Agustín de Iturbide
Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Aramburu (27 September 1783 – 19 July 1824), also known as Augustine I of Mexico, was a Mexican army general who built a successful political and military coalition that was able to march into Mexico City
Mexico City
Mexico City is the Federal District , capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Mexican Union. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole...

 on 27 September 1821, decisively ending the Mexican War of Independence
Mexican War of Independence
The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and the Spanish colonial authorities which started on 16 September 1810. The movement, which became known as the Mexican War of Independence, was led by Mexican-born Spaniards, Mestizos and Amerindians who sought...

. After the liberation of Mexico was secured, he was proclaimed President of the Regency in 1821 and Constitutional Emperor of the new nation
Emperor of Mexico
The Emperor of Mexico was the head of state and ruler of Mexico on two non-consecutive occasions in the 19th century....

, reigning as Emperor briefly from 19 May 1822 to 19 March 1823, and he is credited as the original designer of the first Mexican flag
Flag of Mexico
The flag of Mexico is a vertical tricolor of green, white, and red with the national coat of arms charged in the center of the white stripe. While the meaning of the colors has changed over time, these three colors were adopted by Mexico following independence from Spain during the country's War...


Although Iturbide's reign was short, it defined the political struggles before and after independence that Mexico would endure until the 20th century. The two ends of Mexico's political spectrum - liberals that favored populist representative government and conservatives that favored a more dictatorial regime - would each gain the upper hand at various times in the decades after Iturbide's abdication.

Life before the war of independence

Agustín Cosme Damiáno de Iturbide y Aramburu was born in what was called Valladolid, now Morelia, the state capital of Michoacán
Michoacán officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Michoacán de Ocampo is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 113 municipalities and its capital city is Morelia...

, on 27 September 1783. He was baptized with the names of Saints Cosmas and Damian
Saints Cosmas and Damian
Saints Cosmas and Damian were twin brothers, physicians, and early Christian martyrs born in Cilicia, part of today's Turkey. They practiced their profession in the seaport of Ayas, Adana, then in the Roman province of Syria...

 at the cathedral there. He was the fifth child born to his parents but he was the only male to survive and inherit his family's Basque
Basque people
The Basques as an ethnic group, primarily inhabit an area traditionally known as the Basque Country , a region that is located around the western end of the Pyrenees on the coast of the Bay of Biscay and straddles parts of north-central Spain and south-western France.The Basques are known in the...

 Iturbide name.
Iturbide's parents were part of the privileged class of Valladolid, owning farmland such as the hacienda
Hacienda is a Spanish word for an estate. Some haciendas were plantations, mines, or even business factories. Many haciendas combined these productive activities...

s of Apeo and Guaracha as well as lands in nearby Quirio. Iturbide's father, Joaquín de Iturbide, came from a Basque noble family who received their title from King Juan II of Aragon
John II of Castile
John II was King of Castile from 1406 to 1454.He was the son of Henry III of Castile and his wife Catherine of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster by Constance of Castile, daughter of King Peter of Castile.-Regency:He succeeded his father on 25 December 1406, at the age of...

. One of his ancestors, Martin de Iturbide, was mayor of Valle de Baztan in 1432, and thereafter many in the family held political positions in the Basque region from the 15th century on. As Joaquín was not the eldest and would not inherit the family lands in Spain, he moved to New Spain to seek his fortune there. While the noble and Spanish lineage of his father has never been in doubt, there has been some doubt about his mother. Some sources state his mother was a mestiza
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Latin America, Philippines and Spain for people of mixed European and Native American heritage or descent...

, meaning she had at least some Indian blood. Other sources insist she was of pure Spanish blood born in Mexico, and therefore, a criolla
Criollo people
The Criollo class ranked below that of the Iberian Peninsulares, the high-born permanent residence colonists born in Spain. But Criollos were higher status/rank than all other castes—people of mixed descent, Amerindians, and enslaved Africans...

. Others simply state she came from a high-ranking family in Michoacán. However, according to the casta system of the era, a criollo could indeed have Amerindian ancestry; the union of a castizo
Castizo is a Spanish word with a general meaning of "pure" or "genuine". The feminine form is castiza. From this meaning it evolved other meanings, such as "typical of an area" and it was also used for one of the colonial Spanish race categories, the castas, that evolved in the seventeenth...

 (one with 1/4 Amerindian ancestry) and a "pure" Spaniard would result in a Spanish, or criollo, child This detail, in many cases, was somewhat important in the Spanish colonial era, as one's political fortunes (including military rank) were sometimes curtailed for those of a high degree of intermixture or pure Indian blood. Iturbide insisted throughout his life that he was criollo.

Agustin studied at the Catholic seminary called Colegio de San Nicolás
Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo
Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo is a public university in Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico, and the oldest institution of higher education in the Americas...

 in Valladolid, enrolled in the program for secular officials, though he was not a distinguished student. After that, he worked as an overseer
Rob Overseer is an English DJ/producer, born in Leeds whose works have been included in soundtracks for Animatrix, Snatch, Any Given Sunday and The Girl Next Door, as well as video games like Need for Speed: Underground, NFL Gameday 2004, several Matchstick Productions ski films, and Stuntman,...

 at one of his family's haciendas for a short time, discovering he was a very good horseman. Iturbide, while at the hacienda, was infamously known for his peculiar behavior. Legend states that the young Iturbide would slice the fingers from the chickens in the hacienda to sadistically watch them run with fear. Still in his teens, Iturbide entered the royalist army, having been accepted as a criollo. He was commissioned as a second lieutenant in the provincial regiment. Shortly thereafter, he was promoted to full lieutenant in 1806.

In 1805, when he was twenty-two, Iturbide married Ana María Josefa Ramona de Huarte y Muñiz
Ana María de Huarte y Muñiz
Ana María Josefa Ramona de Huarte y Muñiz , was the consort of Emperor Agustín de Iturbide of Mexico. She was daughter of the nobleman Isidro Huarte, provincial intendant and descendant of the Marquis of Altamira....

