Mulhouse is a city and commune
Communes of France
The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are roughly equivalent to incorporated municipalities or villages in the United States or Gemeinden in Germany...

 in eastern France, close to the Swiss
Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

 and German borders. With a population of 110,514 and 278,206 inhabitants in the metropolitan area in 2006, it is the largest city in the Haut-Rhin
Haut-Rhin is a département of the Alsace region of France, named after the Rhine river. Its name means Upper Rhine. Haut-Rhin is the smaller and less populated of the two departements of Alsace, although is still densely populated compared to the rest of France.-Subdivisions:The department...

 département, and the second largest in the Alsace
Alsace is the fifth-smallest of the 27 regions of France in land area , and the smallest in metropolitan France. It is also the seventh-most densely populated region in France and third most densely populated region in metropolitan France, with ca. 220 inhabitants per km²...

 region after Strasbourg
Strasbourg is the capital and principal city of the Alsace region in eastern France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located close to the border with Germany, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin département. The city and the region of Alsace are historically German-speaking,...

. Mulhouse is the principal commune of the 32 making up the Communauté d'agglomération  Mulhouse Alsace Agglomération
Mulhouse Alsace Agglomération
The Mulhouse Alsace Agglomération is the Communauté d'agglomération, a type of local government structure, covering the metropolitan area of the city of Mulhouse in France.-Composition:...

(MAA, population 252,000).

Mulhouse is famous for its museums, especially the Cité de l’Automobile  (also known as "Musée national de l’automobile") and the Musée Français du Chemin de Fer
Musée Français du Chemin de Fer
The Cité du train , the French national railway museum is the biggest railway museum in the world, this one being situated in Mulhouse...

 (also known as "Cité du train"), respectively the largest automobile and railway museums in France. An industrial town nicknamed "the French Manchester
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. According to the Office for National Statistics, the 2010 mid-year population estimate for Manchester was 498,800. Manchester lies within one of the UK's largest metropolitan areas, the metropolitan county of Greater...

", Mulhouse is also the main seat of the Upper Alsace University
Upper Alsace University
Haute Alsace University is a multidisciplinary teaching and research centre based in the two cities of Mulhouse and Colmar....

, where the secretariat of the European Physical Society
European Physical Society
The European Physical Society is a non-profit organization whose purpose is to promote physics and physicists in Europe. Formally established in 1968, its membership includes the national physical societies of 41 countries, and some 3200 individual members. The Deutsche Physikalische Gesellschaft,...

 can be found.


Mulhouse is the chief city of an arrondissement of the Haut-Rhin
Haut-Rhin is a département of the Alsace region of France, named after the Rhine river. Its name means Upper Rhine. Haut-Rhin is the smaller and less populated of the two departements of Alsace, although is still densely populated compared to the rest of France.-Subdivisions:The department...

 département, of which it is a sub-prefecture.


Legends mention the origin of the town in 58 BC, but the first written records of Mulhouse date from the twelfth century. It was part of the southern Alsatian county of Sundgau
Sundgau is a geographical territory on the eastern edge of France that was once a principality of the Holy Roman Empire. The name Sundgau derives from Alemannic German, which means "South County" ....

 in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

. From 1354–1515 Mulhouse was part of the Décapole
The Décapole was an alliance formed in 1354 by ten Imperial cities of the Holy Roman Empire in the Alsace region to maintain their rights, it was disbanded in 1679....

, an association of ten Free Imperial Cities in Alsace. The city joined the Swiss Confederation as an associate in 1515 and was therefore not annexed by France in the Peace of Westphalia
Peace of Westphalia
The Peace of Westphalia was a series of peace treaties signed between May and October of 1648 in Osnabrück and Münster. These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War in the Holy Roman Empire, and the Eighty Years' War between Spain and the Dutch Republic, with Spain formally recognizing the...

 in 1648 like the rest of the Sundgau. An enclave in Alsace, it was a free and independent republic associated with the Swiss Confederation until, after a vote by its citizens on 4 January 1798, it became a part of France in the Treaty of Mulhouse signed on 28 January 1798, during the Directory
French Directory
The Directory was a body of five Directors that held executive power in France following the Convention and preceding the Consulate...

 period of the French Revolution
French Revolution
The French Revolution , sometimes distinguished as the 'Great French Revolution' , was a period of radical social and political upheaval in France and Europe. The absolute monarchy that had ruled France for centuries collapsed in three years...


