, bordered by Honduras
to the north and Costa Rica
to the south. The country is situated between 11
degrees north of the Equator
in the Northern Hemisphere, which places it entirely within the tropics. The Pacific Ocean lies to the west, and the Caribbean Sea
to the east. The country's physical geography divides it into three major zones: Pacific lowlands, wet, cooler central highlands, and the Caribbean lowlands
1821 Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica jointly declare independence from Spain.
1824 Costa Rica annexes Guanacaste from Nicaragua.
1838 Nicaragua declares independence from the Central American Federation.
1838 The Federal Republic of Central America begins to disintegrate when Nicaragua separates from the federation.
1855 American adventurer William Walker departs from San Francisco with about 60 men to conquer Nicaragua.
1855 American adventurer William Walker conquers Nicaragua.
1893 A revolution led by the liberal general and politician, José Santos Zelaya, takes over state power in Nicaragua.
1895 El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua form the Greater Republic of Central America.
1909 Two United States warships are sent to Nicaragua after 500 revolutionaries (including two Americans) are executed by order of José Santos Zelaya.
1912 United States Marines invade Nicaragua to support the U.S.-backed government installed there after José Santos Zelaya had resigned three years earlier.