Garmisch-Partenkirchen
Overview
 
Garmisch-Partenkirchen is a mountain resort town in Bavaria
Bavaria
Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

, southern Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. It is the administrative centre of the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen
Garmisch-Partenkirchen (district)
Garmisch-Partenkirchen is a district in Bavaria, Germany. It is bounded by the districts of Ostallgäu, Weilheim-Schongau and Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen, and by the Austrian state of Tyrol.-History:...

, in the Oberbayern region, and the district is on the border with Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

. Nearby is Germany's highest mountain, Zugspitze
Zugspitze
The Zugspitze, at 2,962 metres above sea level, is the highest peak of the Wetterstein Mountains as well as the highest mountain in Germany. It lies south of the town of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, and the border between Germany and Austria runs over its western summit. South of the mountain is...

, at 2961 m (9714 ft.).
Garmisch-Partinkirken was at first two separate cities (Garmisch and Partinkirken).Until the Olympics were held right in between the two cities and often faught over simple things.
Encyclopedia
Garmisch-Partenkirchen is a mountain resort town in Bavaria
Bavaria
Bavaria, formally the Free State of Bavaria is a state of Germany, located in the southeast of Germany. With an area of , it is the largest state by area, forming almost 20% of the total land area of Germany...

, southern Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. It is the administrative centre of the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen
Garmisch-Partenkirchen (district)
Garmisch-Partenkirchen is a district in Bavaria, Germany. It is bounded by the districts of Ostallgäu, Weilheim-Schongau and Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen, and by the Austrian state of Tyrol.-History:...

, in the Oberbayern region, and the district is on the border with Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

. Nearby is Germany's highest mountain, Zugspitze
Zugspitze
The Zugspitze, at 2,962 metres above sea level, is the highest peak of the Wetterstein Mountains as well as the highest mountain in Germany. It lies south of the town of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, and the border between Germany and Austria runs over its western summit. South of the mountain is...

, at 2961 m (9714 ft.).

Origin

Garmisch-Partinkirken was at first two separate cities (Garmisch and Partinkirken).Until the Olympics were held right in between the two cities and often faught over simple things. So, as a compromise, they merged together to create Garmisch-Partinkirken and make the process much easier.

History

Garmisch (in the west) and Partenkirchen (in the east) were separate towns for many centuries, and still maintain quite separate identities.

Partenkirchen originated as the Roman town of Partanum on the trade route from Venice
Venice
Venice is a city in northern Italy which is renowned for the beauty of its setting, its architecture and its artworks. It is the capital of the Veneto region...

 to Augsburg
Augsburg
Augsburg is a city in the south-west of Bavaria, Germany. It is a university town and home of the Regierungsbezirk Schwaben and the Bezirk Schwaben. Augsburg is an urban district and home to the institutions of the Landkreis Augsburg. It is, as of 2008, the third-largest city in Bavaria with a...

 and is first mentioned in the year A.D. 15. Its main street, Ludwigsstrasse, follows the original Roman road.

Garmisch is first mentioned some 800 years later as Germaneskau ("German District"), suggesting that at some point a Teutonic tribe took up settlement in the western end of the valley.

The valley came under the rule of the Bishop of Freising
Freising
Freising is a town in Bavaria, Germany, and capital of the district Freising. Total population 48,500.The city is located north of Munich at the Isar river, near the Munich International Airport...

 and was governed by a bishop's representative known as a Pfleger (caretaker or warden) from Werdenfels Castle on a cliff north of Garmisch.

The discovery of America at the turn of the 16th century led to a boom in shipping and a sharp decline in overland trade, which plunged the region into a centuries-long economic depression. The valley floor was swampy and difficult to farm. Bears, wolves and lynxes were a constant threat to livestock. The population suffered from periodic epidemics, including several serious outbreaks of bubonic plague
Black Death
The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, peaking in Europe between 1348 and 1350. Of several competing theories, the dominant explanation for the Black Death is the plague theory, which attributes the outbreak to the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Thought to have...

. Adverse fortunes from disease and crop failure occasionally led to witch hysteria
Witch-hunt
A witch-hunt is a search for witches or evidence of witchcraft, often involving moral panic, mass hysteria and lynching, but in historical instances also legally sanctioned and involving official witchcraft trials...

. Most notable of these were the notorious trials and executions of 1589-1596, in which 63 victims — more than 10 percent of the population at the time — were burned at the stake or garroted.

Werdenfels Castle, where the accused were held, tried and executed, became an object of superstitious horror and was abandoned in the 17th century. It was largely torn down in the 1750s and its stones used to build the baroque Neue Kirche (New Church) on Marienplatz, which was completed in 1752. It replaced the nearby Gothic Alte Kirche (Old Church), parts of which predated Christianity and may originally have been a pagan temple. Used as a storehouse, armory and haybarn for many years, it has since been re-consecrated. Some of its medieval frescoes are still visible.