, member of the House of Tagle of the family of the Marquises of Altamira
Marquisate of Altamira
The Marquises of Altamira are Spanish Nobility which further enhanced their wealth and influence in New Spain, and the rest of the Spanish colonies in America....

 and who would later become the first empress of Mexico. She also came from Valladolid from a prosperous family of businessmen and landowners. She was the daughter of wealthy and powerful noble Isidro de Huarte, governor of the district and the granddaughter of the Marquis of Altamira
Luis Sánchez de Tagle, 1st Marquis of Altamira
Don Luis Sánchez de Tagle y de la Rasa, 1st Marquis of Altamira was a Spanish aristocrat who gained great wealth and influence in New Spain during the 17th century.- Early life :...

. With her dowry
A dowry is the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings forth to the marriage. It contrasts with bride price, which is paid to the bride's parents, and dower, which is property settled on the bride herself by the groom at the time of marriage. The same culture may simultaneously practice both...

 of 100,000 pesos, the couple bought the Hacienda of Apeo in the small town of Maravatío
Santiago Maravatío
Santiago Maravatío is a Mexican city located in the Bajío of the state of Guanajuato. With an area of 91.760 square kilometres, Santiago Maravatío accounts for less than 1% of the surface of the state...


Prior to the outbreak of the War of Independence, there was political unrest in New Spain. One of Iturbide's first military campaigns was to help put down a mutiny headed by Gabriel J. de Yermo
Gabriel J. de Yermo
Gabriel J. de Yermo was a wealthy landowner in New Spain, leader of the anti-independence party, and leader of the coup that overthrew Viceroy José de Iturrigaray in 1808.-His life before the coup:...

. While valiant in combat, he gained a reputation early in his career for using his authority for financial gain. Although a member of the royal army that had suppressed rebellion, he may have been involved in the initial conspiracy to declare independence in 1809 that was headed by José Mariano Michelena
José Mariano Michelena
José Mariano Michelena was a Spanish military officer in New Spain and Spain, a precursor of Mexican independence, and a politician in independent Mexico...

 in Valladolid. Some historians believe that he betrayed Michelena when he was not chosen leader.


After the outbreak of the War of Independence in 1810, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla offered Agustín de Iturbide the rank of general in the insurgent forces. However, Agustín rejected the offer and instead fought with royalist forces. Over the course of the war, Agustin would principally find himself up against Generals José María Morelos
José María Morelos
José María Teclo Morelos y Pavón was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and revolutionary rebel leader who led the Mexican War of Independence movement, assuming its leadership after the execution of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in 1811...

 from 1810 to 1816 and Vicente Guerrero
Vicente Guerrero
Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña was one of the leading revolutionary generals of the Mexican War of Independence, who fought against Spain for independence in the early 19th century, and served briefly as President of Mexico...

 in 1820.

One of Agustín's first encounters with the rebel army was in the Toluca Valley
Toluca Valley
Toluca Valley is a valley located approximately 75 km southwest Mexico City. The modern city of Toluca is located there. Other municipalities within valley and part of the Toluca metropolitan area include Metepec, Calimaya, Almoloya de Juárez, San Mateo Atenco, Lerma, Lago, Temoaya, Otzolotepec and...

 in 1810 as it advanced toward Mexico City from Valladolid. Royalist and rebel forces engaged on the east bank of the Lerma River
Lerma River
The Lerma Santiago River is Mexico's second longest river. It is a river in west-central Mexico that begins in Mexican Plateau at an altitude over above sea level, and ends where it empties into Lake Chapala, Mexico's largest lake, near Guadalajara, Jalisco...

 at the end of October in what is now known as the Battle of Monte de las Cruces
Battle of Monte de las Cruces
The Battle of Monte de las Cruces was one of the pivotal battles of the early Mexican War of Independence. It was fought between the insurgent troops of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and Ignacio Allende against the royalist troops of General Torcuato Trujillo in the Sierra de las Cruces mountains...

. Royalist forces under the command of Colonel Torcuato Trujillo withdrew from the area, allowing rebels to take Toluca
Toluca, formally known as Toluca de Lerdo, is the state capital of Mexico State as well as the seat of the Municipality of Toluca. It is the center of a rapidly growing urban area, now the fifth largest in Mexico. It is located west-southwest of Mexico City and only about 40 minutes by car to the...

. Despite the loss by his side, Iturbide distinguished himself in this battle for valor and tenacity.

Iturbide's next major encounter with the rebels would be against Morelos himself and in his native city of Valladolid. Iturbide led the defenders. He demonstrated his tactical skill and horsemanship by breaking Morelos’ siege of the town with a well-executed cavalry charge, causing the insurgent forces to withdraw into the forest. For this action, Iturbide was promoted to captain.

As a captain, he pursued rebel forces in the area, managing to capture Albino Licéaga y Rayón, leading to another promotion. In 1813, Viceroy
A viceroy is a royal official who runs a country, colony, or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning king. A viceroy's province or larger territory is called a viceroyalty...

 Félix María Calleja promoted Iturbide to colonel
Colonel , abbreviated Col or COL, is a military rank of a senior commissioned officer. It or a corresponding rank exists in most armies and in many air forces; the naval equivalent rank is generally "Captain". It is also used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures...

 and put him in charge of the regiment in Celaya
Celaya is a city and its surrounding municipality in the state of Guanajuato, Mexico, located in the southeast quadrant of the state. It is the third most populous city in the state, with a 2005 census population of 310,413. The municipality for which the city serves as municipal seat, had a...

. Then, in 1814, he was named the commander of forces in the Bajío
The Bajío is a region of Central Mexico that includes the plains south of the Sierra de Guanajuato, in the state of Guanajuato, as well as parts of the states of Querétaro and Michoacán .In general parlance, it is usually associated with the States of Guanajuato and Querétaro, although it only...

 area of Guanajuato
Guanajuato officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Guanajuato is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 46 municipalities and its capital city is Guanajuato....

 where he continued to pursue rebels with vigor, in a strongly contested area, and was Morelos’ principal military opponent from 1813 to 1815.

The next major encounter between Morelos and Iturbide occurred in a town called Puruarán
Turicato is a municipality in the state of Michoacán, Mexico. Turicato comes from the word "turicata" that refers to a parasite that lives mainly in areas where there is cattle....

