Team handball
Overview
 
Handball is a team sport
Team sport
A team sport includes any sport which involves players working together towards a shared objective. A team sport is an activity in which a group of individuals, on the same team, work together to accomplish an ultimate goal which is usually to win. This can be done in a number of ways such as...

 in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball to throw it into the goal of the other team. A standard match consists of two periods of 30 minutes, and the team with the most goals scored wins.

Modern handball is usually played indoors, but outdoor variants exist in the forms of field handball
Field handball
Field handball was the original form of what is now team handball and was played at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin....

 and Czech handball
Czech handball
Czech handball is an outdoor ball game which was created in 1905 in Prague and up to this date is played. This sport is very similar to the Team handball.- History :...

 (which were more common in the past) and beach handball
Beach handball
Beach handball is a team sport where two teams pass and bounce a ball, trying to throw it in the goal of the opposing team. The game is similar to team handball, but is not played in a sports hall but on sand instead...

 (also called sandball).
Encyclopedia
Handball is a team sport
Team sport
A team sport includes any sport which involves players working together towards a shared objective. A team sport is an activity in which a group of individuals, on the same team, work together to accomplish an ultimate goal which is usually to win. This can be done in a number of ways such as...

 in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball to throw it into the goal of the other team. A standard match consists of two periods of 30 minutes, and the team with the most goals scored wins.

Modern handball is usually played indoors, but outdoor variants exist in the forms of field handball
Field handball
Field handball was the original form of what is now team handball and was played at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin....

 and Czech handball
Czech handball
Czech handball is an outdoor ball game which was created in 1905 in Prague and up to this date is played. This sport is very similar to the Team handball.- History :...

 (which were more common in the past) and beach handball
Beach handball
Beach handball is a team sport where two teams pass and bounce a ball, trying to throw it in the goal of the opposing team. The game is similar to team handball, but is not played in a sports hall but on sand instead...

 (also called sandball). American handball
American handball
American handball is a sport in which players hit a small rubber ball against a wall using their hands.- History :...

 and Gaelic handball
Gaelic handball
Gaelic handball is a sport similar to Basque pelota, racquetball, squash and American handball . It is one of the four Gaelic games organised by the Gaelic Athletic Association...

 are completely different sports from team handball.

The game is quite fast and includes body contact as the defenders try to stop the attackers from approaching the goal. Contact is only allowed when the defensive player is completely in front of the offensive player, i.e. between the offensive player and the goal. This is referred to as a player sandwich. Any contact from the side or especially from behind is considered dangerous and is usually met with penalties. When a defender successfully stops an attacking player, the play is stopped and restarted by the attacking team from the spot of the infraction or on the nine meter line. Unlike in basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

 where players are allowed to commit only 5 fouls
Foul (sports)
In sports, a foul is an inappropriate or unfair act by a player as deemed by a referee. A foul may be intentional or accidental, and often results in a penalty....

 in a game (6 in the NBA
National Basketball Association
The National Basketball Association is the pre-eminent men's professional basketball league in North America. It consists of thirty franchised member clubs, of which twenty-nine are located in the United States and one in Canada...

), handball players are allowed an unlimited number of "faults", which are considered good defence and disruptive to the attacking team's rhythm.

Goals are scored quite frequently; usually both teams score at least 20 goals each, and it is not uncommon for both teams to score more than 30 goals. This was not true in the earliest history of the game, when the scores were more akin to that of ice hockey
Ice hockey
Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

. But, as offensive play has improved since the late 1980s, particularly the use of counterattacks (fast breaks) after a failed attack from the other team, goal scoring has increased.

Origins and development

There are records of handball-like games in medieval France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, and among the Inuit
Inuit
The Inuit are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Canada , Denmark , Russia and the United States . Inuit means “the people” in the Inuktitut language...

 in Greenland
Greenland
Greenland is an autonomous country within the Kingdom of Denmark, located between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Though physiographically a part of the continent of North America, Greenland has been politically and culturally associated with Europe for...

, in the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

. By the 19th century, there existed similar games of håndbold from Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

, házená
Czech handball
Czech handball is an outdoor ball game which was created in 1905 in Prague and up to this date is played. This sport is very similar to the Team handball.- History :...

in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

, hádzaná in Slovakia
Slovakia
The Slovak Republic is a landlocked state in Central Europe. It has a population of over five million and an area of about . Slovakia is bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south...

, gandbol in Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

, torball
Torball
Torball is a sport for the blind and visually impaired. It is played by two teams on opposite sides of an indoor playing field. Each team consists of 3 players. In the middle part of the field there are 3 cords stretched across the entire width. On each end of the playing field is a goal that also...

in Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, as well as versions in Uruguay
Uruguay
Uruguay ,officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay,sometimes the Eastern Republic of Uruguay; ) is a country in the southeastern part of South America. It is home to some 3.5 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the capital Montevideo and its metropolitan area...

.

The team handball game of today was formed by the end of the 19th century in northern Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

, primarily Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

 and Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

. Holger Nielsen
Holger Nielsen
Holger Louis Nielsen was a Danish fencer, shooter, and athlete. He competed at the 1896 Summer Olympics in Athens. He is probably best known for drawing up the first modern set of rules for the game of handball.-Fencing:Nielsen's main sport was fencing, in which he competed in the sabre...

, a Danish gym teacher, drew up the rules for modern handball (håndbold) in 1898 and published them in 1906, and Rasmus Nicolai Ernst, another Danish teacher, did something similar in 1897. Modern Handball is therefore widely considered a game of Danish origins.