After the Prussian victory in the Franco-Prussian War
Franco-Prussian War
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War was a conflict between the Second French Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia. Prussia was aided by the North German Confederation, of which it was a member, and the South German states of Baden, Württemberg and...

 and the Otto von Bismarck engineered unification of Germany
Unification of Germany
The formal unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871 at the Versailles Palace's Hall of Mirrors in France. Princes of the German states gathered there to proclaim Wilhelm of Prussia as Emperor Wilhelm of the German...

 under Prussian King William I as the new German Kaiser, Mulhouse was annexed to the German Empire
German Empire
The German Empire refers to Germany during the "Second Reich" period from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871, to 1918, when it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of the Emperor, Wilhelm II.The German...

 as part of the territory of Alsace-Lorraine
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871 after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle region of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War. The Alsatian part lay in the Rhine Valley on the west bank of the Rhine River and east...

 (1870–1918). The city was briefly occupied by French troops on 8 August 1914 at the start of World War I, but they were forced to withdraw two days later in the Battle of Mulhouse
Battle of Mulhouse
The Battle of Mulhouse , which began on August 9, 1914, was the opening attack of World War I by the French army against Germany...

. Alsace-Lorraine was invaded and reacquired by France after World War I. Although never formally annexed by Germany after the Battle of France
Battle of France
In the Second World War, the Battle of France was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries, beginning on 10 May 1940, which ended the Phoney War. The battle consisted of two main operations. In the first, Fall Gelb , German armoured units pushed through the Ardennes, to cut off and...

 in 1940, it was occupied by German forces until returned to French control at the end of the war in 1945.

The town's development was stimulated first by the expansion of the textile industry
Textile industry
The textile industry is primarily concerned with the production of yarn, and cloth and the subsequent design or manufacture of clothing and their distribution. The raw material may be natural, or synthetic using products of the chemical industry....

 and tanning
Tanning is the making of leather from the skins of animals which does not easily decompose. Traditionally, tanning used tannin, an acidic chemical compound from which the tanning process draws its name . Coloring may occur during tanning...

, and subsequently by chemical
Chemical industry
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. Central to the modern world economy, it converts raw materials into more than 70,000 different products.-Products:...

 and engineering industries
Engineering is the discipline, art, skill and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, mathematical, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes that safely realize improvements to the lives of...

 from the mid 18th century. Mulhouse was for a long time called the French Manchester
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. According to the Office for National Statistics, the 2010 mid-year population estimate for Manchester was 498,800. Manchester lies within one of the UK's largest metropolitan areas, the metropolitan county of Greater...

. In consequence, the town has enduring links with Louisiana
Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties...

, from which it imported cotton, and also with the Levant
The Levant or ) is the geographic region and culture zone of the "eastern Mediterranean littoral between Anatolia and Egypt" . The Levant includes most of modern Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Israel, the Palestinian territories, and sometimes parts of Turkey and Iraq, and corresponds roughly to the...

. The town's history also explains why its centre is relatively small.


Two rivers run through Mulhouse, the Doller and the Ill
Ill (France)
The Ill is a river in Alsace, in north-eastern France. It is a left-side, or western tributary of the Rhine.It starts down from its source near the village of Winkel, in the Jura mountains, with a resurgence near Ligsdorf, turns around Ferrette on its east side, and then runs northward through...

, both tributaries of the Rhine.


Medieval Mulhouse consists essentially of a lower and an upper town.
  • The lower town was formerly the inner city district of merchants and craftsmen. It developed around the Place de la Réunion (which commemorates its reunion with France). Nowadays this area is pedestrianised.
  • The upper town developed from the eighteenth century on. Previously, several monastic orders were established there, notably the Franciscan
    Most Franciscans are members of Roman Catholic religious orders founded by Saint Francis of Assisi. Besides Roman Catholic communities, there are also Old Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, ecumenical and Non-denominational Franciscan communities....

    s, Augustinians
    The term Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo , applies to two separate and unrelated types of Catholic religious orders:...