Garmisch and Partenkirchen remained separate until their respective mayors were forced by Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

 to combine the two market towns in 1935 in anticipation of the 1936 Winter Olympic games. Today, the united town is casually (but incorrectly) referred to as Garmisch, much to the dismay of Partenkirchen's residents. Most visitors will notice the slightly more modern feel of Garmisch while the fresco-filled, cobblestone
Cobblestone
Cobblestones are stones that were frequently used in the pavement of early streets. "Cobblestone" is derived from the very old English word "cob", which had a wide range of meanings, one of which was "rounded lump" with overtones of large size...

d streets of Partenkirchen offer a glimpse into times past. Early mornings and late afternoons in pleasant weather often find local traffic stopped while the dairy cows are herded to and from the nearby mountain meadows.

Transportation

The town is served by Federal Highway 2 as a continuation of the A95 Autobahn (motorway)
Bundesautobahn 95
is a motorway in southern Germany, supposed to connect Munich with Garmisch-Partenkirchen.- General :The A 95 is on the entire length of part of the European route E533. The northern part, to the 3-way Starnberg interchange adapted to the needs of a large city...

, which ends at Eschenlohe
Eschenlohe
Eschenlohe is a German municipality in the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in Bavaria....

 16 km north of the city.

Garmisch-Partenkirchen is on the Munich–Garmisch-Partenkirchen line and the Mittenwald Railway (Garmisch–Mittenwald
Mittenwald
Mittenwald is a German municipality in the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in Bavaria.-Geography:Mittenwald is located approx. 16 kilometers to the south-east of Garmisch-Partenkirchen...

Innsbruck
Innsbruck
- Main sights :- Buildings :*Golden Roof*Kaiserliche Hofburg *Hofkirche with the cenotaph of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor*Altes Landhaus...

). It is the terminus of the Außerfern Railway to Reutte in Tirol
Reutte
Reutte is a market town in Tyrol, Austria. It is the administrative center of the Reutte district . Reutte is located on the Lech river, and has a population of 5,738 .- Neighbouring municipalities :...

 / Kempten im Allgäu
Kempten im Allgäu
Kempten is the largest town in Allgäu, a region in the south-west of Bavaria, Germany. The population was ca 61,000 in 2006. The area was possibly settled originally by Celts, but was later overtaken by the Romans, who called the town Cambodunum...

 and the Bavarian Zugspitze Railway
Bavarian Zugspitze Railway
The Bavarian Zugspitze Railway is one of four rack railways still working in Germany, along with the Wendelstein Railway, the Drachenfels Railway and the Stuttgart Rack Railway...

 (with sections of rack railway
Rack railway
A rack-and-pinion railway is a railway with a toothed rack rail, usually between the running rails. The trains are fitted with one or more cog wheels or pinions that mesh with this rack rail...

) to the Zugspitze
Zugspitze
The Zugspitze, at 2,962 metres above sea level, is the highest peak of the Wetterstein Mountains as well as the highest mountain in Germany. It lies south of the town of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, and the border between Germany and Austria runs over its western summit. South of the mountain is...

, the highest mountain in Germany. Regional services run every hour to München Hauptbahnhof
München Hauptbahnhof
Munich Central Station is the main railway station of the city of Munich in Germany. It is one of the three long distance train stations in Munich, the others being München-Pasing and München Ost. The station sees about 350,000 passengers a day, which puts it on par with other large stations in...

 and Mittenwald and every two hours to Innsbruck Hauptbahnhof
Innsbruck Hauptbahnhof
is the Hauptbahnhof at Innsbruck, the capital city of the Austrian federal state of Tyrol. Opened in 1853, it is one of the country's busiest railway stations, with around 25,000 passenger movements daily....

 and Reutte
Reutte
Reutte is a market town in Tyrol, Austria. It is the administrative center of the Reutte district . Reutte is located on the Lech river, and has a population of 5,738 .- Neighbouring municipalities :...

. In addition there are special seasonal long-distance services, including ICEs
InterCityExpress
The Intercity-Express or ICE is a system of high-speed trains predominantly running in Germany and neighbouring countries. It is the highest service category offered by DB Fernverkehr and is the flagship of Deutsche Bahn...

, to Berlin
Berlin
Berlin is the capital city of Germany and is one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.45 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city. It is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union...

, Hamburg
Hamburg
-History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

, Dortmund
Dortmund
Dortmund is a city in Germany. It is located in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia, in the Ruhr area. Its population of 585,045 makes it the 7th largest city in Germany and the 34th largest in the European Union....

