Lahti is a city and municipality in Finland
Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...


Lahti is the capital of the Päijänne Tavastia region
Päijänne Tavastia
Päijänne Tavastia is a region in Southern Finland south of the lake Päijänne. It borders the regions Uusimaa, Tavastia Proper, Pirkanmaa, Central Finland, Southern Savonia and Kymenlaakso.- Historical provinces :...

. It is situated on a bay at the southern end of lake Vesijärvi about 100 kilometre north-east of the capital Helsinki
Helsinki is the capital and largest city in Finland. It is in the region of Uusimaa, located in southern Finland, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, an arm of the Baltic Sea. The population of the city of Helsinki is , making it by far the most populous municipality in Finland. Helsinki is...

. In English, the Finnish word Lahti literally means bay and Vesijärvi means water lake.

The symbol of the city depicts a train wheel surrounded by sparkling flames.


Lahti was first mentioned in documents in 1445. The village belonged to the parish
A parish is a territorial unit historically under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of one parish priest, who might be assisted in his pastoral duties by a curate or curates - also priests but not the parish priest - from a more or less central parish church with its associated organization...

 of Hollola
Hollola is a municipality of Finland.It is located in the province of Southern Finland and is part of the Päijänne Tavastia region. The municipality has a population of and covers an area of ofwhich is water...

 and was located at the medieval trade route of Ylinen Viipurintie, which linked the towns of Hämeenlinna
Hämeenlinna is a city and municipality of about inhabitants in the heart of the historical province of Häme in the south of Finland and is the birthplace of composer Jean Sibelius. Today, it belongs to the region of Tavastia Proper, and until 2010 it was the residence city for the Governor of the...

 and Vyborg
Vyborg is a town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, situated on the Karelian Isthmus near the head of the Bay of Vyborg, to the northwest of St. Petersburg and south from Russia's border with Finland, where the Saimaa Canal enters the Gulf of Finland...


The completion of the Riihimäki – St. Petersburg railway line
Riihimäki-Saint Petersburg railroad
The Riihimäki–Saint Petersburg Railway is a long segment of the Helsinki–Saint Petersburg connection, which is divided between Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast in Russia and the province of Southern Finland in Finland.-History:...

 in 1870 and the Vesijärvi canal in 1871 turned Lahti into a lively station, and industrial installations began to spring up around it. For a long time, the railway station at Vesijärvi Harbour was the second busiest station in Finland. Craftsmen, merchants, a few civil servants and a lot of industrial workers soon mixed in with the existing agricultural peasantry.

On 19 June 1877, almost the entire village was burned to the ground. However, the accident proved to be a stroke of luck for the development of the place, as it led to the authorities resuming their deliberations about establishing a town in Lahti. The village was granted market town
Market town
Market town or market right is a legal term, originating in the medieval period, for a European settlement that has the right to host markets, distinguishing it from a village and city...

 rights in 1878 and an empire-style, grid town plan was approved, which included a large market square and wide boulevard
A Boulevard is type of road, usually a wide, multi-lane arterial thoroughfare, divided with a median down the centre, and roadways along each side designed as slow travel and parking lanes and for bicycle and pedestrian usage, often with an above-average quality of landscaping and scenery...

s. This grid plan still forms the basis of the city center. Most of the buildings were low wooden houses bordering the streets.

Lahti was founded during a period of severe economic recession. The Russian Empire
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

 was encumbered by the war against Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

. The recession also slowed down the building of the township: land would not sell and often plots were not built on for some time. In its early years, the town with its meagre 200 inhabitants was too small to provide any kind of foundation for trade. At the end of the 1890s, Lahti’s Township Board increased its efforts to enable Lahti to be turned into a city. In spring 1904, the efforts finally bore fruit as the Senate
Governing Senate
The Governing Senate was a legislative, judicial, and executive body of Russian Monarchs, instituted by Peter the Great to replace the Boyar Duma and lasted until the very end of the Russian Empire. It was chaired by the Ober-Procurator...

 approved of the application, although it was another eighteen months before Tsar Nicholas II finally gave his blessing and issued an ordinance for establishing the city of Lahti.

At the end of 1905, the area that now comprises Lahti accommodated around 8,200 people of whom just under 3,000 lived in the city itself. All essential municipal institutions were built in just ten years, including a hospital
and a city hall. At the same time, a rapid increase in brick houses was taking place in the centre of the city.