    , Poor Clares and Knights of Malta
    Knights Hospitaller
    The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta , also known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta , Order of Malta or Knights of Malta, is a Roman Catholic lay religious order, traditionally of military, chivalrous, noble nature. It is the world's...

  • The Nouveau Quartier (New District) is the best example of urban planning
    Urban planning
    Urban planning incorporates areas such as economics, design, ecology, sociology, geography, law, political science, and statistics to guide and ensure the orderly development of settlements and communities....

     in Mulhouse, and was developed from 1826 on, after the town walls had been torn down (as they were in many towns in France). It is focused around the Place de la République. Its network of streets and its triangular shape are a good demonstration of the town's desire for a planned layout. The planning was undertaken by the architects G. Stolz and Félix Fries. This inner city district was occupied by rich families and the owners of local industries, who tended to be liberal and republican in their opinions.
  • The Rebberg district consists of grand houses inspired by the colonnaded residences of Louisiana cotton planters. Originally, this was the town's vineyard
    A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice...

     (the word Rebe meaning vine
    A vine in the narrowest sense is the grapevine , but more generally it can refer to any plant with a growth habit of trailing or scandent, that is to say climbing, stems or runners...

    in German). The houses here were built as terrace
    Terraced house
    In architecture and city planning, a terrace house, terrace, row house, linked house or townhouse is a style of medium-density housing that originated in Great Britain in the late 17th century, where a row of identical or mirror-image houses share side walls...

    s in the English style, a result of the town's close relationship with Manchester
    Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England. According to the Office for National Statistics, the 2010 mid-year population estimate for Manchester was 498,800. Manchester lies within one of the UK's largest metropolitan areas, the metropolitan county of Greater...

    , where the sons of industrialists were often sent to study.

Principal places of interest

  • Hôtel de Ville (sixteenth century). The town hall was built in 1553 in the Rhenish Renaissance style
    Renaissance architecture
    Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. Stylistically, Renaissance...

    . Montaigne described it as a "palais magnifique et tout doré" ("a splendid golden palace") in 1580. It is known for its trompe l'œil paintings, and its pictures of allegories
    Allegory is a demonstrative form of representation explaining meaning other than the words that are spoken. Allegory communicates its message by means of symbolic figures, actions or symbolic representation...

     representing the vices and virtues.
  • Workers' quarter (mid 19th century), inspired workers' quarters in many other industrial towns.
  • Place de la Bourse and the building of the Société Industrielle de Mulhouse, in the Nouveau Quartier (19th century)
  • Cité de l’Automobile (featuring the Schlumpf collection)
  • French National Railway Museum
    Musée Français du Chemin de Fer
    The Cité du train , the French national railway museum is the biggest railway museum in the world, this one being situated in Mulhouse...

  • Museum of Electricity (Electropolis)
  • Museum of Printed Textiles (Musée de l'impression sur étoffes)
  • The Parc Zoologique et Botanique de Mulhouse
    Parc Zoologique et Botanique de Mulhouse
    The Parc Zoologique et Botanique de Mulhouse is a public zoo and botanical garden located at 51 Rue du Jardin Zoologique, Mulhouse, in the department of Haut-Rhin, in the Alsace Region of France....

    (botanical garden
    Botanical garden
    A botanical garden The terms botanic and botanical, and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is a well-tended area displaying a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names...

     and zoo
    A zoological garden, zoological park, menagerie, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred....

  • Saint-Steffen Calvinist temple
    Temple Saint-Étienne
    The Protestant St. Stephen's Church is the main Reformed church of the city of Mulhouse in Alsace, France. Because of its central location on the main square of Mulhouse, the Place de la Réunion, and its 97 meter high bell tower , it is sometimes referred to as the "Cathedral of Mulhouse"...

     (1859–1869), by Jean-Baptiste Schacre
    Jean-Baptiste Schacre
    Jean-Baptiste Schacre , was a French architect.-Life:Born in Delle in 1808, Jean-Baptiste Schacre began his career in 1826 as a draftsman in the Ponts et Chaussées services...

Principal economic activities

As early as the mid-19th century, Mulhouse was known as "the industrial capital of Alsace", the "city with a hundred chimneys" (cité aux cent cheminées) and "the French Manchester"
  • Automobile industry (Peugeot
    Peugeot is a major French car brand, part of PSA Peugeot Citroën, the second largest carmaker based in Europe.The family business that precedes the current Peugeot company was founded in 1810, and manufactured coffee mills and bicycles. On 20 November 1858, Emile Peugeot applied for the lion...