, Bremen
Bremen
The City Municipality of Bremen is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany. A commercial and industrial city with a major port on the river Weser, Bremen is part of the Bremen-Oldenburg metropolitan area . Bremen is the second most populous city in North Germany and tenth in Germany.Bremen is...

 and Innsbruck.

Several accessible hiking trails from the town are especially spectacular and cover both the lower and higher elevations.

Sports

In 1936
1936 Winter Olympics
The 1936 Winter Olympics, officially known as the IV Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated in 1936 in the market town of Garmisch-Partenkirchen in Bavaria, Germany. Germany also hosted the Summer Olympics the same year in Berlin...

 it was the site of the Winter Olympic Games, the first to feature alpine skiing
Alpine skiing at the 1936 Winter Olympics
At the 1936 Winter Olympics at Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany, alpine skiing was arranged for the first time in the Olympics, a combined event for men and women....

.
A variety of Nordic
Nordic skiing
Nordic skiing is a winter sport that encompasses all types of skiing where the heel of the boot cannot be fixed to the ski, as opposed to Alpine skiing....

 and alpine
Alpine skiing
Alpine skiing is the sport of sliding down snow-covered hills on skis with fixed-heel bindings. Alpine skiing can be contrasted with skiing using free-heel bindings: Ski mountaineering and nordic skiing – such as cross-country; ski jumping; and Telemark. In competitive alpine skiing races four...

 World Cup ski races are held here, usually on the Kandahar Track outside town. Traditionally, a ski jumping
Ski jumping
Ski jumping is a sport in which skiers go down a take-off ramp, jump and attempt to land as far as possible down the hill below. In addition to the length of the jump, judges give points for style. The skis used for ski jumping are wide and long...

 contest is held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen on New Year's Day
New Year's Day
New Year's Day is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar used in ancient Rome...

, as a part of the Four Hills Tournament
Four Hills Tournament
The Four Hills Tournament is composed of four Ski Jumping World Cup events and has taken place in Germany and Austria each year since 1952.The Four Hills Tournament champion is the one who gets the most points over the four events...

 (Vierschanzen-Tournee). The World Alpine Ski Championships were held in Garmisch
Garmisch Classic
Garmisch Classic is an alpine ski resort in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Bavaria, Germany. The resort is in the Bavarian Alps, and its maximum elevation is 6726 feet above sea level, with a vertical drop of 4429 feet...

 in 1978
FIS Alpine World Ski Championships 1978
The FIS Alpine World Ski Championships 1978 were held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Bavaria, West Germany, between January 29 and February 5, 1978. :de:Alpine Skiweltmeisterschaft 1978The event is scheduled to return in 2011...

 and 2011.

Garmisch-Partenkirchen is also a favored holiday spot for skiing
Skiing
Skiing is a recreational activity using skis as equipment for traveling over snow. Skis are used in conjunction with boots that connect to the ski with use of a binding....

, snowboarding
Snowboarding
Snowboarding is a sport that involves descending a slope that is covered with snow on a snowboard attached to a rider's feet using a special boot set onto mounted binding. The development of snowboarding was inspired by skateboarding, sledding, surfing and skiing. It was developed in the U.S.A...

, and hiking
Hiking
Hiking is an outdoor activity which consists of walking in natural environments, often in mountainous or other scenic terrain. People often hike on hiking trails. It is such a popular activity that there are numerous hiking organizations worldwide. The health benefits of different types of hiking...

, having some of the best skiing areas (Garmisch Classic
Garmisch Classic
Garmisch Classic is an alpine ski resort in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Bavaria, Germany. The resort is in the Bavarian Alps, and its maximum elevation is 6726 feet above sea level, with a vertical drop of 4429 feet...

 and Zugspitze
Zugspitze
The Zugspitze, at 2,962 metres above sea level, is the highest peak of the Wetterstein Mountains as well as the highest mountain in Germany. It lies south of the town of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, and the border between Germany and Austria runs over its western summit. South of the mountain is...

) in Germany.

It was announced on December 7, 2007, that Garmisch-Partenkirchen is part of a Bavarian bid to host the 2018 Winter Olympics
2018 Winter Olympics
The 2018 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXIII Olympic Winter Games, is a winter multi-sport event scheduled to take place in Pyeongchang, South Korea, between 9 and 25 February 2018. The elected host city was announced on 6 July 2011 by the International Olympic Committee , after the...

, with partner candidates Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

 and Schönau am Königsee
Schönau am Königsee
Schönau am Königsee is a municipality in the district of Berchtesgadener Land in the German state of Bavaria. It is located at the northern end of the Königssee lake....

