelodeon weekday mornings. It was aimed at a preschool-age audience ages 6 and under. On September 28, 2009, Nick Jr. became its own official channel, replacing Noggin...

 block. It was originally broadcast in Japan as "Gurimu Meisaku Gekijou". In 1998, in the movie Ever After
Ever After
Ever After: A Cinderella Story is a 1998 film inspired by the fairy tale Cinderella, directed by Andy Tennant and starring Drew Barrymore, Anjelica Huston and Dougray Scott. The screenplay is written by Tennant, Susannah Grant, and Rick Parks. The original music score is composed by George Fenton...

, the Grimm Brothers visit an elderly woman, the Grande Dame of France, who questions their version of the Cinderella story. The Brothers Grimm reply that there was no way for them to verify the authenticity of their story as there were so many different versions. She proceeds to tell the story of "Danielle De Barbarac".

The Grimme Prize-nominated German TV crime thriller, titled A Murderous Fairytale (Ein mörderisches Märchen) was produced in 2001, used elements of Brothers Grimm fairytales. In the film directed by Manuel Siebenmann, which was written by Daniel Martin Eckhart, the elderly killer challenges the detectives with a series of Brothers Grimm fairytale riddle
Riddle
A riddle is a statement or question or phrase having a double or veiled meaning, put forth as a puzzle to be solved. Riddles are of two types: enigmas, which are problems generally expressed in metaphorical or allegorical language that require ingenuity and careful thinking for their solution, and...

s. Comic book writer Bill Willingham
Bill Willingham
Bill Willingham is an American writer and artist of comics.-Career:Willingham got his start in the late 1970s to early 1980s as a staff artist for TSR, Inc., where he illustrated a number of their role-playing game products...

 created in 2002 the comic book Fables
Fables (comics)
Fables is a comic book series created by writer Bill Willingham, published by DC Comics's Vertigo imprint beginning in 2002. The series deals with various characters from fairy tales and folklore – referring to themselves as "Fables" – who have been forced out of their Homelands by "The...

, which includes characters from fables as the main characters. Many of these characters are among those collected by the Grimm brothers. The author Michael Buckley began a popular young reader's series (geared for age 7–12) titled The Sisters Grimm in 2005, in which the two characters, sisters, are the direct descendants of the Brothers Grimm. They discover the family secret in which the fairy tales told in their ancestor's stories are not fictional, but instead are documentations of fairy-tale encounters. The brothers brought all of the characters to New York to escape prosecution. The sisters solve mysteries inside the town the characters are trapped in. Also in 2005 The Brothers Grimm
The Brothers Grimm (film)
The Brothers Grimm is a 2005 fantasy Adventure film directed by Terry Gilliam. The film stars Matt Damon and Heath Ledger in an exaggerated and fictitious portrait of the Brothers Grimm as traveling con-artists in French-occupied Germany during the late 18th century...

, a film directed by Terry Gilliam
Terry Gilliam
Terrence Vance "Terry" Gilliam is an American-born British screenwriter, film director, animator, actor and member of the Monty Python comedy troupe. Gilliam is also known for directing several films, including Brazil , The Adventures of Baron Munchausen , The Fisher King , and 12 Monkeys...

 based roughly on the Grimm brothers and their tales, starring Heath Ledger
Heath Ledger
Heath Andrew Ledger was an Australian television and film actor. After performing roles in Australian television and film during the 1990s, Ledger moved to the United States in 1998 to develop his film career...

 as Jacob Grimm and Matt Damon
Matt Damon
Matthew Paige "Matt" Damon is an American actor, screenwriter, and philanthropist whose career was launched following the success of the film Good Will Hunting , from a screenplay he co-wrote with friend Ben Affleck...

 as Wilhelm Grimm in the title roles, resembles the contents of the sagas from the brothers' collections, much more than the academic nature of their lives. In this version, the Brothers Grimm aren't innocent fairy tale collectors.

Zenescope Entertainment began in 2005 releasing a monthly on-going comic series titled Grimm's Fairy Tales, a horror comic book that presents classic fairy tales, albeit with modern twists or expanded plots. John Conolly
John Connolly (author)
John Connolly is an Irish writer who is best known for his series of novels starring private detective Charlie Parker.-Life and works:...

, an Irish writer, publishes in 2005 a book named The Book of Lost Things
The Book of Lost Things
The Book of Lost Things is a fantasy novel by John Connolly. The book follows David, a young boy who struggles with his mother's death and his father's remarriage. When a World War II bomber plane crashes into his garden, he finds himself in the fantasy world of his books; he must find the King,...

, it is his first non-mystery novel. This book includes many darker adaptions of the Grimm's tales; including Little Red Riding Hood
Little Red Riding Hood
Little Red Riding Hood, also known as Little Red Cap, is a French fairy tale about a young girl and a Big Bad Wolf. The story has been changed considerably in its history and subject to numerous modern adaptations and readings....

