Puebla
Overview
 
Puebla (ˈpweβla) officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Puebla (Free and Sovereign State of Puebla) is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District
Mexico City
Mexico City is the Federal District , capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Mexican Union. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole...

, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

. It is divided in 217 municipalities
Municipalities of Puebla
The Mexican state of Puebla is divided into 217 municipalities :-External links:* , Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México...

 and its capital city is Puebla
Puebla, Puebla
The city and municipality of Puebla is the capital of the state of Puebla, and one of the five most important colonial cities in Mexico. Being a planned city, it is located to the east of Mexico City and west of Mexico's main port, Veracruz, on the main route between the two.The city was founded...

.

It is located in East-Central Mexico
Eastern Mexico
The Eastern Mexico or also called East-Central Mexico , is a region of United Mexican States, formed by the states of Hidalgo, Puebla, Tlaxcala and Veracruz...

. It is bordered by the states of Veracruz
Veracruz
Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave , is one of the 31 states that, along with the Federal District, comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided in 212 municipalities and its capital city is...

 to the north and east, Hidalgo, México, Tlaxcala
Tlaxcala
Tlaxcala officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Tlaxcala is one of the 31 states which along with the Federal District comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided into 60 municipalities and its capital city is Tlaxcala....

 and Morelos to the west, Guerrero and Oaxaca
Oaxaca
Oaxaca , , officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca is one of the 31 states which, along with the Federal District, comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided into 571 municipalities; of which 418 are governed by the system of customs and traditions...

 to the south.

The origins of the state lie in the city of Puebla, which was founded by the Spanish in this valley in 1531 to secure the trade route between Mexico City
Mexico City
Mexico City is the Federal District , capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Mexican Union. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole...

 and the port of Veracruz
Veracruz, Veracruz
Veracruz, officially known as Heroica Veracruz, is a major port city and municipality on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz. The city is located in the central part of the state. It is located along Federal Highway 140 from the state capital Xalapa, and is the state's most...

.

By the end of the 18th century, the area had become a colonial province with its own governor, which would become the State of Puebla, after the Mexican War of Independence
Mexican War of Independence
The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and the Spanish colonial authorities which started on 16 September 1810. The movement, which became known as the Mexican War of Independence, was led by Mexican-born Spaniards, Mestizos and Amerindians who sought...

 in the early 19th century.
Encyclopedia
Puebla (ˈpweβla) officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Puebla (Free and Sovereign State of Puebla) is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District
Mexico City
Mexico City is the Federal District , capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Mexican Union. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole...

, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

. It is divided in 217 municipalities
Municipalities of Puebla
The Mexican state of Puebla is divided into 217 municipalities :-External links:* , Enciclopedia de los Municipios de México...

 and its capital city is Puebla
Puebla, Puebla
The city and municipality of Puebla is the capital of the state of Puebla, and one of the five most important colonial cities in Mexico. Being a planned city, it is located to the east of Mexico City and west of Mexico's main port, Veracruz, on the main route between the two.The city was founded...

.

It is located in East-Central Mexico
Eastern Mexico
The Eastern Mexico or also called East-Central Mexico , is a region of United Mexican States, formed by the states of Hidalgo, Puebla, Tlaxcala and Veracruz...

. It is bordered by the states of Veracruz
Veracruz
Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave , is one of the 31 states that, along with the Federal District, comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided in 212 municipalities and its capital city is...

 to the north and east, Hidalgo, México, Tlaxcala
Tlaxcala
Tlaxcala officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Tlaxcala is one of the 31 states which along with the Federal District comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided into 60 municipalities and its capital city is Tlaxcala....

 and Morelos to the west, Guerrero and Oaxaca
Oaxaca
Oaxaca , , officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca is one of the 31 states which, along with the Federal District, comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided into 571 municipalities; of which 418 are governed by the system of customs and traditions...

 to the south.

The origins of the state lie in the city of Puebla, which was founded by the Spanish in this valley in 1531 to secure the trade route between Mexico City
Mexico City
Mexico City is the Federal District , capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Mexican Union. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole...

 and the port of Veracruz
Veracruz, Veracruz
Veracruz, officially known as Heroica Veracruz, is a major port city and municipality on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz. The city is located in the central part of the state. It is located along Federal Highway 140 from the state capital Xalapa, and is the state's most...

.

By the end of the 18th century, the area had become a colonial province with its own governor, which would become the State of Puebla, after the Mexican War of Independence
Mexican War of Independence
The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and the Spanish colonial authorities which started on 16 September 1810. The movement, which became known as the Mexican War of Independence, was led by Mexican-born Spaniards, Mestizos and Amerindians who sought...

 in the early 19th century. Since that time, the area, especially around the capital city, has continued to grow economically, mostly through industry, despite being the scene of a number of battles, the most notable of which being the Battle of Puebla
Battle of Puebla
The Battle of Puebla took place on 5 May 1862 near the city of Puebla during the French intervention in Mexico. The battle ended in a victory for the Mexican Army over the occupying French forces...

. Today, the state is one of the most industrialized in the country, but since most of its development is concentrated in Puebla and other cities, many of its rural areas are very poor, forcing many to migrate away to places such as Mexico City and the United States.

Culturally, the state is home to the China Poblana
China Poblana
China poblana is a term that refers to two elements of the culture of Mexico that have been related by name since the end of the 19th century, although the elements they incorporate are much older...

, mole poblano, active literary and arts scenes and festivals such as Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo is a holiday held on May 5. It is celebrated nationwide in the United States and regionally in Mexico, primarily in the state of Puebla, where the holiday is called El Dia de la Batalla de Puebla...

, Ritual of Quetzalcoatl, Day of the Dead
Day of the Dead
Day of the Dead is a Mexican holiday celebrated throughout Mexico and around the world in many cultures. The holiday focuses on gatherings of family and friends to pray for and remember friends and family members who have died. It is particularly celebrated in Mexico, where it attains the quality...

 celebrations (especially in Huaquechula
Huaquechula
Huaquechula is the name of a municipality in east Puebla, Mexico, as well as the name of the town that is its municipal seat.The name Huaquechula comes from Nahuatl Quauhquechollan, meaning "place of eagle-spoonbills"....

) and Carnival
Carnival
Carnaval is a festive season which occurs immediately before Lent; the main events are usually during February. Carnaval typically involves a public celebration or parade combining some elements of a circus, mask and public street party...

 (especially in Huejotzingo
Huejotzingo (municipality)
Huejotzingo is a small city and municipality located just northwest of the city of Puebla, in the central Mexico. The settlement’s history dates back to the pre-Hispanic period, when it was a dominion, with its capital a short distance from where the modern settlement is today...

). It is home to five major indigenous groups: Nahuas, the Totonac
Totonac
The Totonac people resided in the eastern coastal and mountainous regions of Mexico at the time of the Spanish arrival in 1519. Today they reside in the states of Veracruz, Puebla, and Hidalgo. They are one of the possible builders of the Pre-Columbian city of El Tajín, and further maintained...

as, the Mixtec
Mixtec
The Mixtec are indigenous Mesoamerican peoples inhabiting the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Guerrero and Puebla in a region known as La Mixteca. The Mixtecan languages form an important branch of the Otomanguean language family....

as, the Popolocas and the Otomi
Otomi people
The Otomi people . Smaller Otomi populations exist in the states of Puebla, Mexico, Tlaxcala, Michoacán and Guanajuato. The Otomi language belonging to the Oto-Pamean branch of the Oto-Manguean language family is spoken in many different varieties some of which are not mutually intelligible.One of...

, which can mostly be found in the far north and the far south of the state.

Geography and ecology

The state is located on the central highlands of Mexico between the Sierra Nevada
Trans-Mexican volcanic belt
The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt also known as the Transvolcanic Belt and locally as the Sierra Nevada , is a volcanic belt that extends 900 km from west to east across central-southern Mexico...

 and the Sierra Madre Oriental
Sierra Madre Oriental
The Sierra Madre Oriental is a mountain range in northeastern Mexico.-Setting:Spanning the Sierra Madre Oriental runs from Coahuila south through Nuevo León, southwest Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí, Querétaro, and Hidalgo to northern Puebla, where it joins with the east-west running Eje Volcánico...

. It has a roughly triangular shape with its narrow part to the north. It borders the states of Veracruz, Oaxaca, Guerrero, Morelos, State of Mexico, Tlaxcala and Hidalgo. The state has a territory of 33,919km2 and ranks 20th out of 31 states in size, and 4,930 named communities.

Mountains

Most of its mountains belong to the Sierra Madre Oriental and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The first is locally called the Sierra Norte del Puebla, entering the state from the northwest and then breaks up into the smaller chains of Sierra de Zacapoaxtla, Sierra de Huauchinango, Sierra de Teziutlán, Sierra de Tetela de Ocampo, Sierra de Chignahuapan and Sierra de Zacatlán, although these names may vary among localities. Some of the highest elevations include Apulco, Chichat, Chignahuapan, Soltepec and Tlatlaquitepec. The highest elevations are the volcanoes Pico de Orizaba
Pico de Orizaba
The Pico de Orizaba, or Citlaltépetl , is a stratovolcano, the highest mountain in Mexico and the third highest in North America. It rises above sea level in the eastern end of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, on the border between the states of Veracruz and Puebla...

 or Citlaltepetl (5,747masl), Popocatépetl
Popocatépetl
Popocatépetl also known as "Popochowa" by the local population is an active volcano and, at , the second highest peak in Mexico after the Pico de Orizaba...

 (5,452masl), Iztaccíhuatl
Iztaccíhuatl
Iztaccíhuatl , is the third highest mountain in Mexico, after the Pico de Orizaba, , and Popocatépetl, . Its name is Nahuatl for "White woman"....

 (5,286masl) and Malinche
Matlalcueitl (volcano)
La Malinche mountain, also known as Matlalcuéyetl, Matlalcueitl or Malintzin, is an inactive volcano located in Tlaxcala and Puebla states, in Mexico. Officially, its summit reaches above sea level, though in some articles it is considered to be 4,503 m...

 (4,461masl) which are found on the state’s borders with Veracruz, Mexico State and Tlaxcala respectively. In the south of the state, the major elevations are the Sierra de Atenahuacán, Zapotitlán, Lomerio al Suroeste and the Sierra de Tehuacán. Dividing much of the state from Veracruz is a small chain of mountains called the Sierra Madre del Golfo.

The natural geography of the state subdivides into the Huasteco Plateau, Llanuras y Lomeríos zone, Lagos y Volcanes del Anáhuac, Chiconquiaco, Llanuras y Sierras de Querétaro e Hidalgo, Cordillera Costera del Sur, Mixteca Alta, Sierras y Valles Guerrenses, Sierras Centrales de Oaxaca, Sierras Orientales and Sur de Puebla. The Huasteco Plateau and the Llanuras y Lomeríos zone are located in the north and northeast, with the Lagos y Volcanes del Anáhuc in the center and north. Together, they account for over 50% of the state. The east and northeast are occupies by the Chiconquiaco and Llanudras y Sierras de Querétaro e Hidalgo areas and account for about three percent of the state. The Cordillera del Sur and Mixteca Alta are located in the west and southwest covering less than 2.5% of the state. The Sur de Puebla is in the southwest and accounts for 26% of the state. Other southern subregions include the Sierras y Valles Guerrerenses, the Sierras Centrales de Oaxaca and the Sierras Orientales. Together, they account for about 15% of the state.

Hydrology

The hydrology of Puebla is formed by three major river systems. This first is based on the Atoyac River, which originates with the melting runoff of the Halos, Telapón and Papagayo mountains along with those from the Iztaccihuatl volcano and waters from the Zahuapan River, which enters from Tlaxcala. This river receives further water from tributaries such as the Acateno, Atila, Amacuzac, Molinos and Cohetzala. The river has one major dam called Valsequllo or Manuel Avila Camacho. This river eventually flows west to the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, and the Americas in the east.At 165.2 million square kilometres in area, this largest division of the World...

. The next system empties into the Gulf of Mexico and consists of the Pantepec
Pantepec River
-References:*Atlas of Mexico, 1975 .*The Prentice Hall American World Atlas, 1984.*Rand McNally, The New International Atlas, 1993....

, Cazones
Cazones River
-References:*Atlas of Mexico, 1975 .*The Prentice Hall American World Atlas, 1984.*Rand McNally, The New International Atlas, 1993....

, Necaxa
Necaxa River
The Río Necaxa, or Necaxa River, is one of the main rivers of the Mexican state of Puebla. Beginning south of Huauchinango with the name Totolapa, it runs through tall mountains and deep canyons forming the waterfalls known as Salto Chico y Salto Grande; its flow is also used for generation of...

, Laxaxalpan, San Pedro/Zun, Zempoala, Apulco, Cedro Viejo, Salteros, Martínez de la Torre and other rivers on the east side of the state. This system has two major dams called the Necaxa and Mazatepec. The third is based on the large number of small lakes fresh water springs as well as some volcanically heated springs. The best known of these include Chignahuapan, Agua Azúl, Amalucan, Cisnaqullas, Garcicrespo, Almoloya and Rancho Colorado. Lakes include Chapulco, San Bernadino, Lagunas Epatlán, Ayutla, Almoloyan, Alchichica, Pahuatlán, Las Minas, Aljojuca and Tecuitlapa.

Climate

The state has a widely varied climate due to the range of altitudes. It has an average temperature of 16C but this varies greatly locally. There is a rainy season from May until October with an overall precipitation of 801 mm. The state subdivides into eleven different climate zones, but five predominate. The central and south of the state has a temperate and semi moist climate, with an average temperature of 15C and 858 mm (33.78 in) of rainfall. The southwest has a warm to hot climate and semi moist with 830 mm (32.68 in) of precipitation and 22C average temperature. The north is also dominated by warm and hot climates 22C average temperature but with an average rainfall of 2250 mm (88.58 in). The southeast is semi dry with warm and temperate temperatures with average temperature of 22C and precipitation of 550 mm (21.65 in). The last is the cold climates around the high volcano peaks.

Ecosystems

The state has three main ecosystems, forests in temperate and cold areas, tropical rainforest and arid and semi-arid zones. Colder forests can be found in the Huasteca Plateau, Chiconguiaco, Lagos de Volcanos de Anáhuac, Sierras Orientales and Sierras Centrales de Oaxaca. These forests mostly consist of pines, holm oak
Holm Oak
Quercus ilex, the Holm Oak or Holly Oak is a large evergreen oak native to the Mediterranean region. It takes its name from holm, an ancient name for holly...

, oyamel fir and other conifers (Abies religiosa, Pinus pseudostrobus
Pinus pseudostrobus
Smooth-bark Mexican Pine , distinctive names in Spanish, tree endemic to Mexico.It is 8 to 25 m tall, dense and round top, the bark is brown and fissured and smooth when young. It grows between 1300-3250 m. From 26° to 15° north latitude, from Sinaloa, Mexico to Honduras. It occurs within a...

, Pinus attenuata, Pinus ayacahuite, Pinus leiophylla, Pinus patula
Pinus patula
Patula pine, pino patula, pinus patula is a tree native to the highlands of Mexico. It grows from 24° to 18° North latitude and 1800 to 2700 m above sea level. 30 m tall...

, Pinus teocote
Pinus teocote
Pinus teocote is a species of conifer in the Pinaceae family.It is found only in Mexico. 20-30 m tall and 75 cm diameter. Straight trunk and dense top. It grows at 1500-3200 mm...

, Quercus spp, Quercus rugosa
Quercus rugosa
Quercus rugosa is a species of oak tree which is found in Mexico and the southwestern United States.-Source:...

, Alnus spp
Alder
Alder is the common name of a genus of flowering plants belonging to the birch family . The genus comprises about 30 species of monoecious trees and shrubs, few reaching large size, distributed throughout the North Temperate Zone and in the Americas along the Andes southwards to...

, Arbutus spp
Arbutus
Arbutus is a genus of at least 14 species of flowering plants in the family Ericaceae, native to warm temperate regions of the Mediterranean, western Europe, and North America.-Description:...

, Cupressus spp
Cupressus
The genus Cupressus is one of several genera within the family Cupressaceae that have the common name cypress; for the others, see cypress. It is considered a polyphyletic group...

 and Juniperus spp.). Much of these areas have been extensively logged and some areas are used to farm trees. These trees are used for wood, paper and other wood-derived products. Due to human activity over 107,000 hectares are considered to be severely damaged.

Tropical forests are divided into moist, semi-moist and dry forests. These can be found in the Huasteca Plateau, Chiconguiaco, Lagos y Volcánes de Anahuac, Sur de Puebla, Cordillera Costera del Sur, Sierras y Valles Guerrerenses, Sierras Orientales, Sierras Centrales de Oaxaca and Mixteca Alta. The most common species include Ceiba parviflora, Bursera simaruba
Bursera simaruba
Bursera simaruba, commonly known as the Gumbo-limbo, is a tree species in the family Burseraceae, native to tropical regions of the Americas from the southeasternmost United States south through Mexico and the Caribbean to Brazil and Venezuela...

, Cedrela odorata
Cedrela odorata
Cedrela odorata . The genus Cedrela has undergone two major systematic revisions since 1960. The most recent revision reduced the number of species in the genus to seven . The common cedro, Cedrela odorata L., embraces 28 other named species, including C. mexicana M. J...

