) that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe
It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor
. Its character changed during the Middle Ages
and the Early Modern period
, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes. In its last centuries, its character became quite close to a union of territories.
The empire's territory was centered on the Kingdom of Germany
, and included neighbouring territories, which at its peak included the Kingdom of Italy
and the Kingdom of Burgundy
1209 Otto IV is crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Innocent III.
1346 Charles IV of Luxembourg is elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
1519 Charles V is elected Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
1555 After 18 months of siege, Siena surrenders to the Florentine-Imperial army. The Republic of Siena is incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Tuscany.
1619 Ferdinand II is elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
1631 The city of Magdeburg in Germany is seized by forces of the Holy Roman Empire and most of its inhabitants massacred, in one of the bloodiest incidents of the Thirty Years' War.
1632 Battle of Rain; Swedes under Gustavus Adolphus defeat the Holy Roman Empire during the Thirty Years' War.
1636 The Swedish Army defeats the armies of Saxony and the Holy Roman Empire at the Battle of Wittstock.
1645 Thirty Years' War: the Second Battle of Nördlingen sees French forces defeating those of the Holy Roman Empire.
1697 The Treaty of Rijswijk is signed by France, England, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire and the Dutch Republic ending the Nine Years' War (1688–97).