Another set of team Handball rules was published on 29 October 1917 by Max Heiser, Karl Schelenz, and Erich Konigh from Germany. After 1919 these rules were improved by Karl Schelenz. The first international games were played under these rules, between Germany
Germany national handball team
The Germany national handball team is the national handball team of Germany. Germany won the handball world cup in 1938, 1978 and in 2007 as the host of the handball world cup-Achievements:Olympic Games* winner in 1936...

 and Belgium
Belgium national handball team
The Belgium national handball team is the national handball team of Belgium and is controlled by the Belgian Handball Federation....

 for men in 1925 and between Germany
Germany women's national handball team
The Germany women's national handball team is the national team of Germany. It is governed by the Deutscher Handball-Bund and takes part in international handball competitions.-Results:- Performance in Olympic Games :* 1992: 4th place...

 and Austria
Austria women's national handball team
The Austria women's national handball team is the national team of Austria. It is governed by the Austrian Handball Federation and takes part in international team handball competitions.- Performance in Olympic Games :* 1984: 6th place...

 for women in 1930.

In 1926, the Congress of the International Amateur Athletics Federation
International Association of Athletics Federations
The International Association of Athletics Federations is the international governing body for the sport of athletics. It was founded in 1912 at its first congress in Stockholm, Sweden by representatives from 17 national athletics federations as the International Amateur Athletics Federation...

 nominated a committee to draw up international rules for field handball. The International Amateur Handball Federation was formed in 1928, and the International Handball Federation was formed in 1946.

Men's field handball was played at the 1936 Summer Olympics
1936 Summer Olympics
The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. Berlin won the bid to host the Games over Barcelona, Spain on April 26, 1931, at the 29th IOC Session in Barcelona...

 in Berlin. During the next several decades, indoor handball flourished and evolved in the Scandinavian countries. The sport re-emerged onto the world stage as team handball for the 1972 Summer Olympics
1972 Summer Olympics
The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Munich, West Germany, from August 26 to September 11, 1972....

 in Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

. Women's team handball was added at the 1976 Summer Olympics
1976 Summer Olympics
The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXI Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, in 1976. Montreal was awarded the rights to the 1976 Games on May 12, 1970, at the 69th IOC Session in Amsterdam, over the bids of Moscow and...

. Due to its popularity in the region, the Eastern European countries that refined the event became the dominant force in the sport when it was reintroduced.

The International Handball Federation
International Handball Federation
The International Handball Federation, often referred to by the acronym IHF, is the administrative and controlling body for International team handball.- Championships :*World Men's Handball Championship*World Women's Handball Championship...

 organized the men's world championship in 1938 and every 4 (sometimes 3) years from World War II to 1995. Since the 1995 world championship in Iceland, the competition has been every two years. The women's world championship has been played since 1957. The IHF also organizes women's and men's junior world championships. By July 2009, the IHF listed 166 member federations - approximately 795,000 teams and 19 million players.

Rules

Unless otherwise noted, the rules described are the official international rules provided by the International Handball Federation
International Handball Federation
The International Handball Federation, often referred to by the acronym IHF, is the administrative and controlling body for International team handball.- Championships :*World Men's Handball Championship*World Women's Handball Championship...

 (IHF).

Summary

The handball playing field is similar to an indoor soccer
Indoor soccer
Indoor soccer or arena soccer, or six-a-side football in the United Kingdom, is a game derived from association football adapted for play in an indoor arena such as a turf-covered hockey arena or skating rink. The most important difference in play is that the indoor field is surrounded by a wall...

 field. Two teams of seven players (six field players plus one goalkeeper) take the field and attempt to score points by putting the game ball into the opposing team's goal. In handling the ball, players are subject to the following restrictions:
  • After receiving the ball, players can only hold the ball for three seconds before passing, dribbling (similar to a basketball dribble), or shooting.
  • After receiving the ball, players can take up to three steps without dribbling. If players dribble, they may take an additional three steps.
  • Players that stop dribbling have three seconds to pass or shoot. They may take three additional steps during this time.
  • No players other than the defending goalkeeper are allowed within the goal line (within 6 meters of the goal). Goalkeepers are allowed outside this line.

Playing field

Handball is played on a court 40 by 20 m (131.2 by 65.6 ft), with a goal in the center of each end. The goals are surrounded by a near-semicircular area, called the zone or the crease, defined by a line six meters from the goal. A dashed near-semicircular line nine meters from the goal marks the free-throw line. Each line on the court is part of the area it encompasses. This implies that the middle line belongs to both halves at the same time.

Goals

Each goal has a rectangular clearance area of three meters in the width and two meters in the height. It must be securely bolted either to the floor or the wall behind.

The goal posts and the crossbar must be made out of the same material (e.g. wood
Wood
Wood is a hard, fibrous tissue found in many trees. It has been used for hundreds of thousands of years for both fuel and as a construction material. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers embedded in a matrix of lignin which resists compression...

 or aluminium
Aluminium
Aluminium or aluminum is a silvery white member of the boron group of chemical elements. It has the symbol Al, and its atomic number is 13. It is not soluble in water under normal circumstances....

) and feature a quadratic cross section with a side of 8 cm (3 in). The three sides of the beams visible from the playing field must be painted alternatingly in two contrasting colors which both have to contrast against the background. The colors on both goals must be the same.

Each goal must feature a net. This must be fastened in such a way that a ball thrown into does not leave or pass the goal under normal circumstances. If necessary, a second net may be clasped to the back of the net on the inside.

D-Zone

The goals are surrounded by the crease. This area is delimited by two quarter circles with a radius of six meters around the far corners of each goal post and a connecting line parallel to the goal line. Only the defending goalkeeper is allowed inside this zone. However, the court players may catch and touch the ball in the air within it as long as the player starts his jump outside the zone and releases the ball before he lands (landing inside the perimeter is allowed in this case).

If a player contacts the ground inside the goal perimeter he must take the most direct path out of it. However, should a player cross the zone in an attempt to gain an advantage (e.g. better position) his team cedes the ball. Similarly, violation of the zone by a defending player is only penalized if he does so to gain an advantage in defending.

Substitution area

Outside of one long edge of the playing field to both sides of the middle line are the substitution areas for each team. The areas usually contain the benches as seating opportunities. Team officials, substitutes and suspended players must wait within this area. The area always lies to the same side as the team's own goal. During half-time substitution areas are swapped. Any player entering or leaving the play must cross the substitution line which is part of the side line and extends 4.5 meters from the middle line to the team's side.