    's Mulhouse factory is the largest employer in Alsace)
  • Chemical industry (ICMD)
  • Electronics
    Electronics is the branch of science, engineering and technology that deals with electrical circuits involving active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies...

  • Engineering (SACM – Wärsitlä)


Mulhouse is served by Basel-Mulhouse-Freiburg International Airport.

Mulhouse has its own SNCF
The SNCF , is France's national state-owned railway company. SNCF operates the country's national rail services, including the TGV, France's high-speed rail network...

 station, Gare de Mulhouse
Gare de Mulhouse
The Gare de Mulhouse, also known as Gare de Mulhouse-Ville or locally as Gare Centrale, is the main railway station in the city of Mulhouse, Alsace, France...

, with a direct connection to Basel
Basel or Basle In the national languages of Switzerland the city is also known as Bâle , Basilea and Basilea is Switzerland's third most populous city with about 166,000 inhabitants. Located where the Swiss, French and German borders meet, Basel also has suburbs in France and Germany...

 in Switzerland and several other regional and national destinations, including Paris, Strasbourg, Lyon and Besançon.

Transport within Mulhouse is provided by Soléa
Soléa is a public transport operator in the French city of Mulhouse. Under contract to the Mulhouse Alsace Agglomération, it operates the city's bus network and three of the lines of the city's tram network. It also jointly operates, with the French national rail operator SNCF, the city's fourth...

 and comprises a network of buses together with the city's tram network
Mulhouse tramway
The Mulhouse tramway is a tram network in the French city of Mulhouse. It commenced service in 2006, and now comprises three purely tram lines, plus one hybrid tram-train line.- Tram services :...

, which opened on 13 May 2006 and was due to be further extended by 2008.

Notable people

Mulhouse was the birth place of:
  • Jean de Beaugrand
    Jean de Beaugrand
    Jean de Beaugrand was the foremost French lineographer of the seventeenth century. Though born in Mulhouse, de Beaugrand moved to Paris in 1581. He also worked as a mathematician and published works on geostatics...

     (1584–1640), lineographer and mathematician
    A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study is the field of mathematics. Mathematicians are concerned with quantity, structure, space, and change....

  • Johann Heinrich Lambert
    Johann Heinrich Lambert
    Johann Heinrich Lambert was a Swiss mathematician, physicist, philosopher and astronomer.Asteroid 187 Lamberta was named in his honour.-Biography:...

     (1728–1777), mathematician
    A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study is the field of mathematics. Mathematicians are concerned with quantity, structure, space, and change....

    , physicist
    A physicist is a scientist who studies or practices physics. Physicists study a wide range of physical phenomena in many branches of physics spanning all length scales: from sub-atomic particles of which all ordinary matter is made to the behavior of the material Universe as a whole...

     and astronomer
    An astronomer is a scientist who studies celestial bodies such as planets, stars and galaxies.Historically, astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky, while astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena and the differences between them using...

  • Napoléon Henri Reber
    Napoléon Henri Reber
    Napoléon Henri Reber was a French composer.He studied with Anton Reicha and Jean François Lesueur, wrote chamber music, and set to music the new poems of the best French poets...

     (1807–1880), composer
  • Charles Frédéric Girard
    Charles Frédéric Girard
    Charles Frédéric Girard was a French biologist specializing in ichthyology and herpetology.Born in Mulhouse, France, he studied at the College of Neuchâtel, Switzerland as a student of Louis Agassiz. In 1847, he accompanied Agassiz as his assistant to Harvard...

     (1822–1895), biologist
    A biologist is a scientist devoted to and producing results in biology through the study of life. Typically biologists study organisms and their relationship to their environment. Biologists involved in basic research attempt to discover underlying mechanisms that govern how organisms work...

     specializing on ichthyology
    Ichthyology is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish. This includes skeletal fish , cartilaginous fish , and jawless fish...

     and herpetology
    Herpetology is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of amphibians and reptiles...