, Swietenia macrophylla
Swietenia macrophylla
Swietenia macrophylla, commonly known as big leaf mahogany, is a species of plant in the Meliaceae family. It is one of two species that yields genuine mahogany timber, the other being Swietenia mahagoni....

, Spondias mombin
Spondias mombin
Spondias mombin is a tree, a species of flowering plant in the family Anacardiaceae. It is native to the tropical Americas, including the West Indies. The tree has been naturalized in parts of Africa, India, Sri Lanka and Indonesia. It is rarely cultivated.The mature fruit has a leathery skin and a...

, Brosimum alicastrum
Brosimum alicastrum
Brosimum alicastrum, the breadnut or Maya nut, is a Brosimum tree species under the Moraceae family of flowering plants, whose other genera include fig and mulberries The plant is known by a range of names in indigenous Mesoamerican and other languages, including but not limited to: ramon,ojoche,...

, Coccoloba barbadens, Pithecellobium arboreum, Lysiloma divaricate, Phoeba tampicensis, Bursera simaruba
Bursera simaruba
Bursera simaruba, commonly known as the Gumbo-limbo, is a tree species in the family Burseraceae, native to tropical regions of the Americas from the southeasternmost United States south through Mexico and the Caribbean to Brazil and Venezuela...

, Acacia coulteri and Ficus spp.
Ficus
Ficus is a genus of about 850 species of woody trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes, and hemiepiphyte in the family Moraceae. Collectively known as fig trees or figs, they are native throughout the tropics with a few species extending into the semi-warm temperate zone. The Common Fig Ficus is a genus of...

 These forests are also exploited for wood and other products, including traditional handcrafts. Low growing plants are used to feed livestock. Little is known about the ecosystems of these forests, but it is known that these areas are important to the regulation of water in area rivers. Human activity has severely damaged over 32,000 hectares.

The arid and semi arid area can be found in the Lagos y Volcanes de Anáhuac, Sur de Puebla, Cordillera Costera del Sur, Sierras y Valles Guerrerenses, Sierras Orientales and Sierras Centrales de Oaxaca. Types of vegetation often found includes mesquite, huizachal and agave, with species such as Agave spp, Yuca spp, Opuntia spp, Aristida spp and Stipa spp. There is no forestry here but a number of plants are used for fibers, waxes, resins, handcrafts, medicine and a number are edible to both humans and livestock. Many of these arid areas subdivide into microclimates depending on minor variations in temperature and precipitation. Some areas, especially dry grasslands, have suffered overgrazing and soil erosion.

Temperate and cold area forests cover just under 22% of the surface of the state with various species of pine accounting for more than 80% of the trees. These are mostly found in the higher elevations of the mountains where the average temperature is around 15C and at heights of between 2,500 and 2,750masl. Above 3,000masl Pinus hartwegil is dominant. Pine species which are the most economically valuable and include Pinus montezumae
Pinus montezumae
Pinus montezumae, known as the Montezuma Pine, is a species of conifer in the Pinaceae family.It is native to Mexico and Central America, where it is known as Ocote. The tree grows about 35 m high and 80 cm in diameter; occasionally it may reach a height of 40 m and diameter of...

, pinus psedudostrobus, pinus ayacahuite, pinus geggil, pinus hartwegil, pinus lawsoni, pinus leiophylla, pinus michoacana, pinus ocarpa, pinus patul and, pinus teocote
Pinus teocote
Pinus teocote is a species of conifer in the Pinaceae family.It is found only in Mexico. 20-30 m tall and 75 cm diameter. Straight trunk and dense top. It grows at 1500-3200 mm...

. The second most common kind of forest is dominated by oyamel fir, often intermingling with pines and oaks. These forests are found at altitudes of between 2,500 and 3,600masl and with an average temperature of between 7 and 15C and annual precipitation of 1000 mm (39.37 in). Forests with trees such as Juniperus spp., Pseudotsuga spp., Pseudotsuga menziesii, and Cupressus lindleyii can also be found.

Tropical forests are divided by altitude. Upper forests are characterized by dense vegetation in fairly humid climates. The tree canopy reaches an average height of 15 meters. Not all species are evergreen, with a number losing leaves during the dry season. During the same season, a number of species also flower. For this reason, these forests never completely lose their color. Common species include Cedrela sp.
Cedrela
Cedrela is a genus of seven species in the mahogany family Meliaceae. They are evergreen or dry-season deciduous trees with pinnate leaves, native to the tropical and subtropical New World, from southern Mexico south to northern Argentina. The name is derived from a diminutive form of Cedrus...

, Brosimun alicastrum, Heliocarpus spp.
Heliocarpus
Heliocarpus is a genus of flowering plants in the family Malvaceae. It was formerly classified in the Tiliaceae....

, Calophyllum brasiliense
Calophyllum brasiliense
Calophyllum brasiliense is a species of Calophyllum native to subtropical and tropical regions of Central America, South America and Caribe.-Description:...

, Zuelania Guidonia and Ficus spp.
Ficus
Ficus is a genus of about 850 species of woody trees, shrubs, vines, epiphytes, and hemiepiphyte in the family Moraceae. Collectively known as fig trees or figs, they are native throughout the tropics with a few species extending into the semi-warm temperate zone. The Common Fig Ficus is a genus of...

 Most forests of this type are located near the borders with Veracruz and Hidalgo. Tropical forests at lower altitudes are found in areas with median temperatures of over 20C, and annual rainfall of between 800 and 1200 mm (47.24 in). These areas often have a dry season of seven or eight months, and many of these forests will lose most or all of their leaves during this time. Common species include Bursera simaruba
Bursera simaruba
Bursera simaruba, commonly known as the Gumbo-limbo, is a tree species in the family Burseraceae, native to tropical regions of the Americas from the southeasternmost United States south through Mexico and the Caribbean to Brazil and Venezuela...

, Lysiloma divaricata, Phoebe tampicensis, Acacia coulteri, Beaucamea inemis, Lysiloma acapulcensis and Zuelania guidonia .

In the south, near Puebla’s borders with Oaxaca and Guerrero are dry mountainous areas, some of which are completely devoid of vegetation, similar to African deserts. Other are populated only the by occasional cactus, with those belonging to the Fouquieria columnaris family standing out on the landscape. Where there are arroyos, the vegetation changes drastically to include a wide variety of plants packed along a narrow strip. Other areas in this part of the state are semi-arid, home to a variety of plant and bird species.

Natural attractions

Natural attractions in the state include the Bosque Mesófilos de la Sierra Madre Oriental in the north of the state, Valle de las Piedras Encimadas, Izta-Popo Zoquiapan National Park
Izta-Popo Zoquiapan National Park
Izta-Popo, Zoquiapan and Anexas National Park is a national park on the border of the Mexican states of México, Puebla, and Morelos.It covers Mexico's second and third-highest peaks, the Popocatépetl and Ixtaccíhuatl volcanoes, as well as the areas of the Hacienda de Zoquiapán and its annexed...

, La Malinche National Park
La Malinche National Park
The La Malinche National Park is located in the states of Puebla and Tlaxcala east of Mexico City, about 44km from the state capital of Tlaxcala, Tlaxcala. The park conatins the volcano called La Malinche or Matlalcueitl," which is frequently used for training and acclimatization by mountaineers...

, and the Pico de Orizaba National Park. The best known wilderness area is the Izta-Popo National park, which the state shares with neighboring State of Mexico. It is located only 55 km west of the state capital and the two often snow covered volcanoes are easily visible from this area, and important to the state culturally. The park is an area protected by the federal government because of its biological diversity and considered to be the “lungs” of the area due to its forests. Access to the park, especially to the volcanoes themselves is more restricted than in the past due to past ecological damage. Even further restrictions are put into place when the Popocatepetl volcano is active. However, the park has numerous hiking and horse paths in the forests that cover the lower elevations. On the slopes, there are many small caves, which in pre-Hispanic times were often used for ceremonies.

The Sierra Madre Oriental, locally called the Sierra Norte, is a series of rugged mountains covered in abundant vegetation, which has had an isolating effect on the people here over the centuries. The Valle de Piedras Encimadas (Valley of the Stacked Stones) is located near the town of Zacatlán
Zacatlán (municipality)
Zacatlán is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

. It is really a series of small valleys covering 400 hectares filled with conifer forest. The attraction here are the stone formations which resemble stones stacked one over the other which take on numerous forms. Some have been said to resemble objects such as dogs, elephants, human heads and monsters. Most of the area is only accessible by foot or horseback.

In the center of the state, just before the land rises to the north to form the Sierra Norte, there is an area filled with lakes, both with water and dry. The dry lakebeds contain water only during the rainy season, which runs from summer through fall. The two largest are Salado and Totocingo Lakes. The first is seven km long and two km wide and the second is larger. The largest “wet” lakes are Laguna Preciosa, Laguna Quechulac, Laguna de Atexcac and Laguna de Aijojuca.

History

The territory of the state was one of the first in modern Mexico to be inhabited by humans. Most of the earliest settlements have been found in the valley of Tehuacán, with the oldest near the Agujereado Mountain, which dates back to 10,000 BCE. At this site the oldest sample of corn ever found in the world has been found, which dates back to 1500 BCE. Along with Agujereado Mountain, there are more than 450 prehistoric sites in the Tehuacan Valley alone. Stone tools date to between 6500 and 4900 BCE, and evidence of agriculture to 3500 and 2000 BCE in areas such as Aljojuca, Totimiuacan, Cholula and Izucar
Izúcar de Matamoros
Izúcar de Matamoros is a city and its surrounding municipality of the same name located in the southwestern part of the Mexican state of Puebla. The city serves as the municipal seat of the municipality. At the census of 2005 the city had a population of 41,042 inhabitants, while the municipality...

. By 900 BCE, there is ample evidence of the cultivation of corn, beans, squash, chili pepper
Chili pepper
Chili pepper is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. The term in British English and in Australia, New Zealand, India, Malaysia and other Asian countries is just chilli without pepper.Chili peppers originated in the Americas...

s and cotton. The rise of city states was established by 700 BCE.

By the Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica is a region and culture area in the Americas, extending approximately from central Mexico to Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, within which a number of pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and...

n period, the area was inhabited by a number of ethnicities. The regions of Acatlán and part of Chiautla
Chiautla (municipality)
Chiautla is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

 were dominated by the Mixtec
Mixtec
The Mixtec are indigenous Mesoamerican peoples inhabiting the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Guerrero and Puebla in a region known as La Mixteca. The Mixtecan languages form an important branch of the Otomanguean language family....

s. Tepexi
Tepexi de Rodríguez (municipality)
Tepexi de Rodríguez is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

 was dominated by the Popolocas. The central part of the state was dominated by the Olmec-Xicalancas and Nahuas, with strong cultural links to the Toltec
Toltec
The Toltec culture is an archaeological Mesoamerican culture that dominated a state centered in Tula, Hidalgo in the early post-classic period of Mesoamerican chronology...

-based culture at Cholula. The north was populated by the Totonac
Totonac
The Totonac people resided in the eastern coastal and mountainous regions of Mexico at the time of the Spanish arrival in 1519. Today they reside in the states of Veracruz, Puebla, and Hidalgo. They are one of the possible builders of the Pre-Columbian city of El Tajín, and further maintained...

as, the Mazatecos and the Otomi, whose cultural center was in El Tajín
El Tajín
El Tajín is a pre-Columbian archeological site and was the site of one of the largest and most important cities of the Classic era of Mesoamerica. The city flourished from 600 to 1200 C.E. and during this time numerous temples, palaces, Mesoamerican ballcourts and pyramids were built...

. In the 14th century, Nonoalca
Nonoalca
Nonoalca the name of a Central American tribe.The tribe's name was also given to a small sailing boat that was sailed across the Atlantic to Fenit harbour in Tralee Bay....

 ruler Xelhua, came to dominate almost all of the territory of Puebla. In the 15th century, Aztec domination took over the same area and more. Initially, the center and south areas were under the control of Tenochtitlan with Texcoco dominant in the north. Aztec domination continued until the Spanish Conquest.

Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro, 1st Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century...

 entered the area which is now Puebla state in 1519, along with his indigenous allies from Veracruz, on his way to Tlaxcala
Tlaxcala (Nahua state)
Tlaxcala was a pre-Columbian city state of central Mexico.Tlaxcala was a confederation of four altepetl — Ocotelolco, Quiahuiztlan, Tepeticpac and Tizatlan — which each took turns providing a ruler for Tlaxcala as a whole.-History:Tlaxcala was never conquered by the Aztec empire, but was...

 . The Spanish takeover of the Puebla area was relatively easy. Many of the peoples here were under Aztec domination and saw the foreigners as a way to escape. One notable exception was the city of Cholula. While negotiating with the city’s leaders, Cortés was told of a plot to attack him and his men. Cortés ordered his army to commit the Massacre of Cholula on 12 October 1519. This act terrified those who opposed the Spanish and they submitted. In 1520, after his initial defeat in Tenochtitlan (La Noche Triste
La Noche Triste
La Noche Triste on June 30, 1520, was an important event during the Spanish conquest of Mexico, wherein Hernán Cortés and his army of Spanish conquistadors and native allies fought their way out of the Mexican capital at Tenochtitlan following the death of the Aztec king Montezuma, whom the...

) Hernán Cortés founded a Spanish settlement at Tepeaca
Tepeaca (municipality)
Tepeaca is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.In the parish of San Francisco de Asís is a Child Jesus image called the Santo Niño Doctor de los Enfemos. The image is old but devotion to it is relatively recent. The image used to belong to a nun of the Concepción Béistegui...

, and took areas such as Huaquechula
Huaquechula
Huaquechula is the name of a municipality in east Puebla, Mexico, as well as the name of the town that is its municipal seat.The name Huaquechula comes from Nahuatl Quauhquechollan, meaning "place of eagle-spoonbills"....

 and Itzocan. Many natives leaders then provided men and supplies for the conquest of Tenochtitlan in 1521, and later to go with Pedro de Alvarado
Pedro de Alvarado
Pedro de Alvarado y Contreras was a Spanish conquistador and governor of Guatemala. He participated in the conquest of Cuba, in Juan de Grijalva's exploration of the coasts of Yucatan and the Gulf of Mexico, and in the conquest of Mexico led by Hernan Cortes...

 to Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, and Honduras and El Salvador to the southeast...

 . Local indigenous governments survived in the very early colonial period, subject to the Spanish. These included Tuchpa, Tzicoac, Metztitlán, Tlapacoyan, Atotonilco, Tlatlaquitepec, Huaxtepec, Tepeaca, Tlacozautitlán, Quiauhteopan, Yoaltepec, Teotitlán del Camino, Cuautochco and Coixtlahuacan.

The origins of the modern state lie in the founding of the city of Puebla in the Cuetlaxcoapan Valley in 1531 by Toribio de Benaventa and Juan de Salmerón
Juan de Salmerón
Juan de Salmerón was a Spanish colonial official New Spain, and an oidor of the Second Audiencia, which governed the colony from January 10, 1531 until April 16, 1534. On the latter date, the government was turned over to Antonio de Mendoza, the first viceroy...

. The city was laid out by Hernando de Elgueta, marking out residential areas, commercial areas etc. The city received its royal seal in 1532 but flooding forced the settlement to move across the San Francisco River and start over that same year. The city’s (and now state’s) seal was granted in 1538. The city of Puebla was created to secure the route between Mexico City and the port of Veracruz, and was initially populated by soldiers and those who made a living by providing shelter and supplies to travelers between the two cities. However, it soon became the economic and cultural center of the valley areas between the Valley of Mexico
Valley of Mexico
The Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of the State of Mexico. Surrounded by mountains and volcanoes, the Valley of Mexico was a centre for several pre-Columbian civilizations, including...

 and the Gulf Coast
Gulf of Mexico
The Gulf of Mexico is a partially landlocked ocean basin largely surrounded by the North American continent and the island of Cuba. It is bounded on the northeast, north and northwest by the Gulf Coast of the United States, on the southwest and south by Mexico, and on the southeast by Cuba. In...

, as it provided a starting point for Spanish settlement. The area’s economy expanded rapidly as many Europeans and indigenous decided to settle permanently, with the settlement of Puebla reaching city status in 1532 with the name of Ciudad de los Angeles.
The Franciscans were in charge of the evangelization process in the state, starting from 1524, when they founded the monastery of Huejotzingo
Huejotzingo (municipality)
Huejotzingo is a small city and municipality located just northwest of the city of Puebla, in the central Mexico. The settlement’s history dates back to the pre-Hispanic period, when it was a dominion, with its capital a short distance from where the modern settlement is today...

. Between 1540 and 1560, they founded others such as those in Tecamachalco
Tecamachalco (municipality)
Tecamachalco is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Quecholac
Quecholac (municipality)
Quecholac is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Tecali
Tecali de Herrera (municipality)
Tecali de Herrera is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

, Calpan
Calpan (municipality)
Calpan is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

, Cuautinchán, Zacatlán
Zacatlán (municipality)
Zacatlán is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Cholula, Huaquechula, Tepeaca, Tehuacán
Tehuacán
Tehuacán is the second largest city in the Mexican state of Puebla, nestled in the Southeast Valley of Tehuacán, bordering the states of Oaxaca and Veracruz. The 2010 census reported a population of 248,716 in the city and 274,906 in its surrounding municipality of the same name, of which it serves...