Duration

A standard match for all teams of 16 and older has two periods of 30 minutes with a 15 minute half-time. Teams switch sides of the court at halftime, as well as benches. For youths the game duration is:
  • 2 x 25 minutes at ages 12 to 16.
  • 2 x 20 minutes at ages 8 to 12.

However, national federations of some countries may differ in their implementation from the official guidelines.

If a decision must be reached in a particular match (e.g. in a tournament) and it ends in a draw after regular time, there are at maximum two overtimes of 2 x 5 minutes with a 1 minute break each. Should these not decide the game either, the winning team is determined in a penalty shootout (best-of-5 rounds; if still tied, extra rounds afterwards until won by one team).

The referees may call timeout according to their sole discretion, typical reasons are injuries, suspensions or court cleaning. Penalty throws should only trigger a timeout for lengthy delays as a change of the goalkeeper.

Each team may call one team timeout (TTO) per period which lasts one minute. This right may only be invoked by team in ball possession. To do so, the representative of the team lays a green card marked with a black "T" on the desk of the timekeeper. The timekeeper then immediately interrupts the game by sounding an acoustic signal and stops the time.

Referees

A Handball match is led by two equal referees.Namely the goal line referee and the court referee. Some national bodies allow games with only a single referee in special cases like illness on short notice. Should the referees disagree on any occasion, a decision is made on mutual agreement during a short timeout, or, in case of punishments, the more severe of the two comes into effect. The referees are obliged to make their decisions "on the basis of their observations of facts". Their judgements are final and can only be appealed against if not in compliance with the rules.

The referees position themselves in such a way that the team players are confined between them. They stand diagonally aligned so that each can observe one side line. Depending on their positions one is called field referee and the other goal referee. These positions automatically switch on ball turnover. They physically exchange their positions approximately every 10 minutes (long exchange) and change sides every 5 minutes (short exchange).

The IHF defines 18 hand signals for quick visual communication with players and officials. The signal for warning or disqualification is accompanied by a yellow or red card, respectively. The referees also use whistle blows to indicate infractions or restart the play.

The referees are supported by a scorekeeper and a timekeeper who attend to formal things like keeping track of goals and suspensions or starting and stopping the clock, respectively. They also have an eye on the benches and notify the referees on substitution errors. Their desk is located in between both substitutions areas.

Team players, substitutes and officials

Each team consists of 7 players on court and up to 7 substitute players on the bench. One player on the court must be the designated goalkeeper differing in his or her clothing from the rest of the field players. Substitution of players can be done in any number and at any time during game play. An exchange takes place over the substitution line. A prior notification of the referees is not necessary.

Some national bodies as the Deutscher Handball Bund (DHB, "German Handball Federation") allow substitution in junior teams only when in ball possession or during timeouts. This restriction is intended to prevent early specialization of players to offense or defense.

Field players

Field players are allowed to touch the ball with any part of their bodies above and including the knee. As in several other team sports, a distinction is made between catching and dribbling
Dribbling
In sports, dribbling refers to the maneuvering of a ball around a defender through short skillful taps or kicks with either the legs , hands , stick or swimming strokes...

. A player who is in possession of the ball may stand stationary for only three seconds and may only take three steps. They must then either shoot, pass or dribble the ball. At any time taking more than three steps is considered travelling and results in a turnover. A player may dribble as many times as he wants (though since passing is faster it is the preferred method of attack) as long as during each dribble his hand contacts only the top of the ball. Therefore carrying is completely prohibited, and results in a turnover. After the dribble is picked up, the player has the right to another three seconds or three steps. The ball must then be passed or shot as further holding or dribbling will result in a "double dribble" turnover and a free throw for the other team. Other offensive infractions that result in a turnover include, charging, setting an illegal screen, or carrying the ball into the six meter zone.

Goalkeeper

Only the goalkeeper is allowed to move freely within the goal perimeter, although he may not cross the goal perimeter line while carrying or dribbling the ball. Within the zone, he is allowed to touch the ball with all parts of his body including his feet. The goalkeeper may participate in the normal play of his team mates. As he is then considered as normal field player, he is typically substituted for a regular field player if his team uses this scheme to outnumber the defending players. As this player becomes the designated goalkeeper on the court, he must wear some vest or bib to identify himself as such.

If the goalkeeper deflects the ball over the outer goal line, his team stays in possession of the ball in contrast to other sports like football. The goalkeeper resumes the play with a throw from within the zone ("goalkeeper throw"). Passing to your own goalkeeper results in a turnover. Throwing the ball against the head of the goalkeeper when he is not moving is to be punished by disqualification ("red card").

Team officials

Each team is allowed to have a maximum of four team officials seated on the benches. An official is anybody who is neither player nor substitute. One official must be the designated representative who is usually the team manager
Coach (sport)
In sports, a coach is an individual involved in the direction, instruction and training of the operations of a sports team or of individual sportspeople.-Staff:...

. The representative may call team timeout once every period and may address scorekeeper, timekeeper and referees. Other officials typically include physician
Physician
A physician is a health care provider who practices the profession of medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury and other physical and mental impairments...

s or managers. Neither official is allowed to enter the playing court without permission of the referees.

Ball

The ball is spherical and must either be made of leather or a synthetic material. It is not allowed to have a shiny or slippery surface. As it is intended to be operated by a single hand, the official sizes vary depending on age and gender of the participating teams.
Size Used by Circumference (in cm) Weight (in g)
III Men and male youth older than 16 58–60 425–475
II Women, male youth older than 12 and female youth older than 14 54–56 325–375
I Youth older than 8 50–52 290–330


Though not officially regulated, the ball is usually resinated. The resin improves the ability of the players to manipulate the ball with a single hand like spinning trick shots. Some indoor arenas prohibit the usage of resin since many products leave sticky stains on the floor.