  • Franz Eugen Schlachter
    Franz Eugen Schlachter
    Franz Eugen Schlachter was a revivalist preacher, classical scholar and the translator of the Schlachter Bible....

     (1859–1911), revivalist preacher, classical scholar and translator of the Schlachter Bible
    Schlachter Bible
    The Schlachter-Bibel is a German translation of the Bible by Franz Eugen Schlachter, first translated from the Greek and Hebrew text of the Bible in 1905....

  • Alfred Dreyfus
    Alfred Dreyfus
    Alfred Dreyfus was a French artillery officer of Jewish background whose trial and conviction in 1894 on charges of treason became one of the most tense political dramas in modern French and European history...

     (1859–1935), French military
    Military of France
    The French Armed Forces encompass the French Army, the French Navy, the French Air Force and the National Gendarmerie. The President of the Republic heads the armed forces, with the title "chef des armées" . The President is the supreme authority for military matters and is the sole official who...

     officer best known for being the focus of the Dreyfus affair
    Dreyfus Affair
    The Dreyfus affair was a political scandal that divided France in the 1890s and the early 1900s. It involved the conviction for treason in November 1894 of Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a young French artillery officer of Alsatian Jewish descent...

  • Georges Friedel
    Georges Friedel
    Georges Friedel was a French mineralogist and crystallographer.- Life :Georges was the son of the famous chemist Charles Friedel...

     (1865–1933), mineralogist, son of Charles Friedel
    Charles Friedel
    Charles Friedel was a French chemist and mineralogist. A native of Strasbourg, France, he was a student of Louis Pasteur at the Sorbonne...

  • Pierre Weiss
    Pierre Weiss
    Pierre-Ernest Weiss was a French physicist who developed the domain theory of ferromagnetism in 1907. Weiss domains and the Weiss magneton are named after him. Weiss also developed the Molecular or Mean field theory, which is often called Weiss-mean-field theory.Weiss was born in Mulhouse and...

     (1865–1940), physicist
  • Alfred Werner
    Alfred Werner
    Alfred Werner was a Swiss chemist who was a student at ETH Zurich and a professor at the University of Zurich. He won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1913 for proposing the octahedral configuration of transition metal complexes. Werner developed the basis for modern coordination chemistry...

     (1866–1919), Nobel Prize in Chemistry
    Nobel Prize in Chemistry
    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature,...

  • Artur Dinter
    Artur Dinter
    Artur Dinter was a German writer and Nazi politician.- Biography :Dinter was born in Mulhouse, in Alsace-Lorraine, German Empire to Josef Dinter, a customs adviser, and his wife Berta, née Hoffmann, and he was baptized in the Catholic Church.After doing his school-leaving examination, Dinter...

     (1876–1948), writer and Nazi
    Nazism, the common short form name of National Socialism was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany...

  • Friedrich Wilhelm Levi
    Friedrich Wilhelm Levi
    Friedrich Wilhelm Daniel Levi was a German mathematician known for his work in abstract algebra. He also worked in geometry, topology, set theory, and analysis...

     (1888–1966), mathematician
    A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study is the field of mathematics. Mathematicians are concerned with quantity, structure, space, and change....

  • Robert Wyler
    Robert Wyler
    Robert Wyler was an American film producer and associate producer. He was the older brother of the more illustrious William Wyler and a nephew of Universal Studios head, Carl Laemmle....

     (1902–1971), film producer
  • William Wyler
    William Wyler
    William Wyler was a leading American motion picture director, producer, and screenwriter.Notable works included Ben-Hur , The Best Years of Our Lives , and Mrs. Miniver , all of which won Wyler Academy Awards for Best Director, and also won Best Picture...

     (1902–1981), award-winning motion picture director
  • Karl Brandt
    Karl Brandt (Nazi physician)
    Karl Brandt was a German Nazi war criminal. He rose to the rank of SS-Gruppenführer in the Allgemeine-SS and SS-Brigadeführer in the Waffen-SS. Among other positions, Brandt headed the administration of the Nazi euthanasia program from 1939 onwards and was selected as Adolf Hitler's personal...

     (1904–1948), personal physician to Adolf Hitler
    Adolf Hitler
    Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

     and head administrator of the T-4 Euthanasia Program
  • Jean Schlumberger
    Jean Schlumberger (jewelry designer)
    Jean Michel Schlumberger was a French jewelry designer especially well-known for his work at Tiffany & Co.-Early life:...