, Michoacán, on 5 January 1814. In this battle, rebel forces were soundly defeated by forces under Iturbide, forcing Morelos to retreat to the Hacienda of Santa Lucía and leaving Mariano Matamoros
Mariano Matamoros
Mariano Matamoros y Guridi was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and revolutionary rebel soldier of the Mexican War of Independence, who fought for independence against Spain in the early 19th century....

 and Ignacio López Rayón
Ignacio López Rayón
Ignacio López Rayón led the revolutionary government of his country after Miguel Hidalgo's death, during the first years of the Mexican War of Independence....

 in command of the rebel army with over 600 insurgents killed and 700 captured. This marked a turn in the war. Iturbide and other Spanish commanders relentlessly pursued Morelos, capturing and executing him late in 1815.

Relieved of command

Iturbide's fortunes reversed with the viceroy when a number of accusations of cruelty and corruption surfaced.

Iturbide's persistence against the rebels was widely-known as well as his views against their liberal, anti-monarchical politics. In his diary, he refers to the insurgents as "perverse," "bandits," and "sacrilegious." In a letter to the viceroy in 1814, he wrote of how he had 300 rebels (to whom he referred as excommunicates) executed to celebrate Good Friday
Good Friday
Good Friday , is a religious holiday observed primarily by Christians commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus Christ and his death at Calvary. The holiday is observed during Holy Week as part of the Paschal Triduum on the Friday preceding Easter Sunday, and may coincide with the Jewish observance of...

. Iturbide was also criticized for his arbitrariness and his treatment of civilians, in particular his jailing of the mothers, wives and children of known insurgents. As for corruption, the Count of Pérez Galvez extensively testified that profiteering by many royalist officers, of whom Iturbide was the most visible, was draining the effectiveness of the royal army. Iturbide accrued a large personal fortune before 1816 through questionable dealings. Some of these shady practices included creating commercial monopolies in areas he controlled militarily. Other accusations against Iturbide included sacking private property and embezzling military funds. In 1816, the viceroy relieved Iturbide of his command for corruption and cruelty.

However, one year later, with the support of an auditor named Bataller and staunch monarchists in the viceregal government, these charges were withdrawn. Iturbide's supporters further convinced the viceroy that he was needed to vanquish the last remaining rebel leader. However, Iturbide never forgot the humiliation of his dismissal.

Against Guerrero

Iturbide was fully reinstated to military command in November 1820 by viceroy Juan Ruiz de Apodaca. He was reinstated as colonel of the royalist army and general of the south of New Spain. For a couple of years after the defeat of Morelos at Puruarán, the independence movement had diminished significantly. However, Iturbide was given the task of putting down the growing insurrectionist movement southwest of Mexico City led by Vicente Guerrero . In spite of regaining command, Iturbide still had to finagle and even steal the funds he needed for the task. Iturbide installed his headquarters at Teloloapan
Teloloapan is a city and seat of the municipality of Teloloapan, in the state of Guerrero, south-western Mexico....

; however, he was never able to defeat Guerrero militarily. Guerrero was a guerrilla leader who had for years lived and fought against the same soldiers who were trying to capture him. Guerrero managed to deliver a number of serious reverses to Iturbide's troops. In particular, on 2 January 1821, his troops suffered a bad defeat, leading Iturbide to conclude that he might not be able to defeat Guerrero.

The Criollo rebellion

From 1810 to 1820, Iturbide had fought against those who sought to overturn the Spanish monarchy and Bourbon dynasty
House of Bourbon
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house, a branch of the Capetian dynasty . Bourbon kings first ruled Navarre and France in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the Bourbon dynasty also held thrones in Spain, Naples, Sicily, and Parma...

's right to rule New Spain and replace that regime with a republic. In this, he was solidly aligned with the Creole class. However, events in Spain caused problems for this class, as the very monarchy they were fighting for was in serious trouble. The 1812 Cadiz Constitution
Spanish Constitution of 1812
The Spanish Constitution of 1812 was promulgated 19 March 1812 by the Cádiz Cortes, the national legislative assembly of Spain, while in refuge from the Peninsular War...

, that was reinstated in Spain in 1820 after the successful Riego Revolt
Rafael del Riego
Rafael del Riego y Nuñez was a Spanish general and liberal politician, who played a key role in the outbreak of the Liberal Triennium .-Early life and action in the Peninsular War:...

, established a constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy
Constitutional monarchy is a form of government in which a monarch acts as head of state within the parameters of a constitution, whether it be a written, uncodified or blended constitution...

, which greatly limited Ferdinand VII's powers. There was serious concern in Mexico that the Bourbons would be forced to abandon Spain altogether. This led to the disintegration of viceregal authority in Mexico City and a political vacuum developed that the Mexican nobility sought to fill, seeking limited representation and autonomy for themselves within the empire. An idea arose among this class that if Mexico became independent or autonomous, and if Ferdinand were deposed, he could become king of Mexico.

Alliance with Guerrero

Iturbide was convinced that independence for Mexico was the only way to protect the country from a republican tide. He decided to become the leader of the Criollo independence movement. However, in order to succeed, he would need to put together a very unlikely coalition of Mexican liberal insurgents, landed nobility, and the Church. Iturbide held a series of negotiations with Guerrero and made a number of demonstrations of his intentions to form an independent Mexico. Iturbide offered Guerrero a full pardon if he surrendered. Guerrero rejected the pardon but agreed to meet with Iturbide to discuss the independence of Mexico. The two met to discuss a plan for independence drawn up by Iturbide called the "Plan de Iguala". This meeting is now referred to as the "Embrace of Acatempán", named after the locale where they agreed to implement the plan. Iturbide, Guerrero, and another insurgent leader, Guadalupe Victoria
Guadalupe Victoria
Guadalupe Victoria born José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix, was a Mexican politician and military man who fought for independence against the Spanish Empire in the Mexican War of Independence. He was a deputy for Durango and a member of the Supreme Executive Power...

, announced the plan on 24 February 1821. On 1 March 1821, Iturbide was proclaimed head of the Army of the Three Guarantees
Army of the Three Guarantees
At the end of the Mexican War of Independence, the Army of the Three Guarantees was the name given to the army after the unification of the Spanish troops led by Agustín de Iturbide and the Mexican insurgent troops of Vicente Guerrero, consolidating Mexico's independence from Spain...


Plan of Iguala

The plan was a rather vague document that sought the transition of the center of power in New Spain from Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

 to Mexico City. Essentially, the idea was to bring Ferdinand VII to Mexico City to rule. If he did not come to Mexico, another member of the Bourbon royal family would be chosen to rule there. To attract the disparate parties involved in this scheme, the plan offered three guarantees: Mexico would be independent from Madrid, Roman Catholicism would be the official religion, and all of Spanish blood, whether born in Spain or in the Americas, would be able to live as equals in the new state.