Awarded throws

The referees may award a special throw to a team. This usually happens after certain events like scored goals, off-court balls, turnovers, timeouts, etc. All of these special throws require the thrower to obtain a certain position and pose restrictions on the positions of all other players. Sometimes the execution must wait for a whistle blow by the referee.
Throw-off
A throw-off takes place from the center of the court. The thrower must touch the middle line with one foot and all of the other players must be in the half of their team. The defending players must keep a distance of at least three meters to the thrower. A throw-off occurs at the beginning of each period and after the opposing team scores a goal. It must be cleared by the referees.
Modern Handball introduced the "fast throw-off" concept, i. e. the play will be immediately restarted by the referees as soon as the executing team fulfilles its requirements. Many teams leverage this rule to score easy goals before the opposition has time to form a stable defense line.


Throw-in
The team which did not touch the ball last is awarded a throw-in when the ball fully crosses the side line or touches the ceiling. If the ball crosses the outer goal line, a throw-in is only awarded if the defending field players touched the balls last. Execution requires the thrower to place one foot on the nearest outer line to the cause. All defending players must keep a distance of three meters. However, they are allowed to stand immediately outside their own goal area even when the distance is less.


Goalkeeper-throw
If ball crosses the outer goal line without interference from the defending team or when deflected by their goalkeeper, a goalkeeper-throw is awarded to the defending team. This is the most common turnover. The goalkeeper resumes the play with a throw from anywhere within his goal area.


Free-throw
A free-throw restarts the play after an interruption by the referees. It takes places from the spot where the interruption was caused as long as this spot is outside of the free-throw line of the opposing team. In the latter case the throw is deferred to the nearest spot on the free-throw line. Free-throws are the equivalent to free-kicks
Direct free kick
A direct free kick is a method of restarting play in a game of association football following a foul. Unlike an indirect free kick, a goal may be scored directly against the opposing side without the ball having first touched another player.-Award:...

 in association football. The thrower may take a direct attempt for a goal which is, however, not feasible if the defending team organized a defense.


7-meter throw
A 7-meter throw is awarded when a clear chance of scoring is illegally prevented anywhere on the court by a opposing team player, official or spectator. It is also awarded when the referees interrupted a legitimate scoring chance for any reason. The thrower steps with one foot behind the 7-meter line with only the defending goalkeeper between him and the goal. The goalkeeper must keep a distance of three meters which is marked by a short tick on the floor. All other players must remain behind the free-throw line until execution. The thrower must await the whistle blow of the referee. A 7-meter throw is the equivalent to a penalty kick
Penalty kick
A penalty kick is a type of direct free kick in association football, taken from twelve yards out from goal and with only the goalkeeper of the defending team between the penalty taker and the goal.Penalty kicks are performed during normal play...

 in association football, it is, however, far more common and typically occurs several times in a single game.

Penalties

Penalties are given to players, in progressive format, for fouls that require more punishment than just a free-throw. "Actions" directed mainly at the opponent and not the ball (such as reaching around, holding, pushing, hitting, tripping, or jumping into opponent) as well as contact from the side or from behind a player are all considered illegal and subject to penalty. Any infraction that prevents a clear scoring opportunity, will result in a seven-meter penalty shot.

Typically the referee will give a warning yellow card for an illegal action, but if the contact was particularly dangerous the referee can forego the warning for an immediate two-minute suspension. A player can only get one warning before receiving a two minute suspension. One player is only permitted two 2-minute suspensions; third time he/she will be shown the red card.

A red card results in an ejection from the game and a two minute penalty for the team. A player may receive a red card directly for particularly rough penalties. For instance any contact from behind during a fast break is now being treated with a red card. A red carded player has to leave the playing area completely. A player who is disqualified may be substituted with another player after the two minute penalty is served. A Coach/Official can also be penalized progressively. Any coach/official who receives a 2-minute suspension will have to pull out one of his players for two minutes - note: the player is not the one punished and can be substituted in again, because the main penalty is the team playing with a man less than the other.

After having lost the ball during an attack, the ball has to be laid down quickly or else the player not following this rule will face a 2-minute suspension. Also gesticulating or verbally questioning the referee's order, as well as arguing with the officials decisions, will normally result in a 2-minute suspension. If it is done in a very provocative way, a player can be given a double 2-minute suspension if he/she does not walk straight off the field to the bench after being given a suspension, or if the referee deems the tempo deliberately slow. Illegal substitution, any substitution that does not take place in the specified substitution area or where the entering player enters before the exiting player exits is also punishable with a 2 minute suspension.

Formations

Players are typically referred to by the position they are playing. The positions are always denoted from the view of the respective goalkeeper, so that a defender on the right opposes an attacker on the left. However, not all of the following positions may be occupied depending on the formation or potential suspensions.

Offense:
  • Left and right wingman. These typically excel at ball control and wide jumps from the outside of the goal perimeter to get into a better shooting angle at the goal. Teams usually try to occupy the left position with a right-handed player and vice versa.
  • Left and right backcourt. Goal attempts by these players are typically made by jumping high and shooting over the defenders. Thus, it is usually advantageous to have tall players for these positions.
  • Center backcourt. A player with experience is preferred on this position who acts as playmaker and the handball equivalent of a basketball point guard
    Point guard
    Point guard , also called the play maker or "the ball-handler", is one of the standard positions in a regulation basketball game. A point guard has perhaps the most specialized role of any position – essentially, he is expected to run the team's offense by controlling the ball and making sure that...

    .
  • Pivot (left and right, if applicable). This player tends to intermingle with the defense, setting picks and attempting to disrupt the defense formation. This positions requires the least jumping skills but ball control and physical strength are an advantage.


Defense:
  • Far left and far right. The opponents of the wingmen.
  • Half left and half right. The opponents of the left and right backcourts.
  • Back center (left and right). Opponent of the pivot.
  • Front center. Opponent of the center backcourt, may also be set against another specific backcourt player.