In the early 1920s the city gained possession of the grounds of the Lahti Manor, an important piece of land previously blocking the city from the lake. Large-scale industrial operations grew rapidly in the 1930s as did the population; Lahti, at the time, was one of Finland’s fastest-growing cities, and before the start of the Winter War
Winter War
The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union and Finland. It began with a Soviet offensive on 30 November 1939 – three months after the start of World War II and the Soviet invasion of Poland – and ended on 13 March 1940 with the Moscow Peace Treaty...

 its population was approaching 30,000.

Through the addition of new areas in 1924, 1933 and 1956, Lahti grew, both in terms of population and surface area. Especially strong was the growth after the wars, when Lahti accepted about 10,000 immigrants from Karelia
Karelia , the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden...

, after the region was surrendered to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

, and then later in the 1960 and 70's as a result of mass urbanization. The population growth came to a sharp end in 1975 and the city has since grown very little.


Lahti harbors cultural ambitions, and recent years saw the building of a large congress and concert center, the Sibelius Hall
Sibelius Hall
The Sibelius Hall is a concert hall in Lahti, Finland, named after the composer Jean Sibelius. The concert hall was completed in 2000. Architects Kimmo Lintula and Hannu Tikka designed the hall, which is made of wood. The acoustics were engineered by Artec Consultants, New York...

. This has sparked much controversy amongst the population, many of whom feel that the money used for these purposes
would be better spent on health care
Health care
Health care is the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans. Health care is delivered by practitioners in medicine, chiropractic, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, allied health, and other care providers...

 and education
Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts...

. Lahti has one of Finland's most widely known symphony orchestras, the Lahti Symphony Orchestra
Lahti Symphony Orchestra
The Lahti Symphony Orchestra is a Finnish orchestra, based in the city of Lahti. It was founded in 1910 and placed under the control of the Lahti municipality in 1949. In Finland the orchestra performs in the Sibelius Hall, while it also performs abroad in concert halls and festivals...

 (Sinfonia Lahti), which performs both classical and popular music, notably concentrating on music by Jean Sibelius
Jean Sibelius
Jean Sibelius was a Finnish composer of the later Romantic period whose music played an important role in the formation of the Finnish national identity. His mastery of the orchestra has been described as "prodigious."...


Lahti’s annual music festival programme includes such events as Lahti Organ Festival, Jazz at the market place and Sibelius Festival.


Lahti is best known for its annually held World Cup winter games, the Lahti Ski Games
Lahti Ski Games
Lahti Ski Games is a yearly international winter sport event. The games last for three days, during which participants compete in cross-country skiing, ski jumping and Nordic combined. In the nearly 90-year history of the Lahti Ski Games the fireworks seen on Saturday night have become one of the...

 (Salpausselän kisat). Ski jumping events of Lahti Ski Games are part of the Nordic Tournament
Nordic Tournament
The Nordic Tournament is an annual ski jumping tournament that is a part of the FIS Ski Jumping World Cup. The tournament started in 1997 as a counterpart to the widely successful Four Hills Tournament in Germany and Austria...


For the 1952 Summer Olympics
1952 Summer Olympics
The 1952 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event held in Helsinki, Finland in 1952. Helsinki had been earlier given the 1940 Summer Olympics, which were cancelled due to World War II...

, it hosted some of the football
Football at the 1952 Summer Olympics
The 1952 Olympic football tournament signalled the arrival of the 'Golden Team'; the 'Magical Magyars': Hungary. Ferenc Puskás, the great Hungarian known as the 'Galloping Major' for his military title, said of the 1952 competition: "It was during the Olympics that our football first started to...


The city endeavors for achievements in sport
A Sport is all forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical fitness and provide entertainment to participants. Sport may be competitive, where a winner or winners can be identified by objective means, and may require a degree...

, which has led to such things as the hosting of a World Games
World Games
The World Games, first held in 1981, are an international multi-sport event, meant for sports, or disciplines or events within a sport, that are not contested in the Olympic Games...

 event. As of 2010, it is the only city to host the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships
FIS Nordic World Ski Championships
The FIS Nordic World Ski Championships have been held in various numbers and types of events since 1925 for men and since 1954 for women. Championship events include nordic skiing's three disciplines: cross-country skiing, ski jumping, and nordic combined...

 six times, doing so in 1926, 1938, 1958, 1978, 1989, and 2001.