The promise of independence convinced the insurgents to accept the proposal. The promise of the supremacy of the Roman Catholic Church was offered to the clergy, who were frightened by anti-clerical policies of Spanish Liberalism. The offer of equality between Criollos and the Spanish-born Peninsulares
In the colonial caste system of Spanish America, a peninsular was a Spanish-born Spaniard or mainland Spaniard residing in the New World, as opposed to a person of full Spanish descent born in the Americas or Philippines...

assured the latter that they and their property would be safe in the new state. This was important because the Peninsulares owned a significant part of the valuable real estate and many of the businesses in Mexico. If the Spaniards had left, it would have been disastrous for the Mexican economy.

The plan gained wide support because it demanded independence without attacking the landed classes and did not threaten social dissolution. With this, Iturbide succeeded in bringing together old insurgents and royalist forces to fight against the new Spanish government and what was left of the viceregal government. Military leaders, soldiers, families, villages, and towns that had been fighting against one another for almost ten years found themselves joining forces to gain Mexican independence. However, their reasons for joining together were very different, and these differences would later foment the turmoil that occurred after independence.

Both the sitting viceroy and Fernando VII rejected the Plan of Iguala. The Spanish parliament
Cortes Generales
The Cortes Generales is the legislature of Spain. It is a bicameral parliament, composed of the Congress of Deputies and the Senate . The Cortes has power to enact any law and to amend the constitution...

 sent a new "viceroy", Juan O'Donojú
Juan O'Donojú
Juan O'Donojú y O'Rian was a Spanish military officer and jefe político superior of New Spain from July 21, 1821 to September 28, 1821, during Mexico's war of independence...

, to Mexico. (Technically, the office of viceroy had been replaced by a "superior political chief" under the 1812 Spanish Constitution.) Although Iturbide tried hard to convince O’Donojú that independence was inevitable, the new political chief refused to yield.


To show the military might of this alliance, Iturbide coordinated with associated royalist and insurgent commanders in the provinces, opting for a replay of the strategy of closing in on Mexico City from the periphery which Morelos had unsuccessfully attempted in 1811–14. However, Iturbide had the advantage of having most of the former royalist army on his side. Iturbide marched into Mexico City on 27 September 1821, his own birthday, with the Army of the Three Guarantees. The army was received by a jubilant populace who had erected arches of triumph and decorated houses and themselves with the tri-color (red, white, and green) of this army. The following day, Mexico was declared an independent empire
Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire
The Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire is the foundational document of the empire, and therefore, of the Mexican nation. The morning after the Army of the Three Guarantees entered Mexico City on September 28, 1821, Agustín de Iturbide ordered the Supreme Provisional Governmental...


What remained of the royalist army retreated, and while Juan de O’Donoju was cornered in the fortress of San Juan de Ulúa
San Juan de Ulúa
San Juan de Ulúa, also known as Castle of San Juan de Ulúa is a large complex of fortresses, prisons and one former palace on an island overlooking the seaport of Veracruz, Mexico.-History:...

, he hastily negotiated a treaty with Iturbide, called the Treaty of Córdoba
Treaty of Córdoba
The Treaty of Córdova established Mexican independence from Spain at the conclusion of the Mexican War of Independence. It was signed on August 24, 1821 in Córdoba, Veracruz, Mexico. The signatories were the head of the Army of the Three Guarantees, Agustín de Iturbide, and acting on behalf of the...

. Similar to the Plan de Iguala, this document guaranteed autonomy for New Spain within the Spanish Empire under the Bourbon dynasty. This successor state would invite Ferdinand VII to rule as emperor or, in default, his brother Don Carlos
Infante Carlos, Count of Molina
The Infante Carlos of Spain was the second surviving son of King Charles IV of Spain and of his wife, Maria Luisa of Parma. As Carlos V he was the first of the Carlist claimants to the throne of Spain...

. If both refused, a suitable monarch would be searched for among the various European royal houses. In the meantime, a regency
A regent, from the Latin regens "one who reigns", is a person selected to act as head of state because the ruler is a minor, not present, or debilitated. Currently there are only two ruling Regencies in the world, sovereign Liechtenstein and the Malaysian constitutive state of Terengganu...

 would replace the viceroy. All existing laws, including the 1812 Constitution, would remain in force until a new constitution for Mexico was written.

Iturbide named himself President of the Provisional Governing Junta, which selected the five-person regency that would temporarily govern the newly-independent Mexico. The junta had thirty six members who would have legislative power until the convocation of a congress. Iturbide controlled both the membership of this junta and the matters that it considered. This junta would be responsible for negotiating the offer of the throne of Mexico to a suitable royal. Members of the republican insurgent movement were left out of this government.

The new government overwhelmingly consisted of people loyal to Iturbide himself. Opposition groups included the old insurgents as well as a number of progressives and those loyal to Ferdinand VII. Many of the liberals and progressive groups also belonged to Masonic lodges
Freemasonry is a fraternal organisation that arose from obscure origins in the late 16th to early 17th century. Freemasonry now exists in various forms all over the world, with a membership estimated at around six million, including approximately 150,000 under the jurisdictions of the Grand Lodge...

 of the Scottish rite
Scottish Rite
The Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite of Freemasonry , commonly known as simply the Scottish Rite, is one of several Rites of the worldwide fraternity known as Freemasonry...

, leading these branches of the opposition to be called escoceses (Scots). The independence achieved under the leadership of Iturbide might have surprised both Hidalgo and Morelos. It was a movement more concerned about the preservation of elite status than liberal value of equality of the masses. Only Iturbide and other Criollos really gained power.

Iturbide moved to Mexico City and settled himself in a large palatial home which now bears the name Palace of Iturbide
Palace of Iturbide
The Palace of Iturbide is a large palatial home located in the historic center of Mexico City on Madero Street #17. It was built by the Count of San Mateo Valparaíso as a wedding gift for his daughter. It gained the name “Palace of Iturbide” because Agustín de Iturbide lived and accepted the crown...