Offensive play

Attacks are played with all field players on the side of the defenders. Depending on the speed of the attack, one distinguishes between three attack waves with a decreasing chance of success:

First Wave
First wave attacks are characterized by the absence of defending players around their goal perimeter. The chance of success is very high, as the throwing player is unhindered in his scoring attempt. Such attacks typically occur after an intercepted pass or a steal and if the defending team can switch fast to offense. The far left/far right will usually try to run the attack as they are not as tightly bound in the defense. On a turnover, they immediately sprint forward and receive the ball halfway to the other goal. Thus, these positions are commonly held by quick players.


Second Wave
If the first wave is not successful and some defending players gained their positions around the zone, the second wave comes into play: The remaining players advance with quick passes to locally outnumber the retreating defenders. If one player manages to step up to the perimeter or catches the ball at this spot he becomes unstoppable by legal defensive means. From this position the chance of success is naturally very high. Second wave attacks became much more important with the "fast throw-off" rule.


Third Wave
The time during which the second wave may be successful is very short, as then the defenders closed the gaps around the zone. In the third wave, the attackers use standardized attack patterns usually involving crossing and passing between the back court players who either try to pass the ball through a gap to their pivot, take a jumping shot from the backcourt at the goal, or lure the defense away from a wingman.


The third wave evolves into the normal offensive play when all defenders reach not only the zone but gain their accustomed positions. Some teams then substitute specialized offense players. However, this implies that these players must play in the defense should the opposing team be able to switch quickly to offense. The latter is another benefit for fast playing teams.

If the attacking team does not make sufficient progress (eventually releasing a shot on goal), the referees can call passive play (since about 1995, the referee gives a passive warning some time before the actual call by holding one hand up in the air, signaling that the attacking team should release a shot soon), turning control over to the other team. A shot on goal or an infringement leading to a yellow card or two minute penalty will mark the start of a new attack, causing the hand to be taken down, but a shot blocked by the defense or a normal free throw will not. If it were not for this rule, it would be easy for an attacking team to stall the game indefinitely, as it is difficult to intercept a pass without at the same time conceding dangerous openings towards the goal.

Defensive play

The usual formations of the defense are 6-0, when all the defense players line up between the 6 meter and 9 meter lines to form a wall; the 5-1, when one of the players cruises outside the 9 meter perimeter, usually targeting the center forwards while the other 5 line up on the six meter line; and the lesser common 4-2 when there are two such defenders out front. Very fast teams will also try a 3-3 formation which is close to a switching man-to-man style. The formations vary greatly from country to country and reflect each country's style of play. 6-0 is sometimes known as "flat defense", and all other formations are usually called "offensive defense".

Organization

Handball teams are usually organized as clubs
Sports club
A sports club or sport club, sometimes athletics club or sports association is a club for the purpose of playing one or more sports...

. On a national level, the clubs are associated in federations which organize matches in leagues and tournaments.

International bodies

The administrative and controlling body for international Handball is the International Handball Federation
International Handball Federation
The International Handball Federation, often referred to by the acronym IHF, is the administrative and controlling body for International team handball.- Championships :*World Men's Handball Championship*World Women's Handball Championship...

(IHF). The federation organizes world championship
World championship
A world championship is the top achievement for any sport or contest. The title is usually awarded by contests, ranking systems, stature, ability, etc. This determines the best nation, team, individual in the world in a particular field. Certain sports do not have a world championship, instead...

s, separate for men
World Men's Handball Championship
The World Championship in team handball for men has been organized by the International Handball Federation since 1938.- History :In 1938, the first indoor handball world championship was played in the Deutschlandhalle in Berlin, Germany on 5 February and 6 February...

 and women
World Women's Handball Championship
The World Championship in team handball for women has been organized by the International Handball Federation since 1957.- Championships :- Overall medal count :- Participation history :-Largest winning margin:Source: - External links :*...

, held in uneven years. The final round is hosted in one of its member states. Current title holders are France
France national handball team
France national handball team is the handball team, supervised by the French Handball Federation, that represents France in the international matches....

 (men) and Russia
Russia women's national handball team
The Russia women's national handball team is the national team of Russia. It is governed by the Handball Union of Russia and takes part in international team handball competitions...

 (women).

The IHF is composed of five continental federations which organize continental championships held every other second year. In addition to these competitions between national teams, the federations arrange international tournaments between club teams. The federations and their corresponding tournaments and members are summarized in the following table:
International Handball Federation
International Handball Federation
The International Handball Federation, often referred to by the acronym IHF, is the administrative and controlling body for International team handball.- Championships :*World Men's Handball Championship*World Women's Handball Championship...

 (IHF)
Championship World Men's Handball Championship
World Men's Handball Championship
The World Championship in team handball for men has been organized by the International Handball Federation since 1938.- History :In 1938, the first indoor handball world championship was played in the Deutschlandhalle in Berlin, Germany on 5 February and 6 February...

 – World Women's Handball Championship
World Women's Handball Championship
The World Championship in team handball for women has been organized by the International Handball Federation since 1957.- Championships :- Overall medal count :- Participation history :-Largest winning margin:Source: - External links :*...

Club Super Globe
Super Globe
The Super Globe is a handball competition contested between the champion clubs from continental confederations.-Summary :- By Club :- By Country :Notes-External links:*...

Members
Asia – Asian Handball Federation (AHF)
Championship Asian Women's Handball Championship
Asian Women's Handball Championship
The Asian Handball Nations Championship is the official competition for senior national handball teams of Asia, and takes place every two years. In addition to crowning the Asian champions, the tournament also serves as a qualifying tournament for the World Championship.-Summary :-Medal...

 – Asian Men's Handball Championship
Asian Men's Handball Championship
The Asian Handball Nations Championship is the official competition for senior national handball teams of Asia, and takes place every two years. In addition to crowning the Asian champions, the tournament also serves as a qualifying tournament for the World Championship.-Summary :-Medal...

Club Asian Club League Handball Championship
Members Afghanistan
Afghanistan national handball team
Afghanistan national handball team is the is the national handball team of Afghanistan. National team is governed by Afghanistan handball federation. Afghanistan handball team affiliated to Asian Handball federation on 2004.- References :****...