The city also has an ice hockey
Ice hockey
Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

 team, the Lahden Pelicans
Pelicans (ice hockey)
Pelicans is an ice hockey team playing in the SM-liiga, and formed in 1996. They play in the city of Lahti, Finland at Isku Arena. The team is partially owned by retired NHL goaltender Pasi Nurminen.-Notable players:* Sean Avery* Jason Bonsignore...

, an Association Football (soccer) club, FC Lahti
FC Lahti
FC Lahti is a Finnish football club, based in the town of Lahti. It currently plays in the Finnish First Division after placing last in Finnish Premier League during season 2010...

, and a basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...

 team Namika Lahti. In July-August 2009, Lahti hosted the 18th World Masters Athletics Championships
World Masters Athletics Championships
The World Masters Athletics Championships are the biannual championships for athletics events held under the auspices of World Masters Athletics, formerly called the World Association of Veteran Athletes, for athletes over the age of 35 years old....

, an outdoor age-group track meet for men and women 35 and over.


In the educational sector, Lahti is modest.

Its greatest asset is the highly valued Institute of Design
Lahti Institute of Design
Institute of Design is a part of Lahti University of Applied Sciences, which is a large, multidisciplinary institution of higher education, located some 100 km north of the Finnish capital, Helsinki...

, which is a part of Lahti University of Applied Sciences
Lahti University of Applied Sciences
Lahti University of Applied Sciences is an institution of higher professional education, formerly known as Lahti Polytechnic in Lahti, Finland. Lahti University of Applied Sciences is a large, multidisciplinary higher education institution...

. The institute has gained international recognition in particular for jewellery and industrial design. Other areas of expertise include metal, woodworking and furniture.

The Faculty of Physical Activity at Lahti University of Applied Sciences offers a bachelor's degree programme in Sports Studies. The Sports Institute of Finland, which is based in Vierumäki near Lahti, is the most versatile centre of sports education in the country. In addition, Pajulahti Training Center, located in the neighboring town of Nastola, is one the leading sports and training centres in Finland.

Lahti is also the home of Helsinki University's department of Environmental and Ecological Sciences (Faculty of Biosciences). It's the only science department of the University of Helsinki located outside the greater Helsinki area.


The economic region of Lahti, which includes the surrounding municipalities, was strongly affected by the collapse of Finnish-Soviet trade and by the recession in the early 1990s.

The value of production slumped, especially in the mechanical engineering industry and other manufacturing industries (e.g. the furniture industry). Production also decreased in the textile and clothing industry.
In 1990, there were 90,370 jobs in the Lahti Region. The number of jobs diminished over the next couple of years, so that in 1993 there were fewer than 70,000 jobs in the Lahti Region. The number of jobs had slowly increased to 79,138 in 1999.

Employment by sector (City of Lahti) 1980 1990 2000 2007
Services 52.0% 59.3% 63.5% 72.4%
Industry 47.1% 40.1% 36.4% 27.4%
Agriculture & Forestry 0.9% 0.6% 0.1% 0.2%

In 1995, R&D expenditure was FIM 715 per person, while Finland's average was about FIM 2050. The amount of Tekes (the National Technology Agency) funding in the Lahti Region grew 40% during 2004-2007 while the average growth in Finland was 60%.

Gross domestic product (Lahti Region) 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
GDP at current prices; million € 3,449.3 3,709.7 3,697.5 3,982.3 4,136.8 4,242.4 4,381.9
Changes of GDP; year 2000 = 100% 100.0% 107.5% 107.2% 115.5% 119.9% 123.0% 127.7%
GDP per capita; whole country =100% 80.7% 82.0% 79.4% 84.3% 83.9% 83.4% 81.2%
GDP per employed; whole country =100% 86.6% 87.3% 83.6% 88.9% 88.7% 88.6% 87.1%