, Xalpa and Coatepec
Coatepec (municipality)
Coatepec is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

. The Augustinians
Augustinians
The term Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo , applies to two separate and unrelated types of Catholic religious orders:...

 arrived next, constructing monasteries in Chiautla
Chiautla (municipality)
Chiautla is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Chietla
Chietla (municipality)
Chietla is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Huatlatlauca
Huatlatlauca (municipality)
Huatlatlauca is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

, Tlapa, Xicotepec
Xicotepec (municipality)
Xicotepec is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

 and Papaloticpac. The last of the evangelists were the Dominicans, who built monasteries at Izúcar de Matamoros
Izúcar de Matamoros
Izúcar de Matamoros is a city and its surrounding municipality of the same name located in the southwestern part of the Mexican state of Puebla. The city serves as the municipal seat of the municipality. At the census of 2005 the city had a population of 41,042 inhabitants, while the municipality...

, Tepapayeca, Huehuatlán and Tepexi
Tepexi de Rodríguez (municipality)
Tepexi de Rodríguez is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

. The bishopric was established in 1526. Initially, the seat was in the Yucatán
Yucatán
Yucatán officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Yucatán is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 106 municipalities and its capital city is Mérida....

, but it was eventually moved to Tlaxcala
Tlaxcala
Tlaxcala officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Tlaxcala is one of the 31 states which along with the Federal District comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided into 60 municipalities and its capital city is Tlaxcala....

, then to Pueba by 1550. Eventually, its extension included the current states of Tlaxcala and Puebla during much of the colonial period.

In 1783, the royal government in Spain divided New Spain into “intendencias” or provinces, one of which was centered on the city of Puebla. The first governor of Puebla was Manuel de Flon, Count of La Cadena. Initially, this intendencia included Tlaxcala, but it was separated out in 1793. Other parts were eventually separated out into other provinces/states such as Mexico, Guerrero and Veracruz.

During the Mexican War of Independence
Mexican War of Independence
The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and the Spanish colonial authorities which started on 16 September 1810. The movement, which became known as the Mexican War of Independence, was led by Mexican-born Spaniards, Mestizos and Amerindians who sought...

, the city of Puebla remained loyal to the viceroy
Viceroy
A viceroy is a royal official who runs a country, colony, or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning king. A viceroy's province or larger territory is called a viceroyalty...

 in Mexico City, sending troops to defend it at the Battle of Monte de las Cruces
Battle of Monte de las Cruces
The Battle of Monte de las Cruces was one of the pivotal battles of the early Mexican War of Independence. It was fought between the insurgent troops of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla and Ignacio Allende against the royalist troops of General Torcuato Trujillo in the Sierra de las Cruces mountains...

 against Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla. Ecclesiatical authorities in the Cathedral excommunicated insurgent priests and battles took place in Izúcar and Chiautla. Most of the south of the state, especially Izucar and the Sierra Mixteca were firmly in insurgent hands. Control then bypassed the capital and reached the more northern settlements of Tehuacan and Atlixco
Atlixco (municipality)
Atlixco is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

. After Independence, the first governor of the state was Carlos García Arriaga in 1821. The first state congress was seated in 1824, with the first state constitution adopted the same year. The new state was divided initially into 21 parts. The Spanish were expelled from the state in 1827. In 1849, the state was reorganized into eight departments and 162 municipalities and again in 1895 with 21 districts and 180 municipalities.

During the rest of the 19th century, the state developed economically through industry. The first mechanized textile mill was established in 1831, soon followed by 17 others in the city of Puebla. Progress was interrupted by Santa Anna’s
Antonio López de Santa Anna
Antonio de Padua María Severino López de Santa Anna y Pérez de Lebrón , often known as Santa Anna or López de Santa Anna, known as "the Napoleon of the West," was a Mexican political leader, general, and president who greatly influenced early Mexican and Spanish politics and government...

 siege of the city in 1845 and two years later when the Americans under General Winfield Scott
Winfield Scott
Winfield Scott was a United States Army general, and unsuccessful presidential candidate of the Whig Party in 1852....

 took the city on their way to Mexico City. The Americans left three years later at the end of the war.
Much of the rest of the century was occupied with civil strife such as the insurrection of Francisco Ortega against the federal government, the Reform War
Reform War
The Reform War in Mexico is one of the episodes of the long struggle between Liberal and Conservative forces that dominated the country’s history in the 19th century. The Liberals wanted a federalist government, limiting traditional Catholic Church and military influence in the country...

 and the French Intervention
French intervention in Mexico
The French intervention in Mexico , also known as The Maximilian Affair, War of the French Intervention, and The Franco-Mexican War, was an invasion of Mexico by an expeditionary force sent by the Second French Empire, supported in the beginning by the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Spain...

. The last provoked the Battle of Puebla
Battle of Puebla
The Battle of Puebla took place on 5 May 1862 near the city of Puebla during the French intervention in Mexico. The battle ended in a victory for the Mexican Army over the occupying French forces...

 on 5 May 1862, when 6,000 French troops attacked the forts named Loreto and Guadalupe outside of the city of Puebla, but they were repelled by forces under Ignacio Zaragoza
Ignacio Zaragoza
Ignacio Zaragoza Seguín was a general in the Mexican army, best known for defeating invading French forces at the Battle of Puebla on May 5, 1862 ....

. Zaragoza died some months after this battle, and he would be later honored by having his name added to that of the city. However, less than a year later, the city would be taken and shortly after, Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico would be installed. However, his rule would be brief and the French, along with their conservative Mexican allies, expelled from the state in 1867.

From this time to the Mexican Revolution, a number of important infrastructure projects were undertaken. One was the Puebla-Veracruz rail line in 1873 and the Escuela Normal para Profesores (Teachers’ College) in 1879. In 1907, a hydroelectric plant was built in Necaxa. However, the economic policies of this area caused widespread unrest, beginning with workers’ strikes. Directly against the regime of Porfirio Díaz
Porfirio Díaz
José de la Cruz Porfirio Díaz Mori was a Mexican-American War volunteer and French intervention hero, an accomplished general and the President of Mexico continuously from 1876 to 1911, with the exception of a brief term in 1876 when he left Juan N...

 was the Club Antireeleccionista (Anti-reelection Club) headed by Aquiles Serdán
Aquiles Serdán
Aquiles Serdán Alatriste , born in the city of Puebla, Puebla, was a Mexican politician who took part in the Mexican Revolution as an opponent of Porfirio Díaz, supporting Francisco I...

 in 1909. In November 1910, after long government surveillance, troops attacked the Serdán house in Puebla killing Aquiles and his brother Máximo. For this reason, the state claims one of the first battles of the Mexican Revolution
Mexican Revolution
The Mexican Revolution was a major armed struggle that started in 1910, with an uprising led by Francisco I. Madero against longtime autocrat Porfirio Díaz. The Revolution was characterized by several socialist, liberal, anarchist, populist, and agrarianist movements. Over time the Revolution...

 .

In 1912, the Liberation Army of the South
Liberation Army of the South
The Liberation Army of the South was an armed group formed and led by Emiliano Zapata that took part in the Mexican Revolution. The force was commonly known as the Zapatistas....

 or Zapatistas took over a number of communities in the state. In 1914, they were challenged by forces loyal to Venustiano Carranza
Venustiano Carranza
Venustiano Carranza de la Garza, was one of the leaders of the Mexican Revolution. He ultimately became President of Mexico following the overthrow of the dictatorial Huerta regime in the summer of 1914 and during his administration the current constitution of Mexico was drafted...

, which occupied the capital briefly. However, the Zapatistas would hold power for the rest of the war. Under the 1917 Constitution, the state was reestablished with 222 municipalities. One of the last skirmishes of the war occurred in Aljibes, Puebla in May 1920 when forces of Álvaro Obregón
Álvaro Obregón
General Álvaro Obregón Salido was the President of Mexico from 1920 to 1924. He was assassinated in 1928, shortly after winning election to another presidential term....

 attacked those of Carranza as he was headed to Veracruz. Carranza was assassinated in Tlaxcalantongo in the Sierra Norte de Puebla soon thereafter.

The 1920s immediately after the war is marked by instability. The governorship changed hands frequently with resistance to whoever was in power from other parts of the state. Despite this, the Universidad de Puebla was established by Maximino Ávila Camacho
Maximino Ávila Camacho
Maximino Ávila Camacho was the wilder brother of Manuel Ávila Camacho who was President of Mexico from 1940 to 1946...

 during this decade. True political stability would not come until the governorship of Gustavo Díaz Ordaz
Gustavo Díaz Ordaz
Gustavo Díaz Ordaz Bolaños served as the President of Mexico from 1964 to 1970.- Political career :Díaz Ordaz was born in San Andrés Chalchícomula . His father, Ramón Díaz Ordaz Redonet, worked as an accountant, while his mother, Sabina Bolaños Cacho de Díaz Ordaz, worked as a school teacher...

 in 1942.

Since the Mexican Revolution, the city of Puebla and its suburbs are one of the most industrialized areas in Mexico, with the metropolitan area ranked fourth in size. Its position near both Mexico City and the Gulf coast continues to be an advantage. However, modern development of the city area has been restricted to outside the city center, in order to preserve its traditional look. This historic center was named a World Heritage Site in 1987, with the Biblioteca Palafoxiana named as part of the Memory of the World Programme
Memory of the World Programme
UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme is an international initiative launched to safeguard the documentary heritage of humanity against collective amnesia, neglect, the ravages of time and climatic conditions, and willful and deliberate destruction...

 in 2005. Today, Puebla’s economic development is centered on its capital. This capital is part of the megalopolis
Megalopolis
Megalopolis may refer to:* Megalopolis , an extensive metropolitan area or a long chain of continuous metropolitan areas.** See also, Megacity, Agglomeration, or Ecumenopolis....

 centered on Mexico City.

In 1977, the center of the city of Puebla was named a “Zone of Historic Monuments.” The same area was later named a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 in 1987.

In 1998, the state was declared in a state of emergency due to 122 forest fires with affected 2,998 hectares of land over two weeks. Many of the fires were started by fires on agricultural lands and the extremely dry conditions made the fires out of control.

The 1999 Tehuacán earthquake did major damage to much of state, especially many of its colonial era churches, and the colonial buildings of the historic center of the city of Puebla. The state of Puebla was declared a disaster area.

In the 2000s, Organizations such as Reporters Sans Frontieres (RSF) have accused state governmental officials of restricting and suppressing the press. Some of the threats against reporters have included false arrests and death threats.

Demographics

In 2005, the state had a population of 5,383,133 according to the INEGI census, ranking fifth in the country. Over 93% of the state’s population identifies as Roman Catholic with 4.4% identifying as Protestant or Evangelical.

In 1921, Puebla had the second largest population, after Oaxaca
Oaxaca
Oaxaca , , officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Oaxaca is one of the 31 states which, along with the Federal District, comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided into 571 municipalities; of which 418 are governed by the system of customs and traditions...

, of purely indigenous people according to the national census. Since then, the official census has eliminated categories for race, counting only those who speak an indigenous language. In 2000, an attempt was made to count indigenous ethnicities, regardless of language spoken. This count ranked Puebla as fifth with a total population of 957,650. However, according to the 2005 census, there were 548,723 people who spoke an indigenous language.

The state has five major indigenous ethnic groups: the Nahuas, the Totonac
Totonac
The Totonac people resided in the eastern coastal and mountainous regions of Mexico at the time of the Spanish arrival in 1519. Today they reside in the states of Veracruz, Puebla, and Hidalgo. They are one of the possible builders of the Pre-Columbian city of El Tajín, and further maintained...

s, the Mixtec
Mixtec
The Mixtec are indigenous Mesoamerican peoples inhabiting the Mexican states of Oaxaca, Guerrero and Puebla in a region known as La Mixteca. The Mixtecan languages form an important branch of the Otomanguean language family....

s, the Popolocas and the Otomi
Otomi people
The Otomi people . Smaller Otomi populations exist in the states of Puebla, Mexico, Tlaxcala, Michoacán and Guanajuato. The Otomi language belonging to the Oto-Pamean branch of the Oto-Manguean language family is spoken in many different varieties some of which are not mutually intelligible.One of...

 . The state has two well-defined areas in which indigenous peoples still main many ancient traditions, rites and customs. These two regions are called the Sierra Norte in the north and the Sierra Negra in the south. In these areas, these traditions, and the agriculture they are dependent on, have survived because industrialization has not penetrated the rugged landscape.

The Sierra Norte, especially the municipalities of Cuetzalan
Cuetzalán
Cuetzalan is a small town set high in the hills in the north of the Mexican state of Puebla, 183 kilometers from Puebla, the state capital. It is located in the Sierra Norte region. The town itself is characterized by sloping cobbled streets and numerous rustic buildings...

, Pahuatlán
Pahuatlán (municipality)
Pahuatlán is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

, Huehuetla el Grande
Huehuetlán el Grande (municipality)
Huehuetlán el Grande is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

 and Teziutlán
Teziutlán (municipality)
Teziutlán is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, are dominated by the Nahuas, Totonacas and Otomi. There is also a small region locally called the Sierra Negra in which there are communities of Popolocas, Nahuas and Mazatecos, especially in the municipality of Eloxochitlán, Tlacotepec
Tlacotepec de Benito Juárez (municipality)
Tlacotepec de Benito Juárez is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.]]....

 and part of the city of Tehuacán
Tehuacán
Tehuacán is the second largest city in the Mexican state of Puebla, nestled in the Southeast Valley of Tehuacán, bordering the states of Oaxaca and Veracruz. The 2010 census reported a population of 248,716 in the city and 274,906 in its surrounding municipality of the same name, of which it serves...

.

The Mixtec people who live in the south of Puebla are part of an ethnic group which are still the dominant indigenous group in an area that stretches over Puebla, Oaxaca and the mountains of Guerrero
Guerrero
Guerrero officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Guerrero is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 81 municipalities and its capital city is Chilpancingo....

. They are the fourth largest indigenous group in Mexico. The Sierra Mixteca region in Puebla is part of the Mixteca Baja region, which crosses into parts of Oaxaca as well. In the Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica is a region and culture area in the Americas, extending approximately from central Mexico to Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica, within which a number of pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and...

n period, the Mixtecs of Puebla dominated further north than they do now and archeologists classify “Mixteca-Puebla” art as distinct from other Mixtec arts and crafts. There are an estimated 6,700 Mixtecs living in Puebla, however, many have emigrated out of traditional Mixtec areas into other parts of the state, Mexico City and even the United States to work.

General economy

The state is divided into seven socioeconomic regions for planning purposes: Region I-Huauchinango
Huauchinango (municipality)
Huauchinango is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Region II – Teziutlán
Teziutlán (municipality)
Teziutlán is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Region III Ciudad Serdán
Chalchicomula de Sesma (municipality)
Chalchicomula de Sesma is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Region IV San Pedro Cholula
San Pedro Cholula (municipality)
San Pedro Cholula is a municipality in the Mexican state of Puebla and one of two municipalities which made up the city of Cholula. The city has been divided into two sections since the pre Hispanic era, when revolting Toltec-Chichimecas pushed the formerly dominant Olmec-Xicallanca to the eastern...

, Region V – Puebla, Region VI Izúcar de Matamoros
Izúcar de Matamoros
Izúcar de Matamoros is a city and its surrounding municipality of the same name located in the southwestern part of the Mexican state of Puebla. The city serves as the municipal seat of the municipality. At the census of 2005 the city had a population of 41,042 inhabitants, while the municipality...

 and Region VII Tehuacán
Tehuacán
Tehuacán is the second largest city in the Mexican state of Puebla, nestled in the Southeast Valley of Tehuacán, bordering the states of Oaxaca and Veracruz. The 2010 census reported a population of 248,716 in the city and 274,906 in its surrounding municipality of the same name, of which it serves...

.(regionalacion) Region I is located in the north of the state and consists of 32 municipalities. Its climate is mostly warm and moist with significant rainfall in the summer. It also has a large number of small rivers. Region II is located in the north and northeast of the state with 31 municipalities. It transitions from the temperate climates of the Sierra Norte to the warmer zones that descend towards the Gulf of Mexico. This area also has a large number of rivers, fresh water springs, waterfalls and dams. Region III is located in the northeast of the state and consists of 24 municipalities. It has a variety of climates from cold to temperate depending on the altitude. Region IV is located in the center-west of the state and has 27 municipalities. Much of this area has a cold climate due to altitude. It contains the highest areas of the Atoyac River basin, which is important to both Puebla and the State of Mexico. Region V is located in the center of the state and consists of eight municipalities. This climate here is mostly temperate, semi-moist to semi-dry. Most of the rivers here empty into the Atoyac and contains the Manuel Avila Camacho Dam with 405000000 m³ (14,302,439,816.13 cu ft) of capacity. This water is mostly used for irrigation. Region VI is in the southwest with 45 municipalities. Temperature varies with attitude and rainfall varies as well. Much of the water here is provided by the Atoyac. Region VII is located in the southeast with 50 municipalities. Climates range from the cold in the Sierra de Zongolica to the hot in the Valley of Tehuacan. The area is formed by the convergence of the Sierra del Tentzo, Sierra Mixteca and Sierra Negra.