, Snow White
Snow White
"Snow White" is a fairy tale known from many countries in Europe, the best known version being the German one collected by the Brothers Grimm...

, Sleeping Beauty
Sleeping Beauty
Sleeping Beauty by Charles Perrault or Little Briar Rose by the Brothers Grimm is a classic fairytale involving a beautiful princess, enchantment, and a handsome prince...

 and Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin is the eponymous character and protagonist of a fairy tale which originated in Germany . The tale was collected by the Brothers Grimm, who first published it in the 1812 edition of Children's and Household Tales...

. The crime novel Brother Grimm, by Craig Russell
Craig Russell (British author)
Craig Russell is a British-born novelist and short story writer. His Hamburg-set thriller series featuring detective Jan Fabel has been translated into 23 languages. Russell speaks fluent German and has a special interest in post-war German history...

, was published in 2006. A serial killer
Serial killer
A serial killer, as typically defined, is an individual who has murdered three or more people over a period of more than a month, with down time between the murders, and whose motivation for killing is usually based on psychological gratification...

 stalks Hamburg
Hamburg
-History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

 and uses themes of Brothers Grimm fairytales, to pose his victims and to write riddles about the next one. Chief Detective Jan Fabel has to hunt down the Fairytale Killer, as the press soon calls him. In 2010, the novel was adapted for German television, directed by Urs Egger
Urs Egger
Urs Egger is a Swiss film and television director.From 1974 to 1997 he worked for the Swiss Neue Zürcher Zeitung and the Australian Cinema Papers as a correspondent from Los Angeles, responsible for reporting about the film industry. He visited the American Film Institute to become a...

 and written by Daniel Martin Eckhart under the title Wolfsfährte (engl.: wolfs spoor), the German title of Craig Russell's novel. Actor Peter Lohmeyer took on the role of Chief Detective Jan Fabel.

The book The Grimm Legacy was published in 2010 by Polly Shulman, about a girl who starts working at a mysterious museum which holds items from Grimm fairy tales. Lethe Press published A Twist of Grimm by William Holden in 2010, a collection of Grimm's Fairy Tales re-imagined as gay erotica. NBC Universal greenlit pilot entitled in 2010 Grimm
Grimm (TV series)
Grimm is an American fantasy/mystery/crime drama series that made its debut on NBC on October 28, 2011. It airs Fridays at 9:00 pm ET/8:00 pm CT. The show has been described as "a cop drama—with a twist.....

starring Bitsie Tulloch
Bitsie Tulloch
Elizabeth Tulloch is an American actress.-Early life and education:Tulloch was born in San Diego, California but grew up in Spain, Uruguay, and Argentina. Bitsie isn't a contraction of Tulloch's birthname, Elizabeth, but an homage to her unusually-nicknamed grandfather, a WWII bomber pilot...

, Kate Burton
Kate Burton
Kate Burton may refer to:*Kate Burton , American actress of stage and television*Kate Burton , British aid worker who was kidnapped in the Gaza Strip in December 2005 and released later that month-See also:...

, Russell Hornsby
Russell Hornsby
Russell Hornsby is an American theater, television, and film actor. He is perhaps best known for portraying police officer Eddie Sutton on the ABC Family television drama series Lincoln Heights, and Luke on the HBO series In Treatment.-Early life and education:Hornsby was a football player at St....

 and Silas Weir Mitchell
Silas Weir Mitchell
Silas Weir Mitchell was an American physician and writer.He was son of a physician, John Kearsley Mitchell , and was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania....

. Created by David Greenwalt
David Greenwalt
David Greenwalt is an American screenwriter, director and producer.He was the co-executive producer of Buffy the Vampire Slayer and co-creator of its spinoff, Angel. He is also co-creator of the short-lived cult television show Profit...

 and Jim Kouf
Jim Kouf
Jim Kouf is an American screenwriter, director, and producer. He received the 1988 Edgar Award for Best Motion Picture Screenplay for his work on Stakeout .-Filmography :...

 and to be directed by Marc Buckland
Marc Buckland
- Filmography :*Love Bites - Director, executive producer*My Name is Earl - Director, executive producer*Ed - Director, executive producer*The Jake Effect - Director, executive producer...

, Grimm is described as a dark but fantastical cop drama about a world in which characters inspired by Grimm’s Fairy Tales exist.

Mark Miller's Empyrical Tales series is strongly influenced by these works. The Fourth Queen (Comfort Publishing, 2009) and The Lost Queen (Comfort Publishing, 2011) adapt several of the characters and stories into the fantasy world of Empyrean. The stories serve both as an homage and as a new fairytale. As the Empyrical Tales continues, later books will include references to other folklore and mythology from around the world.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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