. This mansion was lent to him by the family that owned it but was not living in it. Iturbide began to live extravagantly, assigning himself a large yearly sum as compensation. He demanded preferences for his army and chosen ministers as well. In the meantime, Ferdinand VII rejected the offer of the Mexican throne and forbade any of his family from accepting the position, and the Spanish parliament rejected the Treaty of Córdoba.

Emperor Agustín I

Shortly after signing the Treaty of Córdoba, the Spanish government reneged. Ferdinand VII had regained the upper hand against the liberals in Spain and increased his influence outside the country. He even had credible plans for the reconquest of the old colony. For these reasons, no European noble would accept the offer of a Mexican crown. Inside Mexico itself, there was no noble family that the populace would accept as royalty. In the meantime, the governing junta that Iturbide headed convened a constituent congress to set up the new government. This new government did have indirect representation, based on the Cadiz model. However, Iturbide did not approve as it restricted the power of the landed elite. He and the junta therefore declared that they would not be bound by the Cadiz Constitution but kept the Congress that was convened. This led to divisiveness which came to a head in February 1822. Congress assigned sovereignty to itself rather than to a monarch, and considered lowering military pay and decreasing the size of the army. These moves threatened to reduce Iturbide's influence in current and future governments.

This led to political destabilization, which was resolved temporarily when Iturbide took the crown of Mexico for himself. However, it is not clear whether he took this crown at the insistence of the people or whether he simply took advantage of the political situation. Some call Iturbide's decision a coup and state that the public support for Itubide was orchestrated by him and his followers. Others insist that the people's offer of the throne was sincere, based on there being no other candidate and the people's gratitude to him for the liberation of Mexico. The latter accounts stress that Iturbide initially rejected the offer in favor of persuading Ferdinand VII to change his mind about ruling Mexico but then reluctantly accepted.

Most historical accounts mention the crowd that gathered outside of what is now the Palace of Iturbide in Mexico City to shout "Viva Iturbide!" and insist that he take the throne of Mexico in May 1822. This crowd included Iturbide's old regiment from Celaya. Some insist that this demonstration was staged by Iturbide himself or his loyalists. From a balcony of the palace Iturbide repeatedly denied his desire for the throne but there is doubt that he was sincere in this. One interesting twist to this story is reported by Mexico City daily La Jornada
La Jornada
La Jornada is one of Mexico City's leading daily newspapers. It was established in 1984 by Carlos Payán Velver. The current editor is Carmen Lira Saade...

which states that Iturbide held the first popular referendum in Mexico. According to this article, Iturbide sent out a questionnaire to military and civilian leaders as to whether the people preferred a republic or a monarchy. Supposedly, the answer came back in favor of a monarchy. After Iturbide accepted the crowd's offer of the throne, he went to the congress the next day to have his appointment confirmed. Iturbide's supporters filled the balconies overlooking the chamber. The congress confirmed him and his title of Agustín I, Constitutional Emperor of Mexico, by a vast majority.

Iturbide's coronation was held at the Mexico City Cathedral on 21 July 1822, with his wife, Ana María, crowned empress, in an elaborate ceremony. It was attended by the bishop
A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox Churches, in the Assyrian Church of the East, in the Independent Catholic Churches, and in the...

s of Puebla
Puebla officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Puebla is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 217 municipalities and its capital city is Puebla....

, Guadalajara
Guadalajara may refer to:In Mexico:*Guadalajara, Jalisco, the capital of the state of Jalisco and second largest city in Mexico**Guadalajara Metropolitan Area*University of Guadalajara, a public university in Guadalajara, Jalisco...

, Durango
Durango officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Durango is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. The state is located in Northwest Mexico. With a population of 1,632,934, it has Mexico's second-lowest population density, after Baja...

, and Oaxaca
Oaxaca , , officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca is one of the 31 states which, along with the Federal District, comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided into 571 municipalities; of which 418 are governed by the system of customs and traditions...

, and presided over by Archbishop of Mexico Pedro José de Fonte y Hernández Miravete. Just as Napoleon did, Iturbide placer the crown upon his own head. The new emperor had congress decree the crown to be hereditary with the title of "Prince of the Union". As emperor, Iturbide had sovereignty over lands bordered by Panama
Panama , officially the Republic of Panama , is the southernmost country of Central America. Situated on the isthmus connecting North and South America, it is bordered by Costa Rica to the northwest, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south. The...

 in the south and the Oregon Country
Oregon Country
The Oregon Country was a predominantly American term referring to a disputed ownership region of the Pacific Northwest of North America. The region was occupied by British and French Canadian fur traders from before 1810, and American settlers from the mid-1830s, with its coastal areas north from...

 in the north, including the current countries of Central America
Central America
Central America is the central geographic region of the Americas. It is the southernmost, isthmian portion of the North American continent, which connects with South America on the southeast. When considered part of the unified continental model, it is considered a subcontinent...

 and the U.S. states of California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

, Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

, Arizona
Arizona ; is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. It is also part of the western United States and the mountain west. The capital and largest city is Phoenix...

, Utah
Utah is a state in the Western United States. It was the 45th state to join the Union, on January 4, 1896. Approximately 80% of Utah's 2,763,885 people live along the Wasatch Front, centering on Salt Lake City. This leaves vast expanses of the state nearly uninhabited, making the population the...

, Nevada
Nevada is a state in the western, mountain west, and southwestern regions of the United States. With an area of and a population of about 2.7 million, it is the 7th-largest and 35th-most populous state. Over two-thirds of Nevada's people live in the Las Vegas metropolitan area, which contains its...

, Colorado
Colorado is a U.S. state that encompasses much of the Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains...

, and New Mexico
New Mexico
New Mexico is a state located in the southwest and western regions of the United States. New Mexico is also usually considered one of the Mountain States. With a population density of 16 per square mile, New Mexico is the sixth-most sparsely inhabited U.S...



Republicans were not happy with Iturbide as emperor. While the Catholic clergy supported him, Iturbide's coronation both dashed republican hopes and broke with the Plan of Iguala and the Treaty of Córdoba. Many of the landed classes supported Iturbide and these documents because they offered a sense of continuity with what had always been. Iturbide's self-appointment as emperor broke with Spanish and colonial practices, which caused discontent among the most traditional of Iturbide's supporters.

