. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the Europe
an continent, after Russia. Ukraine borders the Russian Federation
to the east and northeast, Belarus
to the northwest, Poland
to the west, Romania
to the southwest, and the Black Sea
and Sea of Azov
to the south and southeast, respectively.
Established by the Varangians
in the 9th century, the medieval state of Kievan Rus'
, the first East Slavic
state, emerged as a powerful nation in the Middle Ages
until it disintegrated in the 12th century.
1651 The Battle of Beresteczko between Poland and Ukraine starts.
1659 At the Battle of Konotop the Ukrainian armies of Ivan Vyhovsky defeat the Russians led by Prince Trubetskoy.
1673 Second Battle of Khotyn in Ukraine: Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth forces under the command of Jan Sobieski defeat the Ottoman army. In this battle, rockets made by Kazimierz Siemienowicz are successfully used.
1917 Ukraine is declared a republic.
1918 The Ukraine declares independence from Bolshevik Russia.
1918 Western Ukraine gains its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
1941 Nazi Germans massacre Polish scientists and writers in the captured Ukrainian city of Lviv.
1941 World War II: On Jewish New Year Day, the German SS murder 6,000 Jews in Vinnytsya, Ukraine. Those are the survivors of the previous killings that took place a few days earlier in which about 24,000 Jews were executed.
1941 World War II: Holocaust in Kiev, Ukraine: German Einsatzgruppe C begins the Babi Yar massacre, according to the Einsatzgruppen operational situation report.
1941 World War II: Holocaust in Kiev, Ukraine: German Einsatzgruppe C complete Babi Yar massacre.