BahrainBangladeshChinaChinese TaipeiHong KongIndiaIran
Islamic Republic of Iran Handball Federation
The Islamic Republic of Iran Handball Federation ' is the governing body for Handball in Iran. It was founded in 1975, and has been a member of IHF since 1978. It is also a member of the Asian Handball Federation...

IraqJapanJordanKazakhstanKuwaitKyrgyzstanLebanonMacauMalaysiaMongoliaNepalNorth KoreaOmanPakistanPalestinian AuthorityPhilippinesQatarSaudi ArabiaSouth KoreaSyriaTajikistanThailandTurkmenistanUnited Arab EmiratesUzbekistanVietnamYemen
Africa – Confédération Africaine de Handball
Confederation Africaine de Handball
The Confederation Africaine de Handball, often referred to by the acronym CAHB, is the administrative and controlling body for African team handball. Founded in 1973 after the 2nd African Games in Lagos, Nigeria, it represents the national handball associations of Africa.The CAHB headquarter is...

 (CAHB)
Championship African Handball Nations Championship
African Handball Nations Championship
The African Handball Nations Championship is the official competition for senior national handball teams of Africa, and takes place every two years...

Club Champions League
African Handball Champions League
The African Handball Champions League is an annual international club handball competition run by the Confédération Africaine de Handball. The top club sides from Africa's handball leagues are invited to participate in this competition, the tournament serves as a qualifying tournament for the Super...

 – Cup Winners' Cup
African Handball Cup Winners' Cup
The African Handball Cup Winner's Cup is an annual international club handball competition run by the Confédération Africaine de Handball. The cup winners from Africa's national handball leagues are invited to participate in this competition.-Summary :...

Members AlgeriaAngolaBurundiBeninCameroonRepublic of Cape VerdeCentral African RepublicChadComorosCongoDemocratic Republic of the CongoDjiboutiEgyptEthiopiaGabonGambiaGhanaGuineaGuinea-BissauIvory CoastKenyaLesothoLiberiaLibyaMadagascarMaliMauritaniaMauritiusMoroccoMozambiqueNamibiaNigeriaNigerRwandaSenegalSeychellesSierra LeoneSomaliaSouth AfricaSudanTanzaniaTogoTunisiaUgandaZambiaZimbabwe
Pan-America – Pan-American Team Handball Federation
Pan-American Team Handball Federation
The Pan-American Team Handball Federation, often referred to by the acronym PATHF, is the administrative and controlling body the national handball associations of North, Central and South America and Caribbean.-Members:North America...

 (PATHF)
Championship American Handball Championship
American Handball Championship
The American Handball Championship, also called PanAmericano, is the official competition for senior national handball teams of North, Center, Caribbean and South America, and takes place every two years...

Members ArgentinaBarbadosBrazilCanadaChileColombiaCosta RicaCubaDominican RepublicEcuadorEl SalvadorGreenlandGuatemalaHaitiHondurasMexicoNicaraguaPanamaParaguayPuerto RicoTrinidad and TobagoUnited StatesUruguayVenezuela
Oceania – Oceania Handball Federation
Oceania Handball Federation
The Oceania Continent Handball Federation, often referred to by the initialism OCHF, is the administrative and controlling body for Oceanian team handball...

 (OHF)
Championship Oceania Handball Nations Cup
Oceania Handball Nations Cup
The Oceania Handball Nations Championship, also called Pacific Cup, is the official competition for senior national handball teams of Oceania, and takes place every two years. In addition to crowning the Oceania champions, the tournament also serves as a qualifying tournament for the World Handball...

Club Oceania Champions Cup
Members AustraliaCook IslandsNew ZealandSamoaVanuatuFrench PolynesiaNew CaledoniaWallis and Futuna
Europe – European Handball Federation
European Handball Federation
The European Handball Federation is the umbrella organisation for European handball. Founded in November 1991, it is made of 50 member federations and one associated member , and is headquartered in Vienna, Austria...

 (EHF)
Championship European Women's Handball Championship
European Women's Handball Championship
The European Women's Handball Championship is the official competition for senior women's national handball teams of Europe, and takes place every two years. In addition to crowning the European champions, the tournament also serves as a qualifying tournament for the World Championship...

 – European Men's Handball Championship
European Men's Handball Championship
The European men's handball championship is the official competition for senior men's national handball teams of Europe, and takes place every two years. In addition to crowning the European champions, the tournament also serves as a qualifying tournament for the World Championship...

Club Women Champions LeagueCup Winners' CupEHF Cup
Women's EHF Cup
The Women's EHF Cup is an official competition for women's handball clubs of Europe. It takes place every year, from September to May. It was first organized by the European Handball Federation in 1993...

Challenge Cup
Women's EHF Challenge Cup
The Women's EHF Challenge Cup is an annual team handball competition for women's clubs of Europe. It was known as the EHF City Cup until the 1999-2000 season.- Summary :- External links :*...

Champions Trophy
Men Champions League
EHF Champions League
The EHF Champions League is the most important professional club handball competition in Europe . The competition was started in the 1956–57 season, and is administered by the European Handball Federation.The most successful teams are from Germany and Spain...

Cup Winners' CupEHF Cup
EHF Cup
The EHF Cup is an official competition for men's handball clubs of Europe and takes place every year. From 2012/13 it will be merged with EHF Cup Winners' Cup to EHF European Cup....

Challenge Cup
EHF Challenge Cup
The EHF Challenge Cup is an official European Handball Federation competition for men's clubs of Europe and takes place every year. Before 1999/2000, it was called EHF City Cup....

Champions Trophy
Members AlbaniaArmeniaAustriaAzerbaijanBelarusBelgiumBosnia and Herzegovina
Handball Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Handball Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the highest Handball governing body in the country. It organizes the Premier league of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Cup of Bosnia-Herzegovina...

BulgariaCroatia
Croatian Handball Federation
The Croatian Handball Federation is the governing body of team handball in Croatia. It is based in Zagreb.It organizes the handball leagues:* Croatian First League of Handball* Croatian Second League of Handball...