As of 31 August 2008 Lahti’s population was 99 816, making it the seventh largest city in Finland by population.
Population by district 1964 1970 1980 1990 2000 2007
Center (Keskusta) 27,400 21,800 15,600 13,700 17,280 19,778
Laune 13,200 17,100 23,300 22,600 23,670 24,568
Kivimaa–Kiveriö–Joutjärvi 17,100 23,500 20,700 18,300 17,790 16,974
Kärpänen 9,400 7,600 12,800 12,700 11,940 11,612
Ahtiala 4,600 5,100 5,100 9,100 10,500 10,897
Mukkula 1,300 9,100 9,500 8,500 8,120 7,877
Jalkaranta 2,500 1,950 5,600 6,200 6,020 5,852
Kolava–Kujala 900 550 400 300 310 710


Lahti has a railway station
Lahti railway station
The Lahti railway station is located in the city of Lahti in Finland.The station was designed by architect Thure Hellström from the VR Group and built in 1935. Because of the depression in the 1930s, the station did not get a third floor, neither did it get a tower, as the Tampere railway station...

 on the Helsinki–Kontiomäki line, between Mäntsälä
Mäntsälä is a municipality in the province of Southern Finland, and is part of the Uusimaa region. It has a population of and covers an area of ofwhich is water. The population density is....

 and Kouvola
Kouvola is a town and municipality in southeastern Finland. It is located northeast of the capital, Helsinki.The city has a population of and covers an area of of which is water. The population density is ....

; before 2006, connections to Helsinki went via Riihimäki. The shortened railway connection is expected to boost the growth of Lahti.
Single ticket Adults Travel time
Helsinki Central Station
13.20 € – 24.10 €
0:50–1:35 h
19.30 € – 25.20 €
1:41–1:54 h
35.00 € – 40.10 €
2:39–3:50 h
63.50 € – 72.00 €
6:37–10:02 h
40.30 € – 48.80 €
3:07–5:19 h
38.70 € – 46.10 €
3:21–4:31 h

Express Bus
Single ticket / Return Adults Travel time
Helsinki Kamppi
20.90 € / 37.70 €
1:30–1:45 h
22.40 € / 40.40 €
1:55–2:05 h
35.70 € / 64.30 €
3:10–3:50 h
74.80 € / 134.70 €
6:50–11:10 h
46.70 € / 84.10 €
4:45–6:05 h
38.70 € / 46.10 €
2:25–3:10 h
Local Buses
Single ticket Adults Children(7-11)
0–6 km
3.10 €
1.60 €
6–12 km
3.70 €
1.90 €

Local buses leave from the market square. Bus stops are on both the Aleksanterinkatu side and the Vapaudenkatu side of the square. See also the Local traffic Trip Planner for Lahti.


Distance by road (km)
  • Helsinki
    Helsinki is the capital and largest city in Finland. It is in the region of Uusimaa, located in southern Finland, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, an arm of the Baltic Sea. The population of the city of Helsinki is , making it by far the most populous municipality in Finland. Helsinki is...

  • Helsinki-Vantaa Airport
    Helsinki-Vantaa Airport
    Helsinki Airport or Helsinki-Vantaa Airport is the main international airport of the Helsinki metropolitan region and the whole of Finland. It is located in Vantaa, Finland, about west of Tikkurila, the centre of Vantaa, and north of Helsinki city centre...

  • Tampere
    Tampere is a city in southern Finland. It is the most populous inland city in any of the Nordic countries. The city has a population of , growing to approximately 300,000 people in the conurbation and over 340,000 in the metropolitan area. Tampere is the third most-populous municipality in...

  • Turku
    Turku is a city situated on the southwest coast of Finland at the mouth of the Aura River. It is located in the region of Finland Proper. It is believed that Turku came into existence during the end of the 13th century which makes it the oldest city in Finland...

  • Jyväskylä
    Jyväskylä is the capital of Central Finland and the largest city on the Finnish Lakeland, north-east of Tampere and north of Helsinki, on northern coast of lake Päijänne. The city has been continuously one of the most rapidly growing cities in Finland since World War II. The city is surrounded...

  • Lappeenranta
    Lappeenranta is a city and municipality that resides on the shore of the lake Saimaa in South-Eastern Finland, about from the Russian border. It belongs to the region of South Karelia. With approximately inhabitants Lappeenranta is the largest city in Finland...

  • Kouvola
    Kouvola is a town and municipality in southeastern Finland. It is located northeast of the capital, Helsinki.The city has a population of and covers an area of of which is water. The population density is ....