The state was a diverse economic base supporting industries such as textiles, tourism, agribusiness, storage, medical services, furniture making and logistics services in clusters.(promotedor) In 2010, Standard & Poor's
Standard & Poor's
Standard & Poor's is a United States-based financial services company. It is a division of The McGraw-Hill Companies that publishes financial research and analysis on stocks and bonds. It is well known for its stock-market indices, the US-based S&P 500, the Australian S&P/ASX 200, the Canadian...

 reconfirmed the state’s ‘mxA+’ rating with a stable outlook due to the state’s finances. The state’s economy grew at a rate of 4.5% from 2003 to 2007, above the national average of 3.9%. Since then, economic growth has slowed but less than in other parts of Mexico. Its gross domestic product
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

 accounts for 3.4% of the country’s total. It is one of Mexico’s most industrialized states.

However, almost all of the state’s development has been centered on the capital city and the surrounding areas. This has caused a wide economic gap between rich and poor and between the city areas and the rural areas, with much of the state lacking investment by the government (infrastructure) or by private interests. This has led the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 to rank the state as the seventh most underdeveloped in the country, despite the industry in the Puebla city area in 2006–2007, with areas lacking basic services such as health, water and education along with high unemployment. The state is even ranked lower for these than Lebanon
Lebanon
Lebanon , officially the Republic of LebanonRepublic of Lebanon is the most common term used by Lebanese government agencies. The term Lebanese Republic, a literal translation of the official Arabic and French names that is not used in today's world. Arabic is the most common language spoken among...

, Cuba
Cuba
The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

 and Bosnia. The UN blames poor government policies and corruption for much of the state’s poverty.

According to several NGO’s, such as the Consejo Nacional de Evaluación de la Política de Desarrollo Social (Coneval), and Marcos Gutiérrez Barrón, professor of economics at the Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla
Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla
The Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla is a private university located in Puebla, Mexico.-History:...

, Puebla has the third highest level of poverty in the country. This ranking takes into account factors such as income per capita, housing, educational opportunities, food supply and family cohesion. As much as two-thirds of the state’s population or about 3.5 million live under the poverty line. The state’s Secretaria de Desarrollo Social (Secretariat of Social Development) increased its budget in 2008 to 757 million pesos. Ten of the state’s municipalities are ranked among the poorest in the country.

Puebla is a state where migrant workers both head to and leave from. Most incoming workers are indigenous from the states of Oaxaca and Guerrero, according to a study done by the National Indigenous Institute and the United Nations. Most of these emigrants are Mixtecs from the south of the state, which head to areas such as Mexico City and the north of the country either seasonally or permanently. Many also head to the United States to work illegally. The migration situation has caused the population to drop in a number of areas in the state. The UN states that the main reason for emigration is the lack of local economic development especially in rural and indigenous areas.

Agriculture and forestry

Thirty seven percent of the population is employed in agriculture, livestock and fishing. Agricultural units cover 2,233,897 hectares in rural areas of the state. Just over fifty percent is dedicated to the growing of crops, 46.5% to pasture, 2.6% is forest and .8% is wild vegetation. Agriculture is the most important economic activity of the rural areas, but it is mostly limited to the rainy season from June to October, as there are few facilities for irrigation. This limits the sector’s growth potential significantly. Due to lack of investment only 11% of the state’s arable land is irrigated. Seventy two percent of farmland is privately own with the rest belonging to ejido
Ejido
The ejido system is a process whereby the government promotes the use of communal land shared by the people of the community. This use of community land was a common practice during the time of Aztec rule in Mexico...

s or other types of communal ownership. The municipalities with the most cultivated land are Chignahuapan
Chignahuapan (municipality)
Chignahuapan is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.The municipality is the location of the Basilica of the Immaculate Conception.The BUAP has a Regional Section there.-References:...

, Chalchicomula de Sesma
Chalchicomula de Sesma (municipality)
Chalchicomula de Sesma is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Tlachichuca
Tlachichuca (municipality)
Tlachichuca is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

 and Zacapoaxtla
Zacapoaxtla (municipality)
Zacapoaxtla is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

 .

The most important activities include production of domestic fowl (eggs and meat), which accounts for 37%, cattle (dairy and meat) at 12%, grains (90% corn) and pork at 10% each, vegetables (tomatillo
Tomatillo
The tomatillo is a plant of the nightshade family, related to the cape gooseberry, bearing small, spherical and green or green-purple fruit of the same name. Tomatillos are a staple in Mexican cuisine. Tomatillos are grown as annuals throughout the Western Hemisphere...

s, onions, carrots, tomatoes, and squash) at 8% and fruit (oranges, limes, cactus pear, apples, avocado
Avocado
The avocado is a tree native to Central Mexico, classified in the flowering plant family Lauraceae along with cinnamon, camphor and bay laurel...

s and peaches at 4%. Other important crops include beans, animal feed, alfalfa
Alfalfa
Alfalfa is a flowering plant in the pea family Fabaceae cultivated as an important forage crop in the US, Canada, Argentina, France, Australia, the Middle East, South Africa, and many other countries. It is known as lucerne in the UK, France, Australia, South Africa and New Zealand, and known as...

 and sugar cane . Most crops are grown in the municipalities of Hueytamalco
Hueytamalco (municipality)
Hueytamalco is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Francisco Z. Mena
Francisco Z. Mena (municipality)
Francisco Z. Mena is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Venustiano Carranza
Venustiano Carranza (municipality)
Venustiano Carranza is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Xicotepec
Xicotepec (municipality)
Xicotepec is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

 and Jalpan
Jalpan (municipality)
Jalpan is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

. Most crops, especially corn, are grown on relatively small farms, communal fields and family plots, but perennial crops such as rubber trees, coffee and citrus from are mostly grown on large plantations. The most important livestock in the state are cattle, pigs and domestic fowl. Cattle are prevalent in the municipalities of Francisco Z. Mena, Venustiano Carranza, Jalpan, Hueytamalco and Chiautla de Tapia
Chiautla (municipality)
Chiautla is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

. Pigs are mostly found in Tehuacán, Ajalpan
Ajalpan (municipality)
Ajalpan is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Tepanco de López
Tepanco de López (municipality)
Tepanco de López is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

, Tecamachalco
Tecamachalco (municipality)
Tecamachalco is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

 and Yehualtepec
Yehualtepec (municipality)
Yehualtepec is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

. The entire state ranks first in the production of domestic fowl with most being produced in the municipalities of Ajalpan, Tehuacán, Tecamachalco, Tepanco de López and Tochtepec
Tochtepec (municipality)
Tochtepec is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

. Other livestock raised include goats, sheep and horses.

Other production of primary materials includes forest products and fish. Over 93% of the tree species exploited in the state are conifers mostly cut for wood production. In 2007, the annual production of wood products had risen to 244,803 cubic meters. Most forestry occurs in the municipalities of Chignahuapan, Tetela de Ocampo
Tetela de Ocampo
Tetela de Ocampo is a town and municipality in the Sierra Norte region of the Mexican state of Puebla."Tetela" is a name of Nahuatl origin, containing the elements tetl and tla : it thus means "place of many hills"...

, Vicente Guerrero, Zacatlán and Huauchinango. Fish are both caught wild and farmed and mostly concentrate on species such as carp
Carp
Carp are various species of oily freshwater fish of the family Cyprinidae, a very large group of fish native to Europe and Asia. The cypriniformes are traditionally grouped with the Characiformes, Siluriformes and Gymnotiformes to create the superorder Ostariophysi, since these groups have certain...

, trout
Trout
Trout is the name for a number of species of freshwater and saltwater fish belonging to the Salmoninae subfamily of the family Salmonidae. Salmon belong to the same family as trout. Most salmon species spend almost all their lives in salt water...

 and mojarra
Mojarra
The mojarras are a family, Gerreidae, of fishes in the order Perciformes. It has seven genera.Mojarras are a common prey and bait fish in many parts of the Caribbean including the South American Coast and Caribbean islands. These species tend to be difficult to identify in the field and often...

. Most are harvested in the state’s dams and lakes, which cover a surface area of 6,500 hectares.

Industry and mining

The state has been an important industrial center since colonial times, mostly known for the production of textiles and pottery, both of which continue to be made. Today, industries of various types, along with mining and construction employ about twenty five percent of the state’s population. More than 150,000 small and medium sized factories operate in the state, providing 60% of the state’s GDP. Most industry in the state in concentrated in and around the capital. The most important industries are in metals, chemicals, electronic items and textiles. Textiles produced in the state mostly involve thread, machinery, knitted items and woven fabrics. Moreover, the first and one of the biggest textile factory in Mexico and in Latinamerica, The "La Constancia Mexicana
La Constancia Mexicana
The textile factory of La Constancia Mexicana is located just 9 km from downtown Puebla, in the state of Mexico. The factory was the first textile mill to integrate the use of automatic machinery into the production process.-Site description:...

 Factory", was build in capital of Puebla. Two important employers are Hylsa and the Volkswagen plant, both in the Puebla area.

Two important industries are automotive and agribusiness. The automotive sector is important for the state as a leading manufacturer of both automobiles and automobile parts. Some of the businesses located in the state include Denso México, Arvin Meritor de México, Mabe, Leoni, Hyundai-Kia Motors, Coramex Company and Forteq. Industry related to agriculture consists of both producing products needed by farmers and processing agricultural produce. Some of these companies include Nestle de México, Pasan, Chocolatera Moctezuma, Sabormex, Big Cola, Bomba Energy, Ochoa Comercial, Grupo Pepsico, Compañía Topo Chico, Red Bull
Red Bull
Red Bull is an energy drink sold by the Austrian Red Bull GmbH, created in 1987 by the Austrian entrepreneur Dietrich Mateschitz. In terms of market share, Red Bull is the most popular energy drink in the world, with 3 billion cans sold each year. Dietrich Mateschitz was inspired by an already...

, Grupo Bimbo
Grupo Bimbo
Grupo Bimbo is the largest Mexican food company and the largest bakery in the world with brands in Americas, Europe, and China.-History:Grupo Bimbo was established in Mexico in 1945 by Lorenzo Servitje, Jose T. Mata, Jaime Sendra, and Jaime Jorba...

, Unifoods, Novamex, The Coca Cola Company, Supermercados Gigante
Supermercados Gigante
Supermercados Gigante was a large supermarket chain in Mexico. The chain expanded north of the border as well, as it also had locations in predominantly working-class Mexican-American communities of the United States....

, Soriana
Soriana
Organización Soriana is a Mexican public company and Mexico's largest retailer. Soriana is a grocery and department store retail chain headquartered in Monterrey, Nuevo León, Mexico. The company is 100% capitalized in Mexico and is publicly traded on the Mexican stock exchange the Bolsa Mexicana...

, La Costeña
La Costeña (food company)
Conservas La Costeña, usually called La Costeña, is a Mexican brand dedicated to the canned products market. It was founded in 1923 by Vicente López Recines. The company has become an important brand inside and outside Mexico. Nowadays, La Costeña sells its products in almost all the Mexican...

 and Jugos del Valle.

There are nine state and four federal programs targeting small and medium-sized producers, which provide training, consulting, trademarks and other services. Some programs target specific industries such as software. One focus of the state is to promote technology based industries which produced high-value products. There are eleven industrial parks and other special industry zones for this purpose. Another area identified for improvement is higher education, to produce graduates to work in these kinds of industries. Commercial events include the Exintex International Exhibition, which is held in the state each year and attracts textile manufacturers from states such as Morelos
Morelos
Morelos officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Morelos is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 33 municipalities and its capital city is Cuernavaca....

, Tlaxcala
Tlaxcala
Tlaxcala officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Tlaxcala is one of the 31 states which along with the Federal District comprise the 32 federative entities of Mexico. It is divided into 60 municipalities and its capital city is Tlaxcala....

, Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas
Tamaulipas officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Tamaulipas is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 43 municipalities and its capital city is Ciudad Victoria. The capital city was named after Guadalupe Victoria, the...

, Guanajuato
Guanajuato
Guanajuato officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Guanajuato is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 46 municipalities and its capital city is Guanajuato....

, Querétaro
Querétaro
Querétaro officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Querétaro de Arteaga is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 18 municipalities and its capital city is Santiago de Querétaro....

 and Aguascalientes
Aguascalientes
Aguascalientes is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 11 municipalities and its capital city is Aguascalientes....

 as well as the cities of Guadalajara and Mexico City.

Mining produces calcite
Calcite
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate . The other polymorphs are the minerals aragonite and vaterite. Aragonite will change to calcite at 380-470°C, and vaterite is even less stable.-Properties:...

, marble
Marble
Marble is a metamorphic rock composed of recrystallized carbonate minerals, most commonly calcite or dolomite.Geologists use the term "marble" to refer to metamorphosed limestone; however stonemasons use the term more broadly to encompass unmetamorphosed limestone.Marble is commonly used for...

, calcium oxide
Calcium oxide
Calcium oxide , commonly known as quicklime or burnt lime, is a widely used chemical compound. It is a white, caustic, alkaline crystalline solid at room temperature....

, onyx
Onyx
Onyx is a banded variety of chalcedony. The colors of its bands range from white to almost every color . Commonly, specimens of onyx contain bands of black and/or white.-Etymology:...

, and lime. The most important mining processing concerns are Calera Santa Ma. S.A, Marmiparquet S.A, Química Sumex S.A de C.V and Yacimientos de Travertino S.A., and the sector employs about 270,000 workers.

Handcrafts

Talavera pottery
Talavera (pottery)
Talavera pottery of Puebla, Mexico is a type of majolica pottery, which is distinguished by a milky-white glaze. Authentic Talavera pottery only comes from the city of Puebla and the nearby communities of Atlixco, Cholula, and Tecali, because of the quality of the natural clay found there and the...

 is the state’s best known craft. This pottery is a type of maiolica
Maiolica
Maiolica is Italian tin-glazed pottery dating from the Renaissance. It is decorated in bright colours on a white background, frequently depicting historical and legendary scenes.-Name:...

, which was introduced into Spain by the Arab
Arab
Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

s, and into Mexico by the Spanish. Talavera is considered to be the finest of Mexico’s pottery traditions, which is still made with the same techniques as in the colonial period. Talavera pottery began in the city of Puebla when the Spaniards brought over from Europe the techniques of making maiolica pottery, itself brought from China via the Arabs. The techniques and designs were based on the pottery made in Talavera, Spain
Talavera la Real
Talavera la Real is a municipality located in the province of Badajoz, Extremadura, Spain. According to the 2006 census , the municipality has a population of 5255 inhabitants.-References:...

. The high-quality clay and the formation of guild
Guild
A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade. The earliest types of guild were formed as confraternities of workers. They were organized in a manner something between a trade union, a cartel, and a secret society...

s to ensure quality soon made pottery made in Puebla a near-luxury item. The craft waned after Independence
Mexican War of Independence
The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and the Spanish colonial authorities which started on 16 September 1810. The movement, which became known as the Mexican War of Independence, was led by Mexican-born Spaniards, Mestizos and Amerindians who sought...

, but made a comeback in the latter 20th. Today certified Talavera pottery in only made in a handful of workshops in the capital and other nearby communities. To be certified as genuine the same methods and used in the 16th century must be applied. True Talavera pottery is expensive and considered to be collectors’ items.

Other types of pottery in the state exist. One is the black clay figures made in Acatlán de Osorio. Most of these figures are animals and are almost always painted with white designs. Black clay is also used to make cups, plates and other utilitarian items in other communities. Another important clay craft are the Trees of Life
Tree of Life (craft)
A Tree of Life is a theme of clay sculpture created in central Mexico, especially in the municipality of Metepec, Mexico State. The image depicted in these sculptures originally was for the teaching of the Biblical story of creation to natives in the early colonial period...

, mostly made in the community of Izúcar de Matamoros
Izúcar de Matamoros
Izúcar de Matamoros is a city and its surrounding municipality of the same name located in the southwestern part of the Mexican state of Puebla. The city serves as the municipal seat of the municipality. At the census of 2005 the city had a population of 41,042 inhabitants, while the municipality...

 and Acatlán de Osorio. Traditionally, these are sculptures depicting Adam
Adam
Adam is a figure in the Book of Genesis. According to the creation myth of Abrahamic religions, he is the first human. In the Genesis creation narratives, he was created by Yahweh-Elohim , and the first woman, Eve was formed from his rib...

 and Eve
Eve
Eve is the first woman created by God in the Book of Genesis.Eve may also refer to:-People:*Eve , a common given name and surname*Eve , American recording artist and actress-Places:...

 in the Garden of Eden
Garden of Eden
The Garden of Eden is in the Bible's Book of Genesis as being the place where the first man, Adam, and his wife, Eve, lived after they were created by God. Literally, the Bible speaks about a garden in Eden...

, but the craft has evolved to include other themes as well.

The making of textiles and embroidery dates back to pre-Hispanic times. Traditional clothing such as rebozo
Rebozo
A rebozo is a woman's garment used in Mexico. Rectangular in shape, rebozos vary in size from 1.5 to upwards of three metres, and can be made of cotton, wool, silk, or articela. They can be worn as scarves or shawls, and women often use them to carry children and take products to the market. It is...

s, sarapes, shirts and pants are still made in various parts of the state and reflect the different indigenous communities which are found here. Hueyapan
Hueyapan (municipality)
Hueyapan is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

 is one of the better known artisanal textile producers, with clothing items and others richly and colorfully embroidered. Both the thread used to weave the cloth and embroider it are dyed
Dyeing
Dyeing is the process of adding color to textile products like fibers, yarns, and fabrics. Dyeing is normally done in a special solution containing dyes and particular chemical material. After dyeing, dye molecules have uncut Chemical bond with fiber molecules. The temperature and time controlling...

 with natural dye
Natural dye
Natural dyes are dyes or colorants derived from plants, invertebrates, or minerals. The majority of natural dyes are vegetable dyes from plant sources – roots, berries, bark, leaves, and wood — and other organic sources such as fungi and lichens....

s such as those obtained from the cochineal
Cochineal
The cochineal is a scale insect in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, from which the crimson-colour dye carmine is derived. A primarily sessile parasite native to tropical and subtropical South America and Mexico, this insect lives on cacti from the genus Opuntia, feeding on plant moisture and...

 insect. Another area known for its textiles is Zacapoaxtla
Zacapoaxtla (municipality)
Zacapoaxtla is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

 in the north of the state.