CyprusCzech RepublicDenmark
Danish Handball Federation
The Danish Handball Federation is the national governing body for handball in Denmark. It is based in Brøndby.- History :The DHF was founded on 2 June 1935. It is a member of the European Handball Federation and the International Handball Federation....

England
England Handball Association
The England Handball Association is a governing body of Team Handball in England. It is a member of the European Handball Federation .-English National League 1:...

EstoniaFaroe IslandsFinlandFrance
French Handball Federation
The French Handball Federation is the national handball association in France. FFHB organizes team handball within France and represents French handball internationally. It sorts under the French Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports. The federation is a member of the European Handball Federation ...

GeorgiaGermanyGreeceHungaryIceland
Icelandic Handball Association
The Icelandic Handball Association is the national governing body for handball in Iceland. It is based in Reykjavík....

IrelandIsraelItalyLatviaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacedonia
Macedonian Handball Federation
The Macedonian Handball Federation commonly known by its acronym, RFM, is the national governing body of handball in Macedonia. Its headquarters are in Skopje, Macedonia...

Malta
Malta Handball Association
The Malta Handball Association is the governing body of handball in Malta. Founded in 1995, it is affiliated to the European Handball Federation and is represented in European international games by the Malta National Handball Team....

MoldovaMonacoMontenegro
Handball Federation of Montenegro
The Handball Federation of Montenegro is the governing body of team handball in Montenegro...

NetherlandsNorway
Norwegian Handball Federation
The Norwegian Handball Federation is the national handball association in Norway.The Norwegian Handball Federation was founded in 1937, and is a member of the Norwegian Confederation of Sports , the European Handball Federation and the International Handball Federation. Its headquarters are in Oslo...

Poland
Poland Handball Federation
The Polish Handball Federation is the national handball association in Poland.The Poland Handball Federation is a member of the European Handball Federation and the International Handball Federation ....

PortugalRomania
Romanian Handball Federation
The Romanian Handball Federation is the governing body of handball in Romania. It is based in Bucharest. FRH is led by 6 departments.-History:...

Russia
Handball Union of Russia
The Handball Union of Russia commonly known by its acronym, HUR, is the national governing body of handball in Russia. Its headquarters are in Moscow, Russia, and its current president is Vladimir Maksimov...

Scotland
Scottish Handball Association
The Scottish Handball Association is the governing body for non-International Handball Federation related matters of team handball in Scotland while the British Handball Association has governance over matters relating to the International Handball Federation...

SerbiaSlovakiaSloveniaSpain
Royal Spanish Handball Federation
The Royal Spanish Handball Federation is the national handball association in Spain.The Royal Spanish Handball Federation is a member of the European Handball Federation and the International Handball Federation ....

SwedenSwitzerlandTurkeyUkraineGreat Britain
British Handball Association
The British Handball Association is the governing body of Team Handball in Britain. It is a member of the International Handball Federation since 1970 and of the European Handball Federation for IHF matters. Other representation at European level is under different national associations: the...

Kosovo
Handball Federation of Kosovo
The Kosovo Handball Federation is the governing body of team handball in Kosovo, based in Pristina. It is a member of the European Handball Federation and International Handball Federation. However, the Federation's club competitions are only recognized, but not a national team. The current...



Handball is an olympic
Summer Olympic Games
The Summer Olympic Games or the Games of the Olympiad are an international multi-sport event, occurring every four years, organized by the International Olympic Committee. Medals are awarded in each event, with gold medals for first place, silver for second and bronze for third, a tradition that...

 sport played during the Summer Olympics
Handball at the Summer Olympics
Team handball was introduced as an Olympic sport for men at the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, but dropped after that, only to be resumed at the 1972 Summer Olympics, again on German territory...

. It is also played during the Pan American Games
Handball at the Pan American Games
Handball was inducted at the Pan American Games at the 1987 edition in Indianapolis, United States for both men and women. Four years later in Havana there was only a men's competition.-Men's competition:-Medal table:-Women's competition:...

, All-Africa Games
All-Africa Games
The All-Africa Games, sometimes called the African Games or the Pan African Games, are a regional multi-sport event held every four years, organized by the Supreme Council for Sport in Africa...

, and Asian Games
Handball at the Asian Games
Handball has been an Asian Games event since 1982 in New Delhi, India.-Men:-Women:-Medal table:-Men:-Women:-External links:*...

.

National competitions

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina: Handball Championship of Bosnia and Herzegovina
    Handball Championship of Bosnia and Herzegovina
    The Handball Championship of Bosnia and Herzegovina is the top handball league in Bosnia and Herzegovina.The league is composed of 12 teams. The champion is seeded into the Champions League. Second team is seeded into EHF Cup, while third and fourth teams go to Challenge Cup...

  • Croatia: Croatian First League of Handball
  • Czech : Zubr extraliga
  • Denmark: GuldBageren Ligaen
    Danish Women's Handball League
    The Danish Women's Handball League is the top professional league for Danish women's handball clubs. It is administered by the Danish Handball Federation, and the winners are recognized as Danish champions. Since January 2009, the league is officially called GuldBageren Ligaen for sponsorship...

    , Jack & Jones Ligaen
    Danish Handball League
    The Danish Handball League, officially known as Jack & Jones Ligaen due to sponsorship reasons, is the men's top Danish professional handball league. The winners of the Danish Handball League are recognised as the Danish handball champions...

  • France: Ligue Nationale de Handball
    Ligue Nationale de Handball
    The French National Handball League is the name of the national professional handball league system of France. It is divided into two divisions:-Men's:*LNH Division 1*LNH Division 2-Women's:*LNH Division 1*LNH Division 2-President:...

  • Germany: Handball-Bundesliga
    Bundesliga (handball)
    The Handball-Bundesliga is the top German professional handball league. The league has been sponsored by Toyota since 2007 and therefore the league is called the Toyota Handball-Bundesliga...