The strongest opposition to Iturbide's reign came from the congress. A significant number of this congress supported republican ideas. A significant number of these members also belonged to Masonic lodges, which were introduced to Mexico in the 1780s and they found a voice when Manuel Cordorniu founded the newspaper El Sol, essentially becoming the in-house publication for the Scottish Rite lodge in their struggle against Iturbide. Gorka Rosainz claims that these lodges also received support from the United States, who wanted to see European influence decreased in the Americas. To combat the resistance, Iturbide closed down the congress on 31 October 1822, and created a new junta to legislate in its place, answering only to him. He persecuted his enemies, arresting and jailing between nineteen and twenty-six former members of the congress, but this did not bring peace. In fact, a number of prominent politicians and military, many of whom initially supported Agustín as emperor, turned against him, for having "made a mockery of national representation."

During this time, Mexico suffered as an independent country. Ferdinand's resurgence as a ruler in Spain meant that no European nation was willing to recognize Mexico's independence and most broke off economic ties with the new state. Mexico was also under the threat of reconquest by Spain. Iturbide's economic policies were draining resources as well. To increase his popularity, he abolished a number of colonial-era taxes. However, he still insisted on a large and very-well-paid army and lived extravagantly himself. The elite turned against him when he imposed a 40% property tax on them.

This would not last long. Soon Iturbide was unable to pay his army, forming discontent in a significant portion of his power base. When criticism of the government grew strong, Iturbide censored the press — an act that backfired against him. Opposition groups began to band together against the emperor. Leaders like Valentín Gómez Farías
Valentín Gómez Farías
Valentín Gómez Farías was several times acting President of Mexico in the 1830s and 1840s.Gomez Farias was one of the more important political figures in early Mexico. The first presidency of Santa Anna from 1833 to 1836 was a temporary victory for the Mexican Liberals...

, Gertrudis Bocanegra
Gertrudis Bocanegra
María Gertrudis Bocanegra de Mendoza de Lazo de la Vega was a woman who fought in the Mexican War of Independence. She was arrested, tortured and executed in 1817....

, and Antonio López de Santa Anna
Antonio López de Santa Anna
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón , often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna, known as "the Napoleon of the West," was a Mexican political leader, general, and president who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government...

 began to conspire against the imperial concept altogether and became convinced that a republican model was needed to combat despotism.

Santa Anna publicly announced his opposition to Iturbide in December 1822 with the support of Colonel José Antonio Echavarri and other military officers. The emperor tried to stop Santa Anna by inviting him to Mexico City. Recognizing the danger of such an invitation, in early spring 1823 Santa Anna responded with his Plan de Casa Mata, which called for Iturbide to abdicate the throne, for the end of the empire, and for the formation of a republic governed by a written constitution. Iturbide's enemy-turned-ally, Vicente Guerrero, turned to enemy again when he supported Santa Anna's plan.

In addition to opposition to Emperor Agustín I within what is now Mexico, much of the area now known as Central America declared its opposition to Mexico City's rule. In 1823, authorities in what are now El Salvador
El Salvador
El Salvador or simply Salvador is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America. The country's capital city and largest city is San Salvador; Santa Ana and San Miguel are also important cultural and commercial centers in the country and in all of Central America...

, Nicaragua
Nicaragua is the largest country in the Central American American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. The country is situated between 11 and 14 degrees north of the Equator in the Northern Hemisphere, which places it entirely within the tropics. The Pacific Ocean...

, Costa Rica
Costa Rica
Costa Rica , officially the Republic of Costa Rica is a multilingual, multiethnic and multicultural country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west and the Caribbean Sea to the east....

, and Honduras
Honduras is a republic in Central America. It was previously known as Spanish Honduras to differentiate it from British Honduras, which became the modern-day state of Belize...

 convened a Congress to declare themselves independent from Mexico and Spain as the United Provinces of Central America.

Santa Anna's army marched toward Mexico City, winning small victories along the way. Iturbide gathered and sent troops to combat Santa Anna, but the effort was not very strong. The two leaders met on 1 February 1823 to sign Santa Anna's plan which called for the reinstatement of congress, Iturbide's abdication and his exile. Iturbide did as he promised and personally reopened the same congress he closed in March 1823 to present his abdication to this body. However, congress refused to accept it, arguing that such would imply that the existence of said throne was legitimate. Instead they nullified their own election of Iturbide as emperor. Iturbide left for Europe soon afterwards. Leadership of the country was passed on to what was called the "triumvirate," made up of generals Guadalupe Victoria, Nicolás Bravo
Nicolás Bravo
Nicolás Bravo was a Mexican politician and soldier. He distinguished himself in both offices during the 1846–1848 U.S. invasion of Mexico....

 and Pedro Celestino Negrete
Pedro Celestino Negrete
Pedro Celestino Negrete was a Spanish politician and military man who served as a member of the interim government of México after the abolition of the First Mexican Empire. He fought alongside of Agustín de Iturbide in the royalist army during the Mexican War of Independence...



On 11 May 1823, the ex-emperor boarded the English ship Rawlins en route to Livorno
Livorno , traditionally Leghorn , is a port city on the Tyrrhenian Sea on the western edge of Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Livorno, having a population of approximately 160,000 residents in 2009.- History :...

, Italy, (then part of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany
Grand Duchy of Tuscany
The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a central Italian monarchy that existed, with interruptions, from 1569 to 1859, replacing the Duchy of Florence. The grand duchy's capital was Florence...

) accompanied by his wife, children, and some servants. There he rented a small country house and began to write his memoirs. However, Spain pressured Tuscany to expel Iturbide, and the Iturbide family moved to England. Here, he published his autobiography, Statement of Some of the Principal Events in the Public Life of Agustín de Iturbide. When he was exiled, Iturbide was given a government pension, but Congress also declared him a traitor and "outside of the law," to be killed if he ever returned to Mexico. Whether he was aware of this second part is in dispute.

After his departure, the situation in Mexico continued to worsen. Reports of a probable Spanish attempt to retake Mexico reached Iturbide in England. He continued to receive reports from Mexico as well as advice from supporters that if he returned he would be hailed as a liberator and a potential leader against the Spanish invasion. Iturbide sent word to congress in Mexico City on 13 February 1824 offering his services in the event of Spanish attack. Congress never replied. More conservative political factions in Mexico finally convinced Iturbide to return.