The town of Amozoc
Amozoc (municipality)
Amozoc is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

 is known for its silverwork. This tradition began when a number of metalworkers of various types settled here after the Conquest in the 16th century. These smiths made a variety of objects from the everyday such as knives, swords, stirrups and more, eventually branching into finer metals such as silver and gold, mother-of-pearl, ivory and more. However, it is silver smithing which has best survived to the present day.

There are two widely practice paper crafts in Puebla. The making of bark paper or amate
Amatl
Amate is a form of paper that has been manufactured in Mexico since the pre Hispanic times. Amate paper was extensively produced and used for both communication, records and ritual during the Aztec Empire; however, after the Spanish conquest, its production was mostly banned and replaced by...

 was known in pre-Hispanic times when such was reserved for special ceremonies and the recording of important information. It had an almost magical quality to it and was used for spells, clothing of idols and other ceremonial purposes. Today, the paper is still made as an art form and often painted with elaborate designs. In Puebla, the paper is still made by hand and often it is hand-painted with pre-Hispanic designs. One area noted for this craft is San Salvador Huixcolotla
San Salvador Huixcolotla (municipality)
San Salvador Huixcolotla is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

 . Another is San Pablito Pahuatlán
Pahuatlán (municipality)
Pahuatlán is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

 in the Sierra Norte. One notable amate paper artist is curandero
Curandero
A curandero or curandeiro is a traditional folk healer or shaman in Latin America, who is dedicated to curing physical or spiritual illnesses. The role of a curandero or curandera can also incorporate the roles of psychiatrist along with that of doctor and healer. Many curanderos use Catholic...

 Alfonso García Téllez, who narrates stories and ceremonies in his works. Another paper craft is papel picado
Papel picado
Papel picado is a decorative craft made out of paper cut into elaborate designs. Although it is a Mexican folk art, papel picado is used as a holiday decoration in many countries...

, or “chopped paper.” This craft began with the introduction of crepe paper
Crêpe paper
Crêpe paper is tissue paper that has been coated with sizing and then creped to create gathers.-Production:Paper that is creped is produced on a paper machine that has a single large steam-heated drying cylinder fitted with a hot-air hood. The raw material is paper pulp. The Yankee cylinder is...

 from Asia. This paper is elaborately cut to form figures and scenes which are then hung for decorative purposes for holidays such as Day of the Dead
Day of the Dead
Day of the Dead is a Mexican holiday celebrated throughout Mexico and around the world in many cultures. The holiday focuses on gatherings of family and friends to pray for and remember friends and family members who have died. It is particularly celebrated in Mexico, where it attains the quality...

. This most traditional of these are laborious cut by hand, but most are done today by machine. Those native to Puebla feature a large figure with a detailed background and are considered to be part of the state’s cultural heritage (Patrimonio Cultural del Estado de Puebla) .

A relatively recent craft is the making of blown glass Christmas ornaments in Chignahuapan
Chignahuapan (municipality)
Chignahuapan is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.The municipality is the location of the Basilica of the Immaculate Conception.The BUAP has a Regional Section there.-References:...

. This municipality has about 200 workshops which employ about 1,500 workers, which makes the spherical ornaments individually and many are shipped internationally to the United States and Latin America. This craft is still growing and represents one of the more stable small scale manufacturing endeavors in Puebla.

For many rural communities, the making of handcrafted furniture, both fine and rustic, is an important economic activity. One such community is Ciudad Serdán
Chalchicomula de Sesma (municipality)
Chalchicomula de Sesma is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, which makes wooden utensils, decorative figures and banister work in addition to furniture. It has a strong reputation along with Chignahuapan. Areas outside of Ciudad Serdán are known for specializing in reproductions of Louis XV and Louis XVI furniture. The community of Trinidad Alonso Báez is known as the only place in Latin American where pianos are made purely by hand. They are also known for the repairing of musical instrument with many of the state’s antique church organs fixed by craftsmen from here.

Onyx is a plentiful stone in the state and it is worked into figures and other items in various parts of the state. The most important deposit of the stone is in Tecali
Tecali de Herrera (municipality)
Tecali de Herrera is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

 and many workshops fill the streets of this town. Most of the pieces made are decorative in nature but small utilitarian items such as plates and ashtrays are also made.

Amozoc has been known for silver smithing since colonial times, when European techniques were brought over by the Spanish. As back then, they still make items such as jewelry, silverware, and items for church rituals. These smiths’ work is considered to be quality, with the finest pieces encrusted with precious and semi-precious gems, gold, and ivory.

The first glass workshop in New Spain
New Spain
New Spain, formally called the Viceroyalty of New Spain , was a viceroyalty of the Spanish colonial empire, comprising primarily territories in what was known then as 'América Septentrional' or North America. Its capital was Mexico City, formerly Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec Empire...

 was established in Puebla by Spaniard Rodrigo Espinoza in 1542. It remained the only one in Spain’s colonies for decades, exporting glass items to places such as Peru
Peru
Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean....

 and Guatemala
Guatemala
Guatemala is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, and Honduras and El Salvador to the southeast...

. In the 18th century, Pedro Antonio revitalized the craft with a new factory. This factory was the main producer until the establishment of the Compañia Empresarial para la Fabricacion del Vidrio Plano y Cristal in 1838. This company introduced French designs and techniques to Mexico. The next major glassmaker was Victor Martinez Filoteo, who established the Fabrica La Luz in 1935. This company is still the major producer of glass items in the state. Small workshops are prevalent in Huaquechula
Huaquechula (municipality)
Huaquechula is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, where they specialize items made with black and smoke-colored glass.

Commerce and transportation

Thirty five percent are employed in commerce, tourism and transportation. The state has 8,995 km of highways and 1,024 km of rail line, as well as twenty three major malls. Outlet Puebla was opened in 2001 on the highway between Mexico City and the city /of Puebla where it intersects with the Periferico Ecologico. It contains more than 80 outlet stores with major national and international brands such as Reebok
Reebok
Reebok International Limited, a subsidiary of the German sportswear company Adidas since 2005, is a producer of Athletic shoes, apparel, and accessories. The name comes from the Afrikaans spelling of rhebok, a type of African antelope or gazelle...

, Guess and Pepe Jeans
Pepe Jeans
Pepe Jeans London is a denim and casual wear jeans brand that was established in the Portobello Road area of London in 1973. From its origins as a tiny market stall to more than half a US billion dollar brand, Pepe has transformed itself into a jeanswear label found throughout Europe...

, located on a site of over 30,000m2. The enterprise is run by Asesores en Exposiciones y Calpro, S. A. de C. V. The mall target traveling customers from the states of Puebla, Veracruz, Oaxaca and Tlaxcala as well as Mexico City.

The international airport in Huejotzingo
Huejotzingo (municipality)
Huejotzingo is a small city and municipality located just northwest of the city of Puebla, in the central Mexico. The settlement’s history dates back to the pre-Hispanic period, when it was a dominion, with its capital a short distance from where the modern settlement is today...

 is linked to the Mexico City airport by land transport. Efforts have been made to expand the airport in Huejotzingo to be an auxiliary to the overcrowded Mexico City airport
Mexico City International Airport
Benito Juárez International Airport , in Venustiano Carranza, one of the sixteen boroughs into which Mexico's Federal District is divided, is a commercial airport that serves Mexico City, the capital of Mexico...

. The airport has been chosen due to its relatively quiet airspace and proximity to the nation’s capital. As of 2010, the airport handles sixty operations per day, 40 of which are commercial flights serving 2.5 million passengers per year.

Tourism

The state has 2,600 historic buildings, antiques, bars and pottery workshops. The downtown of the capital is filled with churches, government buildings and large homes, built by indigenous hands for their Spanish overlords. This downtown was declared a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 in 1987.

The state promotes twelve tourist routes, seven in the city of Puebla and five in the rest of the state. The cover the most representative buildings of the history of the state up to modern attractions such as the Africam Safari
Africam Safari
Africam Safari is a Mexican zoo park that was established in 1972 by Captain Carlos Camacho Espíritu. It is located about from the city of Puebla.Africam Safari is accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums .-Safari:...

 zoo. The first tourist route in the city of Puebla passes by the Cathedral, the Palafoxiana Library, the Capilla del Rosario, Calle de Santa Clara, Palacio Municipal, Casa de los Muñecos and the Museo Amparo. The second route passes by the Casa del Alfeñique, the Mercado de Artesanias, the Barrio del Artista, the Teatro Principal and the San Francisco Church. The third route contains the Railroad Museum, the Museo y Pinacoteca Ex-Convento de Santa Monica, the Ex-Convento de Santa Rosa, the Museo de la No-Intervencion Fuerte de Guadalupe and the Mercado de Antiguedades. The forth route contains the San Francisco Acatepec Church, the Santa Maria Tonatzintla Church, the Capilla Real, the Cholula archeological site, the Los Remedios Church and Huejotzingo. The fifth route includes Cuauhtinchan, Tecali
Tecali de Herrera (municipality)
Tecali de Herrera is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

 and the Africam Safari
Africam Safari
Africam Safari is a Mexican zoo park that was established in 1972 by Captain Carlos Camacho Espíritu. It is located about from the city of Puebla.Africam Safari is accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums .-Safari:...

 Zoo.

Outside of the Puebla metropolitan area, the state promotes natural attractions such as the cacti of Zapotitlán
Zapotitlán (municipality)
Zapotitlán is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, the 100 million year old fossils of Cantera Tlayùa in Tepexi de Rodríguez
Tepexi de Rodríguez (municipality)
Tepexi de Rodríguez is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

 and smaller ones such as waterfalls, churches, caverns, archeological zones, former monasteries, traditional markets
Traditional fixed markets in Mexico
Traditional fixed markets in Mexico go by a variety of names such as "mercados públicos" , "mercados municipales" or even more often simply "mercados"...

, fresh water springs, lakes and more. The tourist routes outside of the Puebla metro area are divided into the Sierra Mixteca area in the south and the Sierra Norte in the north. The Sierra Mixteca area includes the Ruta de Aguacate (Avocado Route), the Ruta del Ónix (Onyx Route), the Ruta del Maiz (Corn Route) and the Ruta Paleontológica (Palentology Route). The Avocado Route includes the municipalities of Atlixco
Atlixco (municipality)
Atlixco is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Tianguismanalco
Tianguismanalco (municipality)
Tianguismanalco is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

, Tochimilco
Tochimilco (municipality)
Tochimilco is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

, Huaquechula
Huaquechula (municipality)
Huaquechula is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Tlapanalá
Tlapanalá (municipality)
Tlapanalá is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

, Izúcar de Matamoros
Izúcar de Matamoros
Izúcar de Matamoros is a city and its surrounding municipality of the same name located in the southwestern part of the Mexican state of Puebla. The city serves as the municipal seat of the municipality. At the census of 2005 the city had a population of 41,042 inhabitants, while the municipality...

, San Juan Epatlán
Epatlán (municipality)
Epatlán is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

, Chietla
Chietla (municipality)
Chietla is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Chiautla de Tapia
Chiautla (municipality)
Chiautla is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

 and Acatlán de Osorio. The Onyx Route includes the Africam Safari Zoo, Cuauhtinchan, San Salvador Huixcolotla
San Salvador Huixcolotla (municipality)
San Salvador Huixcolotla is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

, Tecali de Herrera
Tecali de Herrera (municipality)
Tecali de Herrera is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

, Tecamachalco
Tecamachalco (municipality)
Tecamachalco is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

 and Tepeaca. The Corn Route includes Tehuacán
Tehuacán
Tehuacán is the second largest city in the Mexican state of Puebla, nestled in the Southeast Valley of Tehuacán, bordering the states of Oaxaca and Veracruz. The 2010 census reported a population of 248,716 in the city and 274,906 in its surrounding municipality of the same name, of which it serves...

, Santa María del Monte and Zapotitlán Salinas. The Paleontology Route includes Atoyatempan
Atoyatempan (municipality)
Atoyatempan is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

, Santa Clara Huitziltepec
Huitziltepec (municipality)
Huitziltepec is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Molcaxac
Molcaxac (municipality)
Molcaxac is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

, Huatlatlauca
Huatlatlauca (municipality)
Huatlatlauca is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

, Chigmecatitlán
Chigmecatitlan (municipality)
Chigmecatitlan is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

, Tepexi de Rodríguez
Tepexi de Rodríguez (municipality)
Tepexi de Rodríguez is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

 and San Juan Ixcaquixtla
Ixcaquixtla (municipality)
Ixcaquixtla is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

 .

The Sierra Norte contains a number of pre-Hispanic archeological sites and colonial architecture. Crafts to be found here include wool clothing, amate paper
Amatl
Amate is a form of paper that has been manufactured in Mexico since the pre Hispanic times. Amate paper was extensively produced and used for both communication, records and ritual during the Aztec Empire; however, after the Spanish conquest, its production was mostly banned and replaced by...

, clay figures, wood carvings, and embroidered blouses. This area of the state contains the Ruta de la Flor (Flower Route), Ruta Interserrana (Inter-Mountain Route), Ruta del Huipil y Café (Huipil and Coffee Route) and the Ruta Perla Norte (North Pearl Route). The Flower Route includes the municipalities of Chignahuapan
Chignahuapan (municipality)
Chignahuapan is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.The municipality is the location of the Basilica of the Immaculate Conception.The BUAP has a Regional Section there.-References:...

, Zacatlán
Zacatlán (municipality)
Zacatlán is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Huauchinango
Huauchinango (municipality)
Huauchinango is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Juan Galindo
Juan Galindo (municipality)
Juan Galindo is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Pahuatlán
Pahuatlán (municipality)
Pahuatlán is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

, Tenango, Tetela de Ocampo
Tetela de Ocampo
Tetela de Ocampo is a town and municipality in the Sierra Norte region of the Mexican state of Puebla."Tetela" is a name of Nahuatl origin, containing the elements tetl and tla : it thus means "place of many hills"...

 and Xicotepec
Xicotepec (municipality)
Xicotepec is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

. The Inter-Mountain Route includes Ahuacatlán
Ahuacatlán, Puebla
Ahuacatlán is a municipio located in the Sierra Norte region of the Mexican state of Puebla. The seat of the ayuntamiento is the town of Ahuacatlán. The municipality is located in the northeastern portion of Puebla, approximately 124 km to the north of the state capital, the city of Puebla...

, Zapotitlán
Zapotitlán (municipality)
Zapotitlán is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Xochitlán
Xochitlán de Vicente Suárez (municipality)
Xochitlán de Vicente Suárez is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Tepango
Tepango de Rodríguez (municipality)
Tepango de Rodríguez is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

 and Nauzontla
Nauzontla (municipality)
Nauzontla is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

. The Huipil and Coffee Route include Tenextatiloyan, Acajete
Acajete, Puebla
Acajete is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.- References :...

, Cuetzalan
Cuetzalán
Cuetzalan is a small town set high in the hills in the north of the Mexican state of Puebla, 183 kilometers from Puebla, the state capital. It is located in the Sierra Norte region. The town itself is characterized by sloping cobbled streets and numerous rustic buildings...

, Jonotla
Jonotla (municipality)
Jonotla is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

, Libres
Libres (municipality)
Libres is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

, Nopalucan
Nopalucan (municipality)
Nopalucan is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Oriental
Oriental (municipality)
Oriental is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

, San José Chiapa, Tepeyahualco
Tepeyahualco (municipality)
Tepeyahualco is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

 and Zacapoaxtla
Zacapoaxtla (municipality)
Zacapoaxtla is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

. The North Pearl Route includes Atempa
Atempan (municipality)
Atempan is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Chignautla
Chignautla (municipality)
Chignautla is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

, Hueyapan
Hueyapan (municipality)
Hueyapan is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, San Juan Xiultetelco
Xiutetelco (municipality)
Xiutetelco is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

, Teziutlán
Teziutlán (municipality)
Teziutlán is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, Tlatlauquitepec
Tlatlauquitepec (municipality)
Tlatlauquitepec is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

 and Yaonahuac
Yaonáhuac (municipality)
Yaonáhuac is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

.

There are a number of former haciendas in the state, many of which have been converted into hotels, spas and other kinds of attractions. Some have also been used as movie and television sets for projects such as Alondra
Alondra (telenovela)
Alondra is a Mexican telenovela shown in 1995, written by Yolanda Vargas Dulché and produced by Carla Estrada, starring with Ana Colchero and the late Beatriz Sheridan...

, Amor es Querer, Man on Fire
Man on Fire (2004 film)
Man on Fire is a 2004 American thriller film, based on the 1980 novel of the same name by A. J. Quinnell. Another film based on the same novel was also filmed in 1987....