  • Hämeenlinna
    Hämeenlinna is a city and municipality of about inhabitants in the heart of the historical province of Häme in the south of Finland and is the birthplace of composer Jean Sibelius. Today, it belongs to the region of Tavastia Proper, and until 2010 it was the residence city for the Governor of the...

  • Oulu
    Oulu is a city and municipality of inhabitants in the region of Northern Ostrobothnia, in Finland. It is the most populous city in Northern Finland and the sixth most populous city in the country. It is one of the northernmost larger cities in the world....

  • Saint Petersburg
    Saint Petersburg
    Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...



The asteroid
Asteroids are a class of small Solar System bodies in orbit around the Sun. They have also been called planetoids, especially the larger ones...

 1498 Lahti
1498 Lahti
1498 Lahti is a main-belt asteroid discovered on September 16, 1938 by Y. Vaisala at Turku.- External links :...

 was named after the city by its discoverer, the Finnish astronomer
An astronomer is a scientist who studies celestial bodies such as planets, stars and galaxies.Historically, astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky, while astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena and the differences between them using...

 Yrjö Väisälä
Yrjö Väisälä
Yrjö Väisälä was a Finnish astronomer and physicist.His main contributions were in the field of optics, but he was also very active in geodetics, astronomy and optical metrology...


Born in Lahti

  • Göran Enckelman
    Göran Enckelman
    Göran Enckelman is a retired Finnish football player. He played in both Finland and Sweden, and for the Finnish national side. He is the father of fellow goalkeeper Peter Enckelman. He won Finnish Footballer of the Year in 1975....

    , football player
  • Pasi Nurminen
    Pasi Nurminen
    Pasi Nurminen is a Finnish retired ice hockey goaltender. He was drafted by the Atlanta Thrashers as their sixth-round pick, #189 overall, in the 2001 NHL Entry Draft....

    , former NHL goaltender
  • Toni Lydman
    Toni Lydman
    Toni Lydman is a Finnish professional ice hockey defenceman with the Anaheim Ducks of the National Hockey League. He has previously played for the Buffalo Sabres, Calgary Flames, Tappara , and HIFK . He lives with his wife Heta and his two daughters, Amanda and Ellen...

    , Ice hockey Player
  • Toni Nieminen
    Toni Nieminen
    Toni Nieminen is a Finnish ski-jumper who competed from 1991 to 2004.His biggest success came very early in his career at the age of 16, where he won three medals at the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville, earning two gold medals in the individual and team large hill events; and a bronze medal in...

    , ski jumper
  • Janne Ahonen
    Janne Ahonen
    Janne Petteri Ahonen is a former Finnish ski jumper who has competed in the world cup between 1992-2011. A legendary ski jumper, he is widely considered one of the best and most successful athletes in the history of the sport...

    , ski jumper
  • Mikko Ilonen
    Mikko Ilonen
    Mikko Ilonen is a Finnish professional golfer.Ilonen was born in Lahti, Finland. He won the 2000 Amateur Championship, and turned pro in 2001. He plays mainly on the European Tour, where he has won two events...

    , professional golfer
  • Jari Litmanen
    Jari Litmanen
    Jari Olavi Litmanen is a Finnish footballer, currently playing for HJK. He is the current vice-captain of Finland national football team, where he served as a first choice captain between 1996–2008...

    , football player
  • Aksu Hanttu
    Aksu Hanttu
    Aksu Hanttu is a musician, record producer and sound engineer from Lahti, Finland. He plays drums in the metal band Entwine and vocals and drums in the group Tuoni. Hanttu is also involved with Finnvox Studios in Helsinki, which has worked with artists such as Nightwish, Reflexion, Soulrelic and...

    , Drummer for the band Entwine
  • Ilona Jokinen
    Ilona Jokinen
    Ilona Jokinen is a Finnish soprano opera singer. She began her vocal studies in Lahti in 1997 as a pupil of Leena Pulkki and was a pupil of Ritva Auvinen at the Helsinki Polytechnic from 2001 until December 2005 after which she received her Bachelor's Degree as Singing Teacher...

    , soprano opera singer
  • Jukka-Pekka Saraste
    Jukka-Pekka Saraste
    Jukka-Pekka Saraste is a Finnish conductor and violinist.Saraste was trained as a violinist. He later studied conducting at the Sibelius Academy with Jorma Panula, in the same class as Esa-Pekka Salonen and Osmo Vänskä...