     (1907–1987) Jewelry designer at the Tiffany & Co
  • Pierre Probst
    Pierre Probst
    Pierre Probst was a French cartoonist. He was known for his creation of the Caroline character, a heroine for children books....

     (1913–2007), comic and children book artist
  • Katia and Maurice Krafft
    Katia and Maurice Krafft
    Katia Krafft and her husband, Maurice Krafft were French volcanologists who died in a pyroclastic flow on Mount Unzen, in Japan, on June 3, 1991. The Kraffts were known for being pioneers in filming, photographing and recording volcanoes, often getting within feet of lava flows...

    , volcanologists
  • Christiane Scrivener
    Christiane Scrivener
    Christiane Scrivener is a French politician, a member of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing's Parti républicain ....

     (born 1925), EU-Commissioner
  • Frank Ténot (1925–2004), press agent, pataphysician
    Pataphysics is a philosophy or pseudophilosophy dedicated to studying what lies beyond the realm of metaphysics. The term was coined and the concept created by French writer Alfred Jarry , who defined 'pataphysics as "the science of imaginary solutions, which symbolically attributes the properties...

     and jazz
    Jazz is a musical style that originated at the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States. It was born out of a mix of African and European music traditions. From its early development until the present, jazz has incorporated music from 19th and 20th...

  • Huguette Dreyfus
    Huguette Dreyfus
    Huguette Dreyfus is a French harpsichordist born on November 30, 1928 in Mulhouse, Alsace, France.-Biography:Huguette Dreyfus began taking piano lessons at four years old. In 1946, she began working with renowned piano teacher Lazare Lévy...

     (born 1928) harpsichordist
  • Pierre Chambon (born 1931), biologist
    A biologist is a scientist devoted to and producing results in biology through the study of life. Typically biologists study organisms and their relationship to their environment. Biologists involved in basic research attempt to discover underlying mechanisms that govern how organisms work...

  • François Florent (born François Eichholtzer, 1937), actor, founder of the Cours Florent
    Cours Florent
    The Cours Florent is a private French Drama school created in 1965 by François Florent.The school is currently located on three nearby sites in the 19th arrondissement of Paris, France: rue Archereau, rue Mathis and Avenue Jean-Jaurès, further along which is located the Conservatoire national...

  • Jean Brenner
    Jean Brenner
    Jean Brenner was a painter from Mulhouse, France.-Life and work:Brenner came from an artist family from Alsace; his father Joseph was the professor of textile drawings. In 1956, Jean Brenner began his studies at the Ecole municipale des Beaux Arts. From 1960 to 1962, he traveled in North Africa...

     (1937–2009), painter
  • Daniel Roth
    Daniel Roth (organist)
    Daniel François Roth , is a French organist, composer, and pedagogue.-Biography:Roth began his musical training at the conservatory in his home town, Mulhouse with Professeur Joseph Victor Meyer...

     (born 1942), organist
    An organist is a musician who plays any type of organ. An organist may play solo organ works, play with an ensemble or orchestra, or accompany one or more singers or instrumental soloists...

    , composer and pedagogue
  • Mireille Delunsch
    Mireille Delunsch
    Mireille Delunsch is an opera soprano. She was born in Mulhouse, France, and studied musicology and voice at the Conservatoire de Strasbourg. Her debut was at the Opéra du Rhin in Mulhouse, in Mussorgsky's Boris Godunov....

     (born 1962), soprano
    A soprano is a voice type with a vocal range from approximately middle C to "high A" in choral music, or to "soprano C" or higher in operatic music. In four-part chorale style harmony, the soprano takes the highest part, which usually encompasses the melody...

  • Paul Meyer
    Paul Meyer (clarinetist)
    Paul Meyer is a French clarinetist.Meyer is possibly the most well-known contemporary solo clarinetist from France. He is known for his solo recordings on the Denon label, notably in collaborations with Jean-Pierre Rampal and Eric Le Sage. He studied at the Paris Conservatoire and at the Basler...

     (born 1965), clarinetist
  • Thierry Omeyer (born 1976), handball
    Team handball
    Handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each pass a ball to throw it into the goal of the other team...