, Vantage Point
Vantage Point (film)
Vantage Point is a 2008 American political action thriller film directed by Pete Travis. It was adapted from a screenplay written by Barry L. Levy. The story focuses on an assassination attempt on the President of the United States as seen from a different set of vantage points through the eyes of...

 and Frida
Frida
Frida is a 2002 biographical film which depicts the professional and private life of the surrealist Mexican painter Frida Kahlo. It stars Salma Hayek in her Academy Award nominated portrayal as Kahlo and Alfred Molina as her husband, Diego Rivera....

. These include the Chautla Hacienda
Chautla Hacienda
The Chautla Hacienda was a formerly vast extension of farmland located in the San Martin Texmelucan Valley in the state of Puebla, northwest of the city of Puebla in Mexico. It was established in the 18th century, primarily producing grain. In the 19th century, it became the property of an...

 in San Salvador el Verde, Las Calandrias in Atlixco, Micuautla in Puebla, Netxalpa in Atlixco, San Pedro de Ovando in Acatzingo, Ozumba in San José Chiapa, Rancho Jesús in Cuautinchan, San Agustín in Atlixco, San Mateo in Amalucan, San Roque in Atlixco, Santiago Texmelucan in Tepeyahualco de Hidalgo and Oriental Tenextepec in Atlixco.

Natural attractions in the state include Amacas in Cuetzalan, Bosque Chignahuapan Forest, the Quetzalapa Chignahuapan Waterfall, Zacatlán Waterfall, La Gloria Cuetzalán Waterfall, Las Brisas Cuetzalan Waterfall, Las Golondrinas Cuetzalan Waterfall, Nexcapa Hauachinango, Ocpaco Zacatlán Waterfall, the arid landscapes of Zapotitlan de Salinas, the Iztalcihual and Popocatepetl volcanos, the basalt columns of Huauchinango, the Valle de Piedras Encimadas in Zacatlán and the Nexcaxa Dam in Huauchinango.(scenarios)

Puebla is working with neighboring Veracruz to promote the area’s tourist attractions and develop them in an ecologically sustainable way. Both state governments are working with organizations of tour operators, hotels and restaurants to pool a fund for activities such as advertising campaigns, especially to Mexico City and the State of Mexico, which account for 80% of all the state’s visitors. Another is the reimbursement of tolls for those who travel to certain attractions such as the Africam Safari park and two-for-one specials. Efforts have succeeded in raising hotel occupancy rates from 40% to 56% in a number of areas.

Archeological sites

Cantona is a 12km2 archeological site, located in the north of the state between the municipalities of Tepehualco and Coyoaco. It is divided into three units, with work only done on the south unit, which is the best preserved. Here is found the “Acropolis,” an area with temples, palaces and other seats of authority. The site was occupied between the 7th and 11th centuries CE and reached its height at the time many other Classic era urban centers were falling. It is thought that this city interrupted the flow of goods from the coast of Veracruz to Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan – also written Teotihuacán, with a Spanish orthographic accent on the last syllable – is an enormous archaeological site in the Basin of Mexico, just 30 miles northeast of Mexico City, containing some of the largest pyramidal structures built in the pre-Columbian Americas...

, one of the many causes of that city’s downfall. The site is filled with a large number of patios which measure 50 x 40 meters or larger. Total number of patios found is 620, and 997 mounds have been found as well. In some areas, remains of obsidian and sandstone workshops have been found.

Cholula was one a major Mesoamerican city with a multicultural population that was bound by a common religion based on the worship of Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl
Quetzalcoatl is a Mesoamerican deity whose name comes from the Nahuatl language and has the meaning of "feathered serpent". The worship of a feathered serpent deity is first documented in Teotihuacan in the first century BCE or first century CE...

. The city was a pilgrimage site for the worship of this deity. Its architecture was complex and shows various foreign influences. Its height was reached during the Classic period between 100 to 900 CE along with Tollan
Tula, Hidalgo
Tula, formally, Tula de Allende, is a town and one of the 84 municipalities of Hidalgo, in central-eastern Mexico. The municipality covers an area of 305.8 km² , and as of 2005, the municipality had a total population of 93,296, with 28,432 in the town...

 and Teotihuacan. It was regionally influential for much of the Mesoamerican period, and its polychromic pottery has been found in a large number of sites, indicating trade. By the time the Spanish arrived, it was still a very large city, second only to Tenochtitlan, to which it was subject. Today, the site is known for its Great Pyramid.

Tepexi el Viejo is located southeast of the city of Puebla. It was founded as the seat of one of the most important Popoloca dominions and control much of what is now the south of the state from 1200 to 1500 CE. This area’s light orange colored pottery has been found as far away as Teotihuacan. The site is naturally protected by mountains and canyons and is divided into five areas. Each has platforms, pyramidal mounds, residential areas and tombs. The most important pyramidal mound is located in the center of the site and other, smaller one is located to the extreme west. Residences are located in the northwest, many of which are L-shaped. There is only one natural opening to the area, which is in the south about 6 km outside the city’s walls.

Unlike other sites in the state, Yohualichan was dominated by coastal groups, which eventually abandoned it in the face of incursions from peoples from the central highlands. The site was a ceremonial center which was probably dominant over other similar sites. Containing niched pyramids as well, it is related to the El Tajín
El Tajín
El Tajín is a pre-Columbian archeological site and was the site of one of the largest and most important cities of the Classic era of Mesoamerica. The city flourished from 600 to 1200 C.E. and during this time numerous temples, palaces, Mesoamerican ballcourts and pyramids were built...

 site in Veracruz. There is also a residential area, but it has not been studied.

Tepatlaxco is located on the south side of the Totlqueme mountain. It is centered on a ceremonial center which has more than eight structures, surrounded by numerous smaller mounds. Much of the site was constructed into the mountain itself, causing it to blend in. In addition to the mountain, there are two large ravines to give the site added protection. The most important structure is named Mound A, which also shows the longest occupation. It measures nine meters high and 36 meters at its base.

Gastronomy

Other foods common to the state include atole
Atole
Atole is a traditional masa-based Mexican and Central American hot drink. Chocolate atole is known as champurrado or atole...

 with chili pepper
Chili pepper
Chili pepper is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. The term in British English and in Australia, New Zealand, India, Malaysia and other Asian countries is just chilli without pepper.Chili peppers originated in the Americas...

 (chileatole), spicy mole verde
Mole (sauce)
Mole is the generic name for a number of sauces used in Mexican cuisine, as well as for dishes based on these sauces...

, barbacoa
Barbacoa
Barbacoa is a form of cooking meat that originated in the Caribbean with the Taíno people, from which the term "barbecue" derives. In contemporary Mexico it generally refers to meats or a whole sheep slow-cooked over an open fire, or more traditionally, in a hole dug in the ground covered with...

, chilate with chopped onion, camitas, cecina
Cecina
Cecina may refer to:*Cecina, Tuscany, a town in the Italian Province of Livorno*Cecina , a river in Italy*Cecina , a Spanish and Mexican culinary specialty made of beef*Farinata, a Tuscan culinary specialty made of chickpea flour...

, guaxmole with lime, and mole de caderas or mole espinazo. Many of these are found in the Sierra Mixteca region. However, the state is best known for cemita
Cemita
There are several kinds of cemitas in Latin American cuisine.- Mexico :A cemita, also known as a cemita poblana, is sometimes known as a Mexican sandwich, originally from the city of Puebla....

s, mole poblano, chiles en nogada
Chiles en nogada
Chiles en nogada is a dish from Mexican cuisine. The name comes from the Spanish word for the walnut tree, nogal. It consists of poblano chiles filled with picadillo topped with a walnut-based cream sauce, called nogada, and pomegranate seeds, giving it the three colors of the Mexican flag: green...

 and chalupa
Chalupa
A chalupa is a tostada platter in Mexican cuisine. It is a specialty of south-central Mexico, including the states of Puebla, Guerrero and Oaxaca. Chalupas are made by pressing a thin layer of masa dough around the outside of a small mold, and deep frying to produce crisp, shallow corn cups...

s.

The cemita is a kind of sandwich on a roll, related to the torta
Torta
Torta is a Spanish word with a huge array of culinary meanings depending from the area and period of history in question. It originated in different regional variants of flatbread, of which the torta de gazpacho and torta cenceña are still surviving in certain areas of central Spain. Tortas are...

, particularly popular in Mexico City and the pambazo
Pambazo
Pambazo is the name of a Mexican white bread. It is also the name of the dish or antojito made with this bread dipped in a red guajillo pepper sauce and filled with papas con chorizo ....

, which is of French origin and popular in several areas in central Mexico. The sandwich has its origin with two kinds of bread which were brought over from Spain during the colonial period: one called “bizcocho de sal,” which was long and hard and a kind of hollow cracker. Both breads were developed for long storage and eventually were made in Puebla with grain from the Atlixco area. These two breads eventually fused into a unique type that became softer by the mid 19th century. The name is derived from a Jewish unleavened bread called “semita,” which was brought over by Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews is a general term referring to the descendants of the Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula before their expulsion in the Spanish Inquisition. It can also refer to those who use a Sephardic style of liturgy or would otherwise define themselves in terms of the Jewish customs and...

 to New Spain
New Spain
New Spain, formally called the Viceroyalty of New Spain , was a viceroyalty of the Spanish colonial empire, comprising primarily territories in what was known then as 'América Septentrional' or North America. Its capital was Mexico City, formerly Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec Empire...

. These were also produced in Puebla state. The cemitas were prepared at home and filled with potatoes, beans and nopal cactus and eaten by the lower classes. Later, an establishment in the Mercado Victoria market began to sell them to the public filled with meat from bull’s feet with a vinaigrette
Vinaigrette
The word vinaigrette or vinegarette can refer to:*Vinaigrette, the salad dressing or sauce...

, herbs, onions and chili peppers. This new filling was a hit and eventually this and other variations became a staple in many markets and popular eateries. Today, a large number varieties exist but all are prepared using the same type of bread.
The best-known mole is named after the city of Puebla, mole poblano. The origin of this sauce is disputed and there are two versions of the legend that are most often cited. The first states that 16th century nuns from the Convent of Santa Rosa were worried because they had just found out that the archbishop was going to visit them and they had nothing to prepare for him except for an old turkey in the yard. Supposedly due to divine inspiration, they began to mix together many of the spices and flavorings they had on hand in the kitchen, including different types of chili peppers, other spices, day-old bread, chocolate and approximately twenty other ingredients. They let the sauce simmer for hours and poured it over the turkey meat. Fortunately, the archbishop was very pleased with the meal and the nuns were able to save face.

The other story states that the sauce is of pre-Hispanic times and this was served to Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro, 1st Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century...

 and the other conquistadors by Moctezuma II
Moctezuma II
Moctezuma , also known by a number of variant spellings including Montezuma, Moteuczoma, Motecuhzoma and referred to in full by early Nahuatl texts as Motecuhzoma Xocoyotzin, was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520...

. The Aztecs did have a preparation called “chilmulli,” which in Nahuatl
Nahuatl
Nahuatl is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl , Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua...

 means “chili pepper sauce.” However, there is no evidence that chocolate was ever used to flavor prepared foods or used in chilmulli. What has happened is that the sauce gained ingredients as it was reinterpreted over the colonial period.

Many food writers and gourmets nowadays consider one particular dish, the famous turkey in mole poblano, which contains chocolate, to represent the pinnacle of the Mexican cooking tradition.
According to the legend of chiles en nogada, there were three sisters from the city of Puebla who were in Mexico City. When the Army of the Three Guarantees
Army of the Three Guarantees
At the end of the Mexican War of Independence, the Army of the Three Guarantees was the name given to the army after the unification of the Spanish troops led by Agustín de Iturbide and the Mexican insurgent troops of Vicente Guerrero, consolidating Mexico's independence from Spain...

 entered the capital at the end of the Mexican War of Independence
Mexican War of Independence
The Mexican War of Independence was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and the Spanish colonial authorities which started on 16 September 1810. The movement, which became known as the Mexican War of Independence, was led by Mexican-born Spaniards, Mestizos and Amerindians who sought...

, they were feted by many. At one of these parties, the three sisters fell in love with three of the army’s officers. Soon after, Agustín de Iturbide
Agustín de Iturbide
Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Aramburu , also known as Augustine I of Mexico, was a Mexican army general who built a successful political and military coalition that was able to march into Mexico City on 27 September 1821, decisively ending the Mexican War of Independence...

 himself was set to visit the city of Puebla. Remembering the sisters, the soon-to-be emperor wanted to visit them. Wanting to impress Iturbide but not knowing how to cook, the sisters turned to the nuns of the Santa Monica convent who were famous for their food. The nuns decided to invent a dish for the sisters, which would represent the three colors of the new Mexican flag
Flag of Mexico
The flag of Mexico is a vertical tricolor of green, white, and red with the national coat of arms charged in the center of the white stripe. While the meaning of the colors has changed over time, these three colors were adopted by Mexico following independence from Spain during the country's War...

. On the appointed day, the banquet was prepared with the dish now called chiles en nogada, which pleased Iturbide.

Chalupas are thick corn tortillas fried in lard then covered in red or green chili pepper sauce and topped with shredded meat and other things. According to legend, they were named after the barges that the Aztec
Aztec
The Aztec people were certain ethnic groups of central Mexico, particularly those groups who spoke the Nahuatl language and who dominated large parts of Mesoamerica in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, a period referred to as the late post-classic period in Mesoamerican chronology.Aztec is the...

s used to travel in areas such as Tenochtitlan (today Mexico City). Chalupas are popular in other areas of central Mexico but are considered a specialty of Puebla, where they are served from humble street carts to upscale restaurants.

Myths and legends

The legend of the founding of the city of Puebla attributes the act to a vision had by friar Julián Garcés, who became the first bishop of Puebla. The legend states that while praying, the friar fell asleep, when he dreamed of a festival in honor the Archangel Michael happening in a place with leafy trees and a crystal clear river, flowing from springs. As the contemplated the scenery, angels descended from heaven and traced the outlines of the city to be built. When he awake he drew what he had seen, deciding he had had a divine vision. He communicated the dream to other Franciscans and found the place he saw five days later.

The story of the China Poblana
China Poblana
China poblana is a term that refers to two elements of the culture of Mexico that have been related by name since the end of the 19th century, although the elements they incorporate are much older...

 is one of the most popular in the state. The girl was taken on the Manila Galleon
Manila Galleon
The Manila galleons or Manila-Acapulco galleons were Spanish trading ships that sailed once or twice per year across the Pacific Ocean between Manila in the Philippines, and Acapulco, New Spain . The name changed reflecting the city that the ship was sailing from...

, but she was sold to Puebla resident Miguel de Sosa for a price ten times what the viceroy
Viceroy
A viceroy is a royal official who runs a country, colony, or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning king. A viceroy's province or larger territory is called a viceroyalty...

 offered. She was taken to the city and baptized with the name of Catarina de San Juan in 1620. She maintained her oriental dress which made her conspicuous and it became a fad to imitate some aspects of this dress.

When de Sosa and his wife died, Catherine entered a convent and began to see visions of the Virgin Mary and the Child Jesus
Child Jesus
The Child Jesus represents Jesus from his Nativity to age 12. At 13 he was considered to be adult, in accordance with the Jewish custom of his time, and that of most Christian cultures until recent centuries.The Child Jesus is frequently depicted in art, from around the third or fourth century...

. Some say that a number of miracles occurred while Catherine lived at the convent and this provoked a kind of veneration of her. When the China Poblana died in 1882, veneration of her as a saint began in earnest, but the practice was put to an end by the Mexican Inquisition
Mexican Inquisition
The Mexican Inquisition was an extension of the Spanish Inquisition into the New World. The Spanish Conquest of Mexico was not only a political event for the Spanish, but a religious event as well. In the early 16th century, the Reformation, the Counter-Reformation and the Inquisition were in full...

. Today her remains are in a crypt in the Temple de La Compañia in the city of Puebla.

The Aztec myth of Popocatépetl
Popocatépetl
Popocatépetl also known as "Popochowa" by the local population is an active volcano and, at , the second highest peak in Mexico after the Pico de Orizaba...

 and Iztaccíhuatl
Iztaccíhuatl
Iztaccíhuatl , is the third highest mountain in Mexico, after the Pico de Orizaba, , and Popocatépetl, . Its name is Nahuatl for "White woman"....

, a Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet
Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written early in the career of playwright William Shakespeare about two young star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately unite their feuding families. It was among Shakespeare's most popular archetypal stories of young, teenage lovers.Romeo and Juliet belongs to a...

 type story, has equal significance in this state as it does in the Valley of Mexico
Valley of Mexico
The Valley of Mexico is a highlands plateau in central Mexico roughly coterminous with the present-day Distrito Federal and the eastern half of the State of Mexico. Surrounded by mountains and volcanoes, the Valley of Mexico was a centre for several pre-Columbian civilizations, including...

 as the two are equally visible from the city of Puebla, but only in reverse (with Popocatépetl on the left).

There is a popular saying “todo terminó como el Rosario de Amozoc, a golpes y farolazos” (it all ended like the Amozoc Rosary, with blows and drinks. The saying is derived from a legend from the community of Amozoc de Mota
Amozoc (municipality)
Amozoc is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico.-References:...

 in the state. A silversmith apprentice by the name of Alberto was in love with a beautiful girl named Catalina, nicknamed La Culata. However, another apprentice from another shop named Enrique, was also in love with her. Alberto was accepted by la Culata and this made Enrique jealous. Festivities for the beginning of the year were supposed to be organized by the different silver workshops together but the rivalry caused a split in which ecclesiastical authorities needed to intervene. On the first day of the event, at Mass, Enrique saw Alberto and Catherine kiss briefly, which enraged him. During the rosary, while the choir sang “Mater Inmaculata,” Enrique heard “mata a la Culata” (kill La Culata), took a knife from his clothing and attacked the couple, killing Catarina. Alberto took a machete from his belt and killed Enrique. A fight ensued which left many dead and wounded. It is said that one can still hear the cries of Catalina as she died.