  • Greece: Greek Men's handball championship
    Greek Men's handball championship
    -endorsed by Hellenic Handball Federation:*1980 Ionikos Nea Filadelphia*1981 Ionikos Nea FiladelphiaA Ethniki*1982 Ionikos Nea Filadelphia*1983 Ionikos Nea Filadelphia*1984 Ionikos Nea Filadelphia*1985 Ionikos Nea Filadelphia*1986 Filippos Veria...

  • Hungary: Nemzeti Bajnokság I (men), Nemzeti Bajnokság I
    Nemzeti Bajnokság I (Women's handball)
    The Nemzeti Bajnokság I is the top professional league for Hungarian women's team handball clubs. It is administered by the Hungarian Handball Federation.- History :...

     (women)
  • Iceland: N1 deildin
    N1 deildin
    N1 deildin is the top Icelandic handball league. It has a men's division and a women's division. Started in 1939, N1 deildin is the third-oldest national indoor handball championship in the world, after the Danish and Swedish championships which were started in 1935 and 1931...

  • Montenegro: First League (men)
    Montenegrin First League of Men's Handball
    The Montenegrin First League of Men's Handball is the top men's team handball league in Montenegro. It is organized by the Handball Federation of Montenegro...

    , First League (women)
    Montenegrin First League of Women's Handball
    The Montenegrin First League of Women's Handball is the top women's team handball league in Montenegro. It is organised by the Handball Federation of Montenegro. The league comprises four teams.- Clubs for the 2007/2008 season :*WHC Petrol Bonus - Podgorica...

    , Second League (women)
    Montenegrin Second League of Women's Handball
    The Montenegrin Second League of Women's Handball is the lower Women's team handball league in Montenegro. It is organized by the Handball Federation of Montenegro. The league comprises five teams.- Clubs for the 2007/2008 season :*ŽRK 067 - Podgorica...

  • Poland: Polish Ekstraklasa Men's Handball League
    Polish Ekstraklasa Men's Handball League
    -Champions of Poland:-See also:* Handball in Poland* Polish Ekstraklasa Women's Handball League* Sports in Poland...

    , Polish Ekstraklasa Women's Handball League
    Polish Ekstraklasa Women's Handball League
    -History:* 1939 - Znicz Łódź* 1946 - Zryw Łódź* 1947 - Zryw Łódź* 1948 - SKS Warszawa* 1949 - Unia Łódź* 1950 - Spójnia Warszawa* 1951 - Unia Łódź* 1952 - Unia Łódź* 1953 - not held* 1954 - not held* 1955 - Stal Chorzów* 1956 - Stal Chorzów...

  • Portugal: Liga Portuguesa de Andebol
    Liga Portuguesa de Andebol
    Liga Portuguesa de Andebol, also known as the Liga Halcon due to sponsorship, is the premier professional handball league in Portugal, consisting of 12 teams...

    , Divisão de Elite
    Divisão de Elite
    Divisão de Elite is the second handball league in Portugal. The worsts are relegated to Portuguese Handball First Division. Teams can only get to Liga Portuguesa de Andebol by candidature, because LPA is a closed league.This is the Federation premier division!...

  • Romania: Liga Naţională
    Liga Naţională
    The Romanian Handball League is the men's top Romanian professional handball league. The league comprises fourteen teams.-History:This sport was first played in Romania in 1920. After a visit in Germany, a few physical education teachers introduced this sport in their classes.The Liga Naţională was...

     (men), Liga Naţională (women)
  • Scotland: Scottish Handball League
    Scottish Handball League
    The Scottish Handball League is the premier handball competition for teams in Scotland. The league is regulated by the Scottish Handball Association and is based on a standard round robin format with each team playing one another twice with 2 points awarded for a win and 1 point for a...

  • Serbia: Serbian First League of Handball
    Serbian First League of Handball
    The Serbian Super League of Handball is the top handball league in Serbia. The league is composed of 16 teams. The league is operated by the Handball Federation of Serbia...

  • Slovakia: Slovenská hadzanárska extraliga
    Slovenská hadzanárska extraliga
    Extraliga is the highest league in the league system of Slovak Handball and comprises the top 8 Slovak handball teams. The first season began in 1993-94.-Structure:...

  • Slovenia: Slovenian First League of Handball
    Slovenian First League of Handball
    The Slovenian First League of Men's Handball is the top men's team handball league in Slovenia. It is organized by the Handball Federation of Slovenia. The league comprises twelve teams.-History:...

    , Handball Cup of Slovenia
    Handball Cup of Slovenia
    Handball Cup of Slovenia was first played after Slovenian independece in 1991. Most successful clubs are Celje Pivovarna Laško and Krim Ljubljana .-History:...

  • Spain: Liga ASOBAL, División de Plata de Balonmano
  • Sweden: Elitserien
    Elitserien (handball)
    Elitserien is the highest league in the league system of Swedish handball and comprises the top 14 Swedish handball teams. The first season began in 1931-32. The season ends with a play-off and a final like Super Bowl....

  • Turkey: Turkish Handball Super League
    Turkish Handball Super League
    Turkish Handball Super League is the highest league in the Turkish handball and comprises the top 12 elite men teams. The league began in 1982-83.-Structure:...

  • United States: U.S. intercollegiate handball championships

Commemorative coins

Handball events have been selected as a main motif in numerous collectors' coins. One of the recent samples is the €10 Greek Handball commemorative coin, minted in 2003 to commemorate the 2004 Summer Olympics
2004 Summer Olympics
The 2004 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVIII Olympiad, was a premier international multi-sport event held in Athens, Greece from August 13 to August 29, 2004 with the motto Welcome Home. 10,625 athletes competed, some 600 more than expected, accompanied by 5,501 team...

. On the coin, the modern athlete directs the ball in his hands towards his target, while in the background the ancient athlete is just about to throw a ball, in a game known as cheirosphaira, in a representation taken from a black-figure pottery
Black-figure pottery
Black-figure pottery painting, also known as the black-figure style or black-figure ceramic is one of the most modern styles for adorning antique Greek vases. It was especially common between the 7th and 5th centuries BC, although there are specimens dating as late as the 2nd century BC...

vase of the Archaic period.

External links

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