    , conductor and violinist
  • Eija-Riitta Korhola
    Eija-Riitta Korhola
    Eija-Riitta Korhola is a Finnish politician andMember of the European Parliamentwith the National Coalition Party,part of the European People's Party and sits on...

    , politician
  • Jimi Tenor
    Jimi Tenor
    Jimi Tenor is a Finnish musician. His name is a combination of the first name of his youth idol Jimmy Osmond and the tenor saxophone. His band Jimi Tenor & His Shamans published its first album in 1988, Jimi's first solo album appeared in 1994. "Take Me Baby" became his first hit in 1994...

    , musician
  • Timo Väänänen, musician, member of the band Loituma
    Loituma is a Finnish quartet whose members combine the Finnish vocal tradition with the sounds of the kantele. Loituma were selected Ensemble of the Year at the 1997 Kaustinen Folk Music Festival.-History:...

See also: :Category:People from Lahti

Twin towns — sister cities

Lahti is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with: Västerås
Västerås is a city in central Sweden, located on the shore of Lake Mälaren in the province Västmanland, some 100 km west of Stockholm...

, Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

 (since 1940) Akureyri
Akureyri is a town in northern Iceland. It is Iceland's second largest urban area and fourth largest municipality ....

, Iceland
Iceland , described as the Republic of Iceland, is a Nordic and European island country in the North Atlantic Ocean, on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Iceland also refers to the main island of the country, which contains almost all the population and almost all the land area. The country has a population...

 (since 1947) Randers
Randers is a city in Randers municipality on the Jutland peninsula in central Denmark. It is Denmark's sixth-largest city, with a population of 60,656 . Randers city is the main town of the municipality and the site of its municipal council.-Overview:Randers municipality has 94,750 inhabitants...

, Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

 (since 1947) Ålesund, Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

 (since 1947) Zaporizhzhya, Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

 (since 1953) Pécs
Pécs is the fifth largest city of Hungary, located on the slopes of the Mecsek mountains in the south-west of the country, close to its border with Croatia. It is the administrative and economical centre of Baranya county...

, Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

 (since 1956) Garmisch-Partenkirchen
Garmisch-Partenkirchen is a mountain resort town in Bavaria, southern Germany. It is the administrative centre of the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in the Oberbayern region, and the district is on the border with Austria...

, Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 (since 1987) Suhl
- Geography :Suhl sits on the south edge of the Suhler Scholle, an upthrust granite complex that is streaked by numerous dikes. This is part of the Ruhla-Schleusingen Horst that defines the southwest side of the Thuringian Forest...

, Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 (since 1988) Kaluga
Kaluga is a city and the administrative center of Kaluga Oblast, Russia, located on the Oka River southwest of Moscow. Population: It is served by Grabtsevo Airport.-History:...

, Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

 (since 1994) Narva
Narva is the third largest city in Estonia. It is located at the eastern extreme point of Estonia, by the Russian border, on the Narva River which drains Lake Peipus.-Early history:...

, Estonia
Estonia , officially the Republic of Estonia , is a state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia , and to the east by Lake Peipsi and the Russian Federation . Across the Baltic Sea lies...

 (since 1994, partnership agreement) Deyang
Deyang is a prefecture-level city in Sichuan province, China. Deyang is a wealthy, mostly industrial city, with the Erzhong Heavy Machinery Company Deyang is a prefecture-level city in Sichuan province, China. Deyang is a wealthy, mostly industrial city, with the Erzhong Heavy Machinery Company...

, China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 (since 2000) Most
Most is the capital city of the Most District, situated between the Czech Central Mountains and the Ore Mountains, approximately northwest of Prague along the Bílina River and southwest of Ústí nad Labem.-Etymology:...

, Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

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  • Etelä-Suomen Sanomat
    Etelä-Suomen Sanomat
    Etelä-Suomen Sanomat is a daily Finnish newspaper published in Lahti, Finland and the leading paper in its metropolian area. As of 2009, its daily circulation was 60,420. It began publishing in 1914. The paper originated from the prior Lahden Lehti and Lahden Sanomat newspapers...

    – local newspaper in Finnish (translates as South Finland News)
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