The house at Avenida 3 Ote 201 in the city of Puebla belonged to Pedro de Carvajal, who was a wealthy and respected man. However, he lost his young wife as she gave birth to their second child, a boy. When his daughter turned 15, there were many interested suitors but she was not interested in them. One day a monster appeared at a party in the city provoking terror. The monster went to the Carvajal house and ate the younger son, who was playing out front of the house. Pedro offered a large reward for the capture of the beast. One young man, who wanted the hand of Pedro’s daughter, appeared at another festival, bearing the head of the beast. It is said that this young man gained noble title and the hand of the daughter as a reward.

The two volcanoes

The state of Puebla is located on the east side of the volcanoes of Popocatepetl and Iztaccihuatl, opposite of the Valley of Mexico and Mexico City. The two volcanoes have as much significance here as they do on the west side, with many communities nearby maintaining ritual specific to honoring the two. These arose as fertility rituals but today are called “birthdays” with 12 March reserved for Popocatepetl and 30 August for Iztaccíhuatl. On these events, special foods and gifts are prepared as offerings and left in certain places. These traditions have survived despite the evangelization efforts of the colonial period.

Festivals and holidays

The state is home to a number of festivals and traditions, from those with a purely pre-Hispanic background, to the far more numerous saints’ days to modern fairs located to regional economies. The largest important events include the Day of the Dead
Day of the Dead
Day of the Dead is a Mexican holiday celebrated throughout Mexico and around the world in many cultures. The holiday focuses on gatherings of family and friends to pray for and remember friends and family members who have died. It is particularly celebrated in Mexico, where it attains the quality...

 in Huaquechula, the Carnival of Huijotzingo, Spring Equinox in Cantona, Fiesta de Santo Entierro y Feria de las Flores, the Fería del Café y el Huipil, the Huey Atlixcáyotl Festival, the Quetzalcoatl Ritual and Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo
Cinco de Mayo is a holiday held on May 5. It is celebrated nationwide in the United States and regionally in Mexico, primarily in the state of Puebla, where the holiday is called El Dia de la Batalla de Puebla...

, celebrated in the entire state.

Cinco de Mayo is an important celebration in a number of places the United States, but it is a minor holiday or even unknown in much of Mexico proper. The only place where the holiday, which commemorates the Battle of Puebla
Battle of Puebla
The Battle of Puebla took place on 5 May 1862 near the city of Puebla during the French intervention in Mexico. The battle ended in a victory for the Mexican Army over the occupying French forces...

 during the French Intervention in Mexico
French intervention in Mexico
The French intervention in Mexico , also known as The Maximilian Affair, War of the French Intervention, and The Franco-Mexican War, was an invasion of Mexico by an expeditionary force sent by the Second French Empire, supported in the beginning by the United Kingdom and the Kingdom of Spain...

, is important is in the state of Puebla. The French army invaded the country in 1862 and marched from Veracruz towards the city of Puebla. Just outside the city, inexperienced Mexican troops attacked the French who were camped. This resulted victory, but the French were ultimately able to move on and take Mexico City, dominating the country until 1867. The annual celebration of the battle began in the state in areas of the country not occupied by the French as a symbol of Mexican pride. Today it is the most important state political commemoration. The most important observances take place at the Loreto and Guadalupe forts in the city of Puebla, where the battle occurred in 1862. The highlight is a reenactment of the event at the site.
Like the rest of Mexico, Day of the Dead is celebrated in the state. Two aspects which feature prominently on altars in this state are mole
Mole (sauce)
Mole is the generic name for a number of sauces used in Mexican cuisine, as well as for dishes based on these sauces...

 with turkey and large wax candles. Other items can include black candelabra
Candelabra
"Candelabra" is the traditional term for a set of multiple decorative candlesticks, each of which often holds a candle on each of multiple arms or branches connected to a column or pedestal...

s, incense burners, candy skulls, decorative paper cutouts, oranges and other fruits in season. Leading to these altars often are a line of small candles to guide the returning spirits. One municipality which is particularly known for its events is Huaquechula
Huaquechula (municipality)
Huaquechula is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

. Here, altars constructed in homes can be of multiple levels and are usually covered in white paper. On the first level, food and drink are usually placed, with religious objects and objects related to the deceased on the second level.

In a number of communities in the state, Carnival is celebrated. The best known of these carnivals takes place in Huejotzingo
Huejotzingo (municipality)
Huejotzingo is a small city and municipality located just northwest of the city of Puebla, in the central Mexico. The settlement’s history dates back to the pre-Hispanic period, when it was a dominion, with its capital a short distance from where the modern settlement is today...

, as it began as a synthesis of a celebration honoring Tlaloc
Tlaloc
Tlaloc was an important deity in Aztec religion, a god of rain, fertility, and water. He was a beneficent god who gave life and sustenance, but he was also feared for his ability to send hail, thunder and lightning, and for being the lord of the powerful element of water. In Aztec iconography he...

 and the Catholic tradition related to the days before Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday
Ash Wednesday, in the calendar of Western Christianity, is the first day of Lent and occurs 46 days before Easter. It is a moveable fast, falling on a different date each year because it is dependent on the date of Easter...

. Today, this carnival includes many traditional activities such as music, masks and parades, but this one also includes a reenactment of the Battle of Puebla and local legends such as the kidnapping of a governor’s daughter and the legend of Agustìn Lorenzo (called the Robin Hood of the 18th century) . Locals attend in colorful costumes and masks representing the Conquistador
Conquistador
Conquistadors were Spanish soldiers, explorers, and adventurers who brought much of the Americas under the control of Spain in the 15th to 16th centuries, following Europe's discovery of the New World by Christopher Columbus in 1492...

s, demons or animals, adorned with palm fronds or feathers. The capital of Puebla also celebrates Carnival with its signature tradition of the Las Marias, where men disguise themselves as women and mischievous devils.

Another major time for religious observance is Holy Week
Holy Week
Holy Week in Christianity is the last week of Lent and the week before Easter...

 or Semana Santa. In Puebla, there is the Procession del Silencio or Procession of Silence which occurs on Maundy Thursday
Maundy Thursday
Maundy Thursday, also known as Holy Thursday, Covenant Thursday, Great & Holy Thursday, and Thursday of Mysteries, is the Christian feast or holy day falling on the Thursday before Easter that commemorates the Last Supper of Jesus Christ with the Apostles as described in the Canonical gospels...

, when the city observes a period of silence to mark the death of Jesus.

The spring equinox is the setting for rituals at some of Puebla’s archeological sites such as Cantona and Cholula. Cantona is an archeological site located near the city of Puebla and was one of the largest cities in early Mesoamerica. Today, the site is popular gathering place on the spring equinox (much like Teotihuacan
Spring equinox in Teotihuacán
Spring equinox in Teotihuacán is an annual event which takes place around the 20th and 21st of March at the pre-Hispanic site of Teotihuacán, Mexico...

), where people sing, dance and greet the sunrise on this date. Another site where similar observances are held is the Great Pyramid of Cholula. Here indigenous dances and rituals are performed. The event culminates with the Ritual of Quetzalcoatl, which was an important part of the ancient Cholula culture. This event draws attendees from various parts of Mexico.

The Huey Atlixcáyotl Festival is celebrated in the town of Atlixco to celebrate the area’s local culture and identity. The name means “Atlixco tradtion” in Nahuatl
Nahuatl
Nahuatl is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl , Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua...

 and is centered on the San Miguel Hill (called Popocatica in ancient times) located in the center of the town. It was locally sacred in the pre-Hispanic era, and in colonial times, a hermitage was built there. The event was named a Cultural Heritage of the State of Puebla in 1996. The purpose of the event is to celebrate the survival of indigenous culture after the Conquest .

In July, the Pueblo Mágico
Pueblo Mágico
The Programa Pueblos Mágicos is an initiative led by Mexico's Secretariat of Tourism , in conjunction with other federal and state agencies, to promote a series of towns around the country that offer visitors a "magical" experience – by reason of their natural beauty, cultural riches, or...

 of Cuetzalan
Cuetzalán
Cuetzalan is a small town set high in the hills in the north of the Mexican state of Puebla, 183 kilometers from Puebla, the state capital. It is located in the Sierra Norte region. The town itself is characterized by sloping cobbled streets and numerous rustic buildings...

 has the cultural festival of Festival Tradicional, which features traditional dancers who come from various parts of the state. Tetela de Ocampo
Tetela de Ocampo
Tetela de Ocampo is a town and municipality in the Sierra Norte region of the Mexican state of Puebla."Tetela" is a name of Nahuatl origin, containing the elements tetl and tla : it thus means "place of many hills"...

 celebrates its Peach Festival in August. On the last day of August, the Procession de los Faroles (Procession of the Lanterns) takes place in Cholula .

Puebla has a number of annual fairs meant to highlights the various regions’ products. In Huauchinango
Huauchinango (municipality)
Huauchinango is a town and municipality in Puebla in south-eastern Mexico....

, an economic fair and a religious observance are conducted at the same time. The Feria de las Flores (Flower Festival) and the Santo Entierro (Holy Burial) occur in the second half of March. It consists of religious events such as processions and masses. Many cut flower and ornamental plant growers come to display their products and there is the coronation of the Queen of Flowers. Other events include includes other agricultural displays, parades with floats, dances, crafts, cockfight
Cockfight
A cockfight is a blood sport between two roosters , held in a ring called a cockpit. Cockfighting is now illegal throughout all states in the United States, Brazil, Australia and in most of Europe. It is still legal in several U.S. territories....

s, sporting events and more.

The Feria del Café y el Huipil (Coffee and Huipil
Huipíl
A huipil is a form of Maya textile and tunic or blouse worn by indigenous Mayan, Zapotec, and other women in central to southern Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, El Salvador, and western Honduras, in the northern part of Central America. Some are also worn by men, particularly in Guatemala...

 Festival) takes place in Cuetzalan. The event promotes the area’s locally grown coffee as well as traditionally made huipil dresses. There are also displays of pre-Hispanic dance, popular music, fireworks and more. The event began in 1949 as the National Festival of Coffee, which is economically important here. The event centered on the choosing of a Coffee Queen, much like other similar kinds of festivals. In 1962, the National Festival of the Huipil was established. Eventually, the two merged to the current event.

Other events to promote Puebla’s products include the Feria de Café in Xicotpec in March and the Feria Nacional de Puebla. The latter is held in the state capital and brings together many of the state’s agricultural, livestock, craft and industrial producers in an event very analogous to a state fair. The regional fair called the Piloto de Cholula occurs in September.

China Poblana

The China Poblana was a real person who lived during the colonial period. Her real name was Mirra. She was an Indian
Indians in the Philippines
Indian Filipinos are Philippine citizens of Indian descent. This also refers to Filipino citizens of either pure or mixed Indian descent currently residing in the country, the latter a result of intermarriages between the Indians and local populations....

 who was brought over from Manila
Manila
Manila is the capital of the Philippines. It is one of the sixteen cities forming Metro Manila.Manila is located on the eastern shores of Manila Bay and is bordered by Navotas and Caloocan to the north, Quezon City to the northeast, San Juan and Mandaluyong to the east, Makati on the southeast,...

 in the 1620s on the Manila Galleon
Manila Galleon
The Manila galleons or Manila-Acapulco galleons were Spanish trading ships that sailed once or twice per year across the Pacific Ocean between Manila in the Philippines, and Acapulco, New Spain . The name changed reflecting the city that the ship was sailing from...

 as a child to work as a slave for the viceroy
Viceroy
A viceroy is a royal official who runs a country, colony, or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning king. A viceroy's province or larger territory is called a viceroyalty...

 Marques de Gélves. She was soon sold to ship captain Miguel de Sosa who lived in Puebla. According to legend, Mirra was originally a princess in her home country but her family was displaced by the Portuguese
Portuguese people
The Portuguese are a nation and ethnic group native to the country of Portugal, in the west of the Iberian peninsula of south-west Europe. Their language is Portuguese, and Roman Catholicism is the predominant religion....

 and she was kidnapped by pirates who sold her. Mirra was considered to be beautiful and exotic. She had been converted to the Catholic faith. Later in her life, she began to have visions of the child Jesus and angels. Her fame grew and she was eventually considered to be something of a prophet. When she died in 1688, people began to venerate her as a saint and many women copied her Asian/Mexican inspired dress.

This fashion led to the now-traditional “china poblana” dress. It consists of a red skirt heavily decorated with colored sequins that in one part form the image of the eagle found on the Mexican flag and a blouse embroidered with colored thread and beads around the bust area. It is often worn with a charro
Charro
Charro is a term referring to a traditional horseman from Mexico, originating in the central-western regions primarily in the state of Jalisco including: Zacatecas, Durango, Guanajuato, Morelos, Puebla...

 type hat. The outfit is the amalgam of several cultures such as Spanish, especially in the skirt, Chinese, with its use of sequins and beads, and indigenous with colorful embroidery.

Dance

Folk dance of both indigenous and mixed European and indigenous origin are most often seen at religious and cultural events in many parts of the state. Some of the most popular dances include “Moors and Christians,” Dance of the Santiagos” and “Danza de los Arcos.” The last is usually performed only by men who dress in white and with a scarf-like garment across the chest, dance in pairs which carry large arch portals covered in flowers and paper decorations. The dance has a number of variations which can include leaps into the air and complicated twirls.

The Dances of the Quetzales is most popular in the Sierra Norte, especially in Cuetzalan. It is a highly symbolic dance and usually performed in conjunction with rituals that relate to good harvests. The dancers form crosses, which signify the four cardinal directions and move in circles, which symbolize the rotation of time. The dancers wear large circular headdresses of quetzal feathers, which give the dance its name, and red suits. The Dance of the Voladores
Danza de los Voladores de Papantla
The Danza de los Voladores is a ceremony/ritual which has its roots in the pre-Hispanic period and presently best known as associated with the town of Papantla, Veracruz. It is believed to have originated with the Nahua, Huastec and Otomi peoples in central Mexico, and then spread throughout most...

, which more common in Papantla, Veracruz, is also performed in a number of communities in the north of Puebla. This consists of five men who climb a tall pole and then four fall and spin from the pole while attached by ropes. The fifth dancer stays on top and plays music and dances as the other men fall. Another important dance in Puebla is the Doce pares de Francia, which recalls the events of the Battle of Puebla.

Architecture

The colonial architecture of the state is defined by is heavy use of ornamental tiles called Talavera
Talavera (pottery)
Talavera pottery of Puebla, Mexico is a type of majolica pottery, which is distinguished by a milky-white glaze. Authentic Talavera pottery only comes from the city of Puebla and the nearby communities of Atlixco, Cholula, and Tecali, because of the quality of the natural clay found there and the...

. This is particularly true in the capital. This makes these buildings more colorful than most of their contemporaries in other parts of Mexico and were one of the reasons that the historic center of the capital was selected as a World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a place that is listed by the UNESCO as of special cultural or physical significance...

 .

A number of churches and other buildings in rural parts of the state are noted for their “folk baroque” architecture and decoration, especially in Atlixco and the southwest. Folk baroque consists of the use of tile and painted raised stucco based on more traditional Baroque designs
Baroque architecture
Baroque architecture is a term used to describe the building style of the Baroque era, begun in late sixteenth century Italy, that took the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical and theatrical fashion, often to express the triumph of the Catholic Church and...

, which was most popular in the 18th century. One well known church of this type is the church of Jolapan, which is modeled after the Tepalcingo
Tepalcingo
Tepalcingo is a town in the Mexican state of Morelos. It at .The city serves as the municipal seat for the surrounding municipality, with which it shares a name.The municipality reported 24,133 inhabitants in the year 2000 census.-External links:...

 Sanctuary in neighboring Morelos
Morelos
Morelos officially Estado Libre y Soberano de Morelos is one of the 31 states which, with the Federal District, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided in 33 municipalities and its capital city is Cuernavaca....

. The church of Jolalpan contains richly decorated pilaster
Pilaster
A pilaster is a slightly-projecting column built into or applied to the face of a wall. Most commonly flattened or rectangular in form, pilasters can also take a half-round form or the shape of any type of column, including tortile....

s, Solomonic column
Solomonic column
The Solomonic column, also called Barley-sugar column, is a helical column, characterized by a spiraling twisting shaft like a corkscrew...

s and other elements in a design very similar to that of Tepalcingo. Between these there are a number of small churches which also show folk baroque influence such as those in Tlancualpican and Tzicatlán. The church in Tlancualpican is painted in bright blues, greens and red, with an ornate façade
Facade
A facade or façade is generally one exterior side of a building, usually, but not always, the front. The word comes from the French language, literally meaning "frontage" or "face"....

 with sculpted leaves, tendrils and niches divided by spiral half-columns all done in stucco. Even more ornate is the church in Tzicatlán, which is a small rural farming village, with every bit of the surface of the main facade decorated with brightly colored images and sculptures.

In the modern era, architectural styles have evolved into new and sometimes eclectic forms. Skyscrapers, almost all of which are in the city of Puebla, include Edificio Vacas at 42 meters high, Torre Géminis at 50 meters high, Torre Nora at 69 meters high to the tallest, Torre Ejecutiva JVI and Torre Ejecutiva JVI at 100 meters high each. These last two have a triangular shape and are covered in blue tinged glass.