Iturbide returned to Mexico on 14 July 1824, accompanied by his wife, two children, and a chaplain
Traditionally, a chaplain is a minister in a specialized setting such as a priest, pastor, rabbi, or imam or lay representative of a religion attached to a secular institution such as a hospital, prison, military unit, police department, university, or private chapel...

. He landed at the port of Soto la Marina on the coast of Nuevo Santander (the modern-day state of Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 43 municipalities and its capital city is Ciudad Victoria. The capital city was named after Guadalupe Victoria, the...

). They were initially greeted enthusiastically, but soon they were arrested and escorted by General Felipe de la Garza, the local military commander, to the nearby village of Padilla. The local legislature held a trial and sentenced Iturbide to death. When a local priest administered last rites, Iturbide supposedly said, "Mexicans! I die with honor, not as a traitor; do not leave this stain on my children and my legacy. I am not a traitor, no." He was executed by firing squad on 19 July 1824. Three bullets hit him, one of which delivered the fatal blow.

His body was buried and abandoned at the parish church of Padilla until 1833. In that year, then-President Santa Anna
Antonio López de Santa Anna
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón , often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna, known as "the Napoleon of the West," was a Mexican political leader, general, and president who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government...

 decided to rehabilitate the memory of Iturbide, ordering that his remains be transferred to the capital with honors. However, it was not until 1838, during the presidency of Anastasio Bustamante
Anastasio Bustamante
Anastasio Bustamante y Oseguera was president of Mexico three times, from 1830 to 1832, from 1837 to 1839 and from 1839 to 1841. He was a Conservative. He first came to power by leading a coup against president Vicente Guerrero...

 that this order was confirmed and carried out. His ashes were received in Mexico City with much pomp and ceremony, and the same Congress that had been against him for so many years gave him honor as a primary hero of the War of Independence.

His remains were placed in an urn on 27 October 1839 in the Chapel of San Felipe de Jesús in the Mexico City Cathedral where they still are. On the stand is an inscription in Spanish that translates to "Agustín de Iturbide, author of the Independence of Mexico. Compatriot, cry for him; passerby, admire him. This monument guards the ashes of a hero. May his soul rest in the bosom of God."

Iturbide's role in history

While Iturbide's reign lasted less than a year, it was the result of and further defined the struggle between republican and traditional ideals, not only in Mexico, but also in Europe. For a number of Mexican autonomists, a constitutionally-sanctioned monarchy seemed a logical solution to the problem of creating a new state as it seemed to be a compromise between those who pushed for a representative form of government and those who wished to keep Mexico's monarchist traditions. If viewed in this light, historian Eric Van Young states that Iturbide's seizure of the crown "seems less cynical and idiosyncratic when it comes along at the end of the independence struggle." However, the rest of the 19th century would be marked as vacillation between the two political extremes, with each side gaining the upper hand at one point or another. The old Mexican nobility
Mexican nobility
Mexican nobility refers to the titled nobles and untitled gentry families of Mexico. Most of the descendants of these families still live in Mexico today, but some can be found in Europe and other countries....

 kept their titles and coats-of-arms
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is a unique heraldic design on a shield or escutcheon or on a surcoat or tabard used to cover and protect armour and to identify the wearer. Thus the term is often stated as "coat-armour", because it was anciently displayed on the front of a coat of cloth...

 close at hand, ready for a comeback. Members of the Iturbide family intrigued against Mexican government in Madrid, New York City, Paris, and Rome as late as the 1890s.

Liberal or republican ideas were and would continue to be embraced by creoles outside of the Mexico City elite. These came out of Bourbon reforms in Europe that were based on the Enlightenment
Age of Enlightenment
The Age of Enlightenment was an elite cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th century Europe that sought to mobilize the power of reason in order to reform society and advance knowledge. It promoted intellectual interchange and opposed intolerance and abuses in church and state...

. Attacks on the Church by liberals in Spain and elsewhere in Europe would be repeated in Mexico during the La Reforma
La Reforma
La Reforma was a period halfway through the 19th century in the history of Mexico that was characterized by liberal reforms and the transformation of Mexico into a nation state...

 period. Ideals of the Constitution of Cadiz would find expression in the 1824 Constitution of Mexico
1824 Constitution of Mexico
The Federal Constitution of the United Mexican States of 1824 was enacted on October 4 of 1824, after the overthrow of the Mexican Empire of Agustin de Iturbide. In the new constitution, the republic took the name of United Mexican States, and was defined as a representative federal republic, with...

. An interesting fact is that this constitution would influence political thought on both sides of the Mexican political spectrum, with even Iturbide bending to it when he created the first congress of an independent Mexico. After Iturbide, there was wide general consensus, even among the landed elite, that some form of representative government was needed. The question was how much power would be in legislative hands and how much in an executive.

Iturbide's empire was replaced with the First Republic which was soon usurped by Santa Anna's regime. This regime would be overthrown with the War of the Reform
Reform War
The Reform War in Mexico is one of the episodes of the long struggle between Liberal and Conservative forces that dominated the country’s history in the 19th century. The Liberals wanted a federalist government, limiting traditional Catholic Church and military influence in the country...

, which reimposed republican ideals. Porfirio Díaz
Porfirio Díaz
José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori was a Mexican-American War volunteer and French intervention hero, an accomplished general and the President of Mexico continuously from 1876 to 1911, with the exception of a brief term in 1876 when he left Juan N...

 in the late 19th century would impose one-man rule more successfully than either Iturbide or Santa Anna ever did. He would be overthrown with the Mexican Revolution
Mexican Revolution
The Mexican Revolution was a major armed struggle that started in 1910, with an uprising led by Francisco I. Madero against longtime autocrat Porfirio Díaz. The Revolution was characterized by several socialist, liberal, anarchist, populist, and agrarianist movements. Over time the Revolution...

. Early in the independence period of Mexico's history, even the day used to mark Independence would be based on which side you were on. Traditionalists favored 27 September to celebrate when Iturbide rode into Mexico, but more liberal politicians favored 16 September to celebrate Father Hidalgo's call for rebellion against Spain.

In modern-day Mexico, the liberalist tendency has dominated, to the extent that the conservative movements are academically and politically almost ignored. When they are treated, it is with a strong partisan slant. This is true of much of the writing about Iturbide, being portrayed as a "traitor" of 19th century Mexico.