  • Marc Pfertzel
    Marc Pfertzel
    Marc Pfertzel is a French football defender/midfielder who currently plays for German club 1. FC Union Berlin. He has also been known to have played as left and right sweeper and on the right midfield.-France:...

     (born 1981), football player
  • Antar Yahia
    Antar Yahia
    Antar Yahia is an Algerian professional footballer who currently plays as a defender for Saudi side Al Nassr and the Algerian national team....

     (born 1982), football player
  • Vitaa
    Vitaa is a French pop singer.-Biography:She was discovered by DJ Kost, who organized a duet with Dadoo...

     (born 1983), singer
  • Véronique North-Minca
    Véronique North-Minca
    Véronique North-Minca is a diplomat from France. She served as the first Secretary of the French Embassy, Chişinău .- External links :* * * Timpul de dimineaţă,...

    , diplomat

Other notable residents:
  • Adolphe Braun
    Adolphe Braun
    Adolphe Braun was a French photographer, best known for his floral still-lifes, Parisian street scenes, and grand Alpine landscapes. One of the most influential French photographers of the 19th century, he used contemporary innovations in photographic reproduction to market his photographs...

     (1812-1877), photographer
  • Alfred de Glehn
    Alfred de Glehn
    Alfred George de Glehn was a notable English-born French designer of steam locomotives, and an engineer at the Société Alsacienne de Constructions Mécaniques . His steam engines of the 1890s combined elegance, high speed and efficiency...

     (1848-1936), designer of steam locomotives

Mayors of Mulhouse

  • Jean-Marie Bockel
    Jean-Marie Bockel
    Jean-Marie Bockel has been Secretary of State for Defence and Veterans in the government of Prime Minister François Fillon since 18 March 2008, having previously been Secretary of State for Cooperation and La Francophonie since June 2007...

     (since 1989)
  • Joseph Klifa (1981–1989)
  • Emile Muller (1956–1981)

Twin towns – Sister cities

Mulhouse is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with: Walsall
Walsall is a large industrial town in the West Midlands of England. It is located northwest of Birmingham and east of Wolverhampton. Historically a part of Staffordshire, Walsall is a component area of the West Midlands conurbation and part of the Black Country.Walsall is the administrative...

, England, since 1953 Antwerp, Belgium, since 1956 Kassel
Kassel is a town located on the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany. It is the administrative seat of the Kassel Regierungsbezirk and the Kreis of the same name and has approximately 195,000 inhabitants.- History :...

, Germany, since 1965 Bergamo
Bergamo is a town and comune in Lombardy, Italy, about 40 km northeast of Milan. The comune is home to over 120,000 inhabitants. It is served by the Orio al Serio Airport, which also serves the Province of Bergamo, and to a lesser extent the metropolitan area of Milan...

, Italy, since 1989 Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States and is part of the Midwest. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, and Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin's capital is...

, United States of America Chemnitz
Chemnitz is the third-largest city of the Free State of Saxony, Germany. Chemnitz is an independent city which is not part of any county and seat of the government region Direktionsbezirk Chemnitz. Located in the northern foothills of the Ore Mountains, it is a part of the Saxon triangle...

, Germany, since 1990 Giv'atayim
Giv'atayim is a city in Israel east of Tel Aviv. It is part of the metropolitan area known as Gush Dan. Givatayim was established in 1922 by pioneers of the Second Aliyah. It has a population of 53,000....

, Israel, since 1991 Timişoara
Timișoara is the capital city of Timiș County, in western Romania. One of the largest Romanian cities, with an estimated population of 311,586 inhabitants , and considered the informal capital city of the historical region of Banat, Timișoara is the main social, economic and cultural center in the...

, Romania, since 1991 (Coopération décentralisée) Arkhangelsk
Arkhangelsk , formerly known as Archangel in English, is a city and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. It lies on both banks of the Northern Dvina River near its exit into the White Sea in the north of European Russia. The city spreads for over along the banks of the river...

, Russia, since 1992 El Khroub
El Khroub
El Khroub is a town and commune in Constantine Province, Algeria. According to the 1998 census it has a population of 89,919.-References:...

, Algeria, since 1999 (Coopération décentralisée) Sofara, Mali, since 2003 (Coopération décentralisée)

External links

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