Literature

Literature is one of the better-developed arts in the state and includes works such as novels, essays, poetry and theatrical plays. One prominent name from the colonial period is that of José Mariano Beristáin de Souza who was a priest and writers in the 18th century. He is also known for amassing a large library of writings in Spanish over twenty years of his life, which resulted in the Biblioteca Hispanoamericana Septentrional. However, literature would not be a major cultural force in the state until the 20th century. One early prominent writer was poet Gregorio de Gante. In his early career, he was a professor but after the Mexican Revolution
Mexican Revolution
The Mexican Revolution was a major armed struggle that started in 1910, with an uprising led by Francisco I. Madero against longtime autocrat Porfirio Díaz. The Revolution was characterized by several socialist, liberal, anarchist, populist, and agrarianist movements. Over time the Revolution...

 broke out the joined revolutionary forces under Antonio Medina. After the war, he began his career as a poet, eventually writing regularly for a newspaper called “El Nacional” and become one of Mexico’s most popular writers by the 1930s.

Many modern works with themes of social injustice and sometimes about the culture and scenery of the state itself. Modern Puebla literature can be traced back to the work of poet Arturo Trejo, one of the “Generacion de los 50” or Generation of the 1950s.

Elena Garro
Elena Garro
Elena Garro was a Mexican writer. She was once married to writer Octavio Paz.-Biography:Elena Garro was born to a Spanish father and a Mexican mother on December 11, 1916 in Puebla, Mexico. She spent her childhood in Mexico City but moved to Iguala, Guerrero, during the Cristero War...

 was active during the mid and latter 20th century, whose writings were said to “grab” the reader. Most of her work was autobiographical in one sense or another. She was married to another Mexican writer Octavio Paz
Octavio Paz
Octavio Paz Lozano was a Mexican writer, poet, and diplomat, and the winner of the 1990 Nobel Prize for Literature.-Early life and writings:...

, from whom she divorced in 1959.

Born in Atlixco in 1930, Hector Azar is one of Mexico’s most noted playwrights in the 20th century. Some of his works include Revista de Revistas, Revista de la Universidad and Jueves de Excelsior. He has also directed and produced plays in Mexico and Europe.

Sergio Pitol Demeneghi is a writer, translator and diplomat who was born in the city of Puebla in 1933. Most of his works relate to the theme of human rights. Much of his writing and translating work relates to his diplomatic functions. His best kown works include No hay tal lugar, Infierno de todos and Los climas.
Born in Puebla in 1949, Ángeles Mastretta
Ángeles Mastretta
Ángeles Mastretta is a Mexican author and journalist. She is well known for creating inspirational female characters and fictional pieces that reflect the social and political realities of Mexico in her life.-Background:...

’s writings are known for their female characters which are prominent. She has found most of her popularity in Spain and Mexico publishing stories in magazines such as Ovaciones and La Jornada. Her books include El Mundo Ilumninado, Arrancame la vida and Mujeres de ojos grandes.
José Francisco Conde Ortega, also known simply as Paco Conde, was born in Atlixco in 1951. His writings include chronicles, essays and poetry. His works mostly reflect on everyday urban life with book titles such as Estudios para un cuerpo, Los lobos viven del viento and Práctica de lobo.

José Luis Zárate was born in Puebla in 1966. He is best known for novels such as Xanto, novelucha libre, La ruta del hielo y la sal and Del cielo oscuro y del abismo, but he has published numerous short stories, essays and poems. He is known in the fantasy genre and has established organizations dedicated to this such as the Asociacion Mexicana de Cienca Ficcion y Fantasia and Circulo Puebla de Ciencia Ficcion y Divulgacion.

Other notable writers from the state include, Fritz Glockner, Pedro Ángel Palou Garcia, Miguel Maldonado, Eduardo Montagner Anguiano, Gabriel Wolfson Reyes, Jaime Mesa and Gabriela Puente.

Painting

Much of the historical painting in the state is found in its colonial churches and reflect the artistic styles of the 16 to 19th centuries. These consist of murals, portraits and biblical scenes done on canvas, wood and other mediums. José Joaquín Magón was born in Puebla in the 18th century is known for his portrait paintings but his other works have mostly religious and mythological themes. He also did a number of works related to New Spain
New Spain
New Spain, formally called the Viceroyalty of New Spain , was a viceroyalty of the Spanish colonial empire, comprising primarily territories in what was known then as 'América Septentrional' or North America. Its capital was Mexico City, formerly Tenochtitlan, capital of the Aztec Empire...

’s caste system
Casta
Casta is a Portuguese and Spanish term used in seventeenth and eighteenth centuries mainly in Spanish America to describe as a whole the mixed-race people which appeared in the post-Conquest period...

. Luis Berrueco is one of the major Pueblan painters from the 18th century. He was also prolific, painting images of religious martyrs and saints which can still be found today in many churches in the state. His style is considered to be unique, marked by delicate faces and profuse ornamentation. Some of his best work can be found at the Santa Clara Church in Atlixco. Gonzalo Carrasco was born in Otumba, Puebla in 1859. He was both and artist and a Jesuit monk who produced over 500 religious paintings that can be found all over Mexico and some murals including those in the Basilica de Guadalupe in Puebla and Fordham University in the U.S.

Much of Puebla’s art scene had disappeared before the 20th century but in the 1920s, a group of young artists from the Escuela de Bellas Artes de Puebla (School of Fine Arts of Puebla) began to band together for mutual support. These artists eventually caught the attention and patronage of artists such as Diego Rivera
Diego Rivera
Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez was a prominent Mexican painter born in Guanajuato, Guanajuato, an active communist, and husband of Frida Kahlo . His large wall works in fresco helped establish the Mexican Mural Movement in...

 and Dr. Atl
Dr. Atl
Gerardo Murillo was a Mexican painter and writer who signed his works "Dr. Atl". He was born in Guadalajara, Jalisco, where he began the study of painting at an early age, under Felipe Castro...

 and received visitors such as David Alfaro Siquieros, Frida Kahlo
Frida Kahlo
Frida Kahlo de Rivera was a Mexican painter, born in Coyoacán, and perhaps best known for her self-portraits....

, Francisco Cornejo
Francisco Cornejo
Francisco Cornejo was a Mexican painter and sculptor, specialized in Maya and Aztec themes.- Biography :...

 and Alfredo Guati Rojo. This effort would become the Barrio del Artista.

The Barrio del Artista is a neighborhood in the city of Puebla which is home to artists from a number of disciplines. It contains 46 small workshops which permit visitors to observe the work and even chat with the artists. These workshops mostly surround a large plaza with a fountain near a building known as the Café del Artista, managed the Union de Artes Plasticas, A.C. “Barrio del Artista,” which was founded in 194|.

Ignacio Dávila Tagle was born in the city of Puebla in 1898 into an artistic family, learning to paint from his father, Daniel Dávila Domínguez. One of his best-known works is his dreamlike mural called “El sueno de fray Julián Garcés” which depicts the legendary founding of the city.

Faustino Salazar Garcia was born in Puebla in 1912. He turned to painting as a child after he lost his mother. His works are known for their emotional qualityAs an established painter, he was one of the founding members of the Unión de Artes Plásticas.

Alejandro Honda was born in San Martin Texmelucan in 1952. This painter’s works show his fascination for Mesoamerica, which began when he was young. They can also have a sensual edge to them, even his religious paintings such as the María de Magdalena.

Gustavo Cadena was born in Puebla in 1974 has been a noticed painter since he was a young child. Many of his works reflect daily life, customs and traditions of the state. Some of his better known works include Niño indígena mexicano, Catedral de Puebla, and Pensando en Puebla.

Music

Traditional music in Puebla has been influenced by the waltz, zarzuela and the Mexican version of trova. Although it waned in the 20th century, it has since experienced a revival.

Pelagio C. Manjarrez (1886–1952) was from Tochimilco. He is not only known for his musical ability but also as a fighter in the Mexican Revolution, professor, journalist and poet. Most of his musical composition relate to dance such as waltzes, marches, foxtrots and tangos. Best known titles include “Porque me has besado tu,” “La mañana está de fiesta” and “Alma herida.”

Vicente T. Mendoza
Vicente T. Mendoza
Vicente Teódulo Mendoza Gutiérrez was a Mexican musicologist, composer and drawer.In 1907 when Vicente T. Mendoza was 13 years old, he went to Mexico City where he studied piano and composition at the National Conservatory. At the same time he studied drawing. Between 1912 and 1930 he worked as a...

 (1894–1964) was from Cholula who dedicated himself to researching the folk music of the area, especially those traditions that told the history of many of the state’s communities. He founded the Folclorología Musical Mexicana. He also composed a number of pieces including the polka “La hora del crepúsculo,” the waltz “La molinera,” and religious pieces such as “Villancicos alegres para la Navidad” and “Cánticos para Navidad.”.

Gerardo Pablo is one of the main Pueblan composers of modern trova Mexicana who was born in Puebla in 1977. Many of his lyrics deal with social problems in Mexico and his work has been compared to that of Guty Càrdenas. Some of his best known works include “Tres noches por semana,” “Càntaro”, “Reflejos acústicos”, "Trago de Ron", "Delirio", "Los Numerosos Nadies" which is based on the work of Uruguayan writer Eduardo Galeano,"Escucha a Gerardo Pablo" and "Quesoy" his most recent work with a Jazz Trio. Other notable musicians include Carlos Espinosa de los Monteros (waltz composer), pianist Celia Valderrábano Andrew who has also composed waltzes. Zarzuela composers include Félix Maria Alcerreca who is a lawyer by profession and Ignacio León who is a priest.

Education

On average, the population of the state over the age of 15 has finished the first year of middle school with an average number of years in school at 7.4. This is under the national average of 8.1. At of every 100 over age 15, 12 have not gone to school at all, 17 have left school before the end of primary, 21 finish primary, 3 start, but do not finish middle school, 19 finish middle school, 5 begin but do not finish high school, 8 obtain a bachelor’s degree and 1 has an advanced degree. There are 441, 699 illiterate people, or 13%, according to INEGI, above the national average of eight percent.

One problem that the educational system has is an ongoing power struggle in the teachers’ union of the state. On 8 October 2010, a group of teachers attacked a union office in the state capital with stones, poles and even Molotov cocktails in an attempt to get the union to oust the secretary general of the union, José Uber Romero Ronquillo. Earlier that day, a group of 800 teachers, peacefully marched for the same purpose.

Puebla is ranked second in higher education in Mexico with 57 technological colleges (Institutos Tecnologicos) and 110 research centers. It ranks fourth in the number of universities and colleges in the nation. It is home to very prestigious institutions such as the Universidad de las Americas-Puebla, which has substantial ties to the United States, such as being accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools
Southern Association of Colleges and Schools
The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools is one of the six regional accreditation organizations recognized by the United States Department of Education and the Council for Higher Education Accreditation...

 and numerous student exchange programs. It has also received substantial economic assistance from the U.S. Agency for International Development. Much of the school’s setup mimics that of U.S. universities, including student dormitories.

Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla
Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla
The Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla is a private university located in Puebla, Mexico.-History:...

 (UPAEP) was founded in 1973 at a former ranch called La Noria in response to social and political unrest that was prevalent in the state in the 1960s and early 1970s. It was also created to fill a need for higher education in a number of fields formerly underrepresented.

Instituto Tecnologico de Puebla (Puebla Institute of Technology), which was founded in 1972.

Government

The current division of the territory was created in 1895, which is a system of 21 districts and 217 municipalities. This is down from a high of 222, but the municipalities of San Jerónimo Caleras, San Felipe Hueyotlipan, San Miguel Canoa, La Resurrección and Totimehuacan were incorporated into the city of Puebla in 1962.

The state is headed by a governor who is directly elected. The executive branch of the government is contains the following departments: Governing (Gobernación), Finance, Development, Evaluation and Control of the Public Administration, Economic Development, Tourism, Rural Development, Urban and Ecological Development, Communications and Transportation, Health, Public Education, Culture and Public Defender (Procuraduia General de Justicia). The legislative branch is unicameral with deputies or representatives elected from the various districts of the state. It also consists of a number of commissions dedicated to issues such as state heritage sites, education, agriculture and more.The judicial branch is headed by the Tribunal Superior de Justicia.

Major communities

  • Acatlán de Osorio
    Acatlán de Osorio
    Acatlán de Osorio is a city in the Mexican state of Puebla. The shortened name Acatlán, is commonly used to refer to the municipality of which it is the seat, and to the city itself. It is located at coordinates at an elevation of 1,213 m...

  • Amozoc de Mota
    Amozoc de Mota
    Amozoc de Mota is a city in the central part of the state of Puebla in Mexico. It lies near the southern border of the adjacent state of Tlaxcala, and is the municipal seat of the municipality of Amozoc, which surrounds it...

  • Atlixco
    Atlixco
    Atlixco is a city and a municipality in the Mexican state of Puebla. It is located only 24 km south of the city of Puebla, yet it is 300 meters lower in altitude, at 1840 m. This drop in altitude causes a noticeable change in the weather of the city compared to the surrounding regions of the...

  • Cholula (Cholula de Rivadabia)
  • Cuetzalán
    Cuetzalán
    Cuetzalan is a small town set high in the hills in the north of the Mexican state of Puebla, 183 kilometers from Puebla, the state capital. It is located in the Sierra Norte region. The town itself is characterized by sloping cobbled streets and numerous rustic buildings...

  • Huauchinango
    Huauchinango
    thumb|200px|Center of Huauchinango.Huauchinango is a city and its surrounding municipality located in the northwestern part of the Mexican state of Puebla. The city is the eighth largest in the state, with a 2005 census population of 51,898 inhabitants. The municipality, which has an area of 160.75...

  • Izúcar de Matamoros
    Izúcar de Matamoros
    Izúcar de Matamoros is a city and its surrounding municipality of the same name located in the southwestern part of the Mexican state of Puebla. The city serves as the municipal seat of the municipality. At the census of 2005 the city had a population of 41,042 inhabitants, while the municipality...

  • Puebla, Puebla
    Puebla, Puebla
    The city and municipality of Puebla is the capital of the state of Puebla, and one of the five most important colonial cities in Mexico. Being a planned city, it is located to the east of Mexico City and west of Mexico's main port, Veracruz, on the main route between the two.The city was founded...

  • San Martín Texmelucan de Labastida
    San Martín Texmelucan de Labastida
    San Martín Texmelucan de Labastida is a city in the west-central part of the state of Puebla in Mexico, adjacent to the southwest corner of the state of Tlaxcala. It is the municipal seat of the municipality of San Martín Texmelucan...

  • Tehuacán
    Tehuacán
    Tehuacán is the second largest city in the Mexican state of Puebla, nestled in the Southeast Valley of Tehuacán, bordering the states of Oaxaca and Veracruz. The 2010 census reported a population of 248,716 in the city and 274,906 in its surrounding municipality of the same name, of which it serves...

  • Teziutlán
    Teziutlán
    Teziutlán is a small city in the northeast of the Mexican state of Puebla. Its 2005 census population was 60,597. It also serves as the municipal seat for the surrounding municipality of the same name. The municipality has an area of 84.2 km² and a population of 88,970.Teziutlán is located at...

  • Zacatlan, Puebla

Notable natives and residents

  • Ignacio Comonfort
    Ignacio Comonfort
    Ignacio Gregorio Comonfort de los Ríos was a Mexican politician and military officer who served as President of Mexico....

     – President of Mexico
    President of Mexico
    The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state and government of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces...

     1855–1858
  • Juan N. Méndez
    Juan N. Méndez
    Juan Nepomuceno Méndez was a Mexican general, a Liberal politician and confidante of Porfirio Díaz, and interim president of the Republic for a few months during the Porfiriato...

     – President of Mexico
    President of Mexico
    The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state and government of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces...

     1876–1877
  • Manuel Ávila Camacho
    Manuel Ávila Camacho
    Manuel Ávila Camacho served as the President of Mexico from 1940 to 1946.Manuel Ávila was born in the city of Teziutlán, a small town in Puebla, to middle-class parents, Manuel Ávila Castillo and Eufrosina Camacho Bello. He had several siblings, among them sister María Jovita Ávila Camacho and...

     – President of Mexico
    President of Mexico
    The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state and government of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces...

     1940–1946
  • Gustavo Díaz Ordaz
    Gustavo Díaz Ordaz
    Gustavo Díaz Ordaz Bolaños served as the President of Mexico from 1964 to 1970.- Political career :Díaz Ordaz was born in San Andrés Chalchícomula . His father, Ramón Díaz Ordaz Redonet, worked as an accountant, while his mother, Sabina Bolaños Cacho de Díaz Ordaz, worked as a school teacher...

     – President of Mexico
    President of Mexico
    The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state and government of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces...

     1964–1970
  • Vicente Suárez – one of the Niños Héroes of the Battle of Chapultepec
    Battle of Chapultepec
    The Battle of Chapultepec, in September 1847, was a United States victory over Mexican forces holding Chapultepec Castle west of Mexico City during the Mexican-American War.-Background:On September 13, 1847, in the costly Battle of Molino del Rey, U.S...


See also

External links

Government of the state of Puebla Detailed Puebla State Map @ Maps-of-Mexico.com Puebla Judicial Districts
The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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