Iturbide's strategy of defining a plan and using the military to back it up started a trend in Mexican politics that would dominate until the 20th century. He can also been seen as the first "caudillo
Caudillo is a Spanish word for "leader" and usually describes a political-military leader at the head of an authoritarian power. The term translates into English as leader or chief, or more pejoratively as warlord, dictator or strongman. Caudillo was the term used to refer to the charismatic...

" or charismatic dictator who used a combination of widespread popularity and threat of violence toward opposition to rule and would be followed by the likes of Antonio López de Santa Anna and Porfirio Díaz.

Another legacy that Iturbide left to Mexico was its modern flag
Flag of Mexico
The flag of Mexico is a vertical tricolor of green, white, and red with the national coat of arms charged in the center of the white stripe. While the meaning of the colors has changed over time, these three colors were adopted by Mexico following independence from Spain during the country's War...

, creating the flag known today. The three colors of red, white and green originally represented the three guarantees of the Plan of Iguala. In the place of the Spanish emblem for Mexico, he resurrected the old Tenochtitlan symbol for Mexico City, an eagle perched on a nopal
Nopales are a vegetable made from the young cladode segments of prickly pear, carefully peeled to remove the spines. These fleshy pads are flat and about hand-sized. They can be purple or green...

 cactus holding a snake in its beak. With it he hoped to link the upcoming Mexican Empire with the old Aztec one.


Agustín was married on 27 February 1805 to Ana María Josefa Ramona de Huarte y Muñiz
Ana María de Huarte y Muñiz
Ana María Josefa Ramona de Huarte y Muñiz , was the consort of Emperor Agustín de Iturbide of Mexico. She was daughter of the nobleman Isidro Huarte, provincial intendant and descendant of the Marquis of Altamira....

 (1786–1861); they had 10 children:
  • HIH
    Imperial Highness
    His/Her Imperial Highness is a style used by members of an imperial family to denote imperial - as opposed to royal - status to show that the holder in question is descended from an Emperor rather than a King .Today the style has mainly fallen from use with the exception of the Imperial Family of...

    Don (honorific)
    Don, from Latin dominus, is an honorific in Spanish , Portuguese , and Italian . The female equivalent is Doña , Dona , and Donna , abbreviated "Dª" or simply "D."-Usage:...

     Agustín Jerónimo de Iturbide y Huarte
    Agustín Jerónimo de Iturbide y Huarte
    Don Agustín Jerónimo de Iturbide y Huarte, Prince Imperial of Mexico, OG OME was the son of the first Mexican Emperor Agustín I of Mexico, the heir apparent to the First Mexican Empire and a member of the Imperial House of Iturbide; later in his life he served as a military officer in South...

    , Prince Imperial of Mexico (1807–1866)
  • HH
    Highness, often used with a possessive adjective , is an attribute referring to the rank of the dynasty in an address...

     Doña Sabina de Iturbide y Huarte
    Sabina de Iturbide y Huarte
    Doña Sabina de Iturbide y Huarte, Princess of Mexico was a Mexican princess during the short-lived First Mexican Empire and a member of the Imperial House of Iturbide. She was the eldest daughter of Agustín de Iturbide and Ana María de Huarte y Muñiz...

  • HH
    Highness, often used with a possessive adjective , is an attribute referring to the rank of the dynasty in an address...

     Doña Juana María de Iturbide y Huarte (1811–1828)
  • HH
    Highness, often used with a possessive adjective , is an attribute referring to the rank of the dynasty in an address...

     Doña Josefa de Iturbide y Huarte (1814–1891)
  • HH
    Highness, often used with a possessive adjective , is an attribute referring to the rank of the dynasty in an address...

     Don Ángel de Iturbide y Huarte (1816–1872) father of Agustín de Iturbide y Green
    Agustín de Iturbide y Green
    Don Agustín de Iturbide y Green, Prince of Iturbide was the grandson of Agustín de Iturbide, the first emperor of independent Mexico, and his consort Empress Ana María...

  • HH
    Highness, often used with a possessive adjective , is an attribute referring to the rank of the dynasty in an address...

     Doña María Isis de Iturbide y Huarte (1818–1849)
  • HH
    Highness, often used with a possessive adjective , is an attribute referring to the rank of the dynasty in an address...

     Doña María de los Dolores de Iturbide y Huarte (1819–1820)
  • HH
    Highness, often used with a possessive adjective , is an attribute referring to the rank of the dynasty in an address...

     Don Salvador de Iturbide y Huarte
    Prince Salvador of Iturbide-Huarte
    Prince Salvador of Mexico, also named Salvador de Iturbide y Huarte was the eighth child of Agustín I of Mexico and Empress Ana Maria Huarte. He was married in 1845 to Doña María del Rosario de Marzán y Guizasola...

     (1820–1856) father of Salvador de Iturbide y de Marzán
    Salvador de Iturbide y de Marzán
    Don Salvador, Prince of Iturbide, also named Salvador de Iturbide y Marzán . was the second adopted son of Maximilian I of Mexico.-Family:...

  • HH
    Highness, often used with a possessive adjective , is an attribute referring to the rank of the dynasty in an address...

     Don Felipe Andrés María Guadalupe de Iturbide y Huarte (1822–1853)
  • HH
    Highness, often used with a possessive adjective , is an attribute referring to the rank of the dynasty in an address...

     Don Agustín Cosme de Iturbide y Huarte (1824–1873)
  • HH
    Highness, often used with a possessive adjective , is an attribute referring to the rank of the dynasty in an address...

     Don Jesus de Iturbide y Huarte (1817–1841) ????

See also

  • Mexican War of Independence
    Mexican War of Independence
    The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and the Spanish colonial authorities which started on 16 September 1810. The movement, which became known as the Mexican War of Independence, was led by Mexican-born Spaniards, Mestizos and Amerindians who sought...

  • Mexican Empire
    Mexican Empire
    The Mexican Empire or rarely Gran Mexico was the name of modern Mexico on two brief occasions in the 19th century when it was ruled by an emperor. With the Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire from Spain in 1821, Mexico became an independent monarchy, but was soon replaced with the...

Further reading

, t. 5.
  • Harvey, Robert. "Liberators: Latin America`s Struggle For Independence, 1810–1830". John Murray, London (2000). ISBN 0-7195-5566-3 186 p.

External links



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