 (near Berchtesgaden
Berchtesgaden
Berchtesgaden is a municipality in the German Bavarian Alps. It is located in the south district of Berchtesgadener Land in Bavaria, near the border with Austria, some 30 km south of Salzburg and 180 km southeast of Munich...

). The Winter Olympics were last held in the German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

-speaking Alps in 1976
1976 Winter Olympics
The 1976 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XII Olympic Winter Games, were a winter multi-sport event which was celebrated February 4–15, 1976 in Innsbruck, Austria...

 in nearby Innsbruck, Austria.

Public institutions

The George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies
George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies
The George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies is a unique U.S. Department of Defense and German Defense Ministry security and defense studies institute...

 is also located in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. The Marshall Center is an internationally funded and mostly U.S.-staffed learning and conference center for governments from around the world, but primarily from the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 and Eastern European countries. It was established in June 1993, replacing the U.S. Army
United States Army
The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...

 Russian Institute. Near the Marshall Center is the American Armed Forces Recreation Centers
Armed Forces Recreation Centers
AFRCs exist to provide rest and relaxation in the form of lodging and outdoor recreation for United States military service members, Department of Defense civilian employees, US military retirees, and their families....

 (Edelweiss Lodge and Resort
Edelweiss Lodge and Resort
Edelweiss Lodge and Resort is a U.S. Department of Defense owned recreation hotel in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany. Located in the Bavarian Alps near the Austrian border, the facility opened in September 2004 at a cost of $80 million....

) in Garmisch that serves U.S. and NATO military and their families. A number of U.S. troops and civilians are stationed in the town to provide logistical support to the Marshall Center and Edelweiss Recreation Center.

Notable People

  • Michael Ende
    Michael Ende
    Michael Andreas Helmuth Ende was a German author of fantasy and children's literature. He is best known for his epic fantasy work The Neverending Story; other famous works include Momo and Jim Button and Luke the Engine Driver...

    , author of The Neverending Story
    The Neverending Story
    The Neverending Story is a German fantasy novel by Michael Ende, first published in 1979. The standard English translation, by Ralph Manheim, was first published in 1983...

  • Magdalena Neuner
    Magdalena Neuner
    Magdalena "Lena" Neuner is a German professional biathlete. She is the most successful woman of all time at Biathlon World Championships and a two-time Olympic gold medalist. At the age of 21, she became the youngest Overall World Cup winner in the history of the International Biathlon Union...

    , six-time biathlon
    Biathlon
    Biathlon is a term used to describe any sporting event made up of two disciplines. However, biathlon usually refers specifically to the winter sport that combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting...

     world champion, Olympic champion, Biathlon World Cup
    Biathlon World Cup
    The Biathlon World Cup has been held since the winter seasons of 1977/78 and 1982/83, for men and women, respectively ....

     winner
  • Miriam Gössner
    Miriam Gössner
    Miriam Gössner is a German-Norwegian biathlete and cross-country skier. Noted for her fast skiing performances, she won two junior world championship titles in biathlon in 2008 and 2009...

    , biathlete
  • Maria Riesch
    Maria Riesch
    Maria Höfl-Riesch is a champion alpine ski racer. She won gold medals in slalom and super combined at the 2010 Winter Olympics and won the World Cup overall title in 2011....

    , alpine ski racer
  • Susanne Riesch
    Susanne Riesch
    Susanne Riesch is an alpine ski racer. She is the sister of Maria Riesch, overall World Cup Champion for seasson 2010/2011....

    , alpine ski racer
  • Hans-Joachim Stuck, racing driver
  • Richard Strauss
    Richard Strauss
    Richard Georg Strauss was a leading German composer of the late Romantic and early modern eras. He is known for his operas, which include Der Rosenkavalier and Salome; his Lieder, especially his Four Last Songs; and his tone poems and orchestral works, such as Death and Transfiguration, Till...

    , composer
  • Karl Popper
    Karl Popper
    Sir Karl Raimund Popper, CH FRS FBA was an Austro-British philosopher and a professor at the London School of Economics...

    , philosopher
  • Andrea Schöpp
    Andrea Schöpp
    Dr. Andrea Schöpp is a German curler from Garmisch-Partenkirchen. She also lectures part-time in statistics at the University of Munich....

    , German curler
  • Monika Wagner
    Monika Wagner
    Monika Wagner is a German curler from Garmisch-Partenkirchen. She currently plays third for Andrea Schöpp, who was born eight hours before her in the same hospital....

    , German curler

Points of interest

South of Partenkirchen is the Partnach Gorge
Partnach Gorge
The Partnach Gorge is a deep gorge that has been incised by a mountain stream, the Partnach, in the Reintal valley near the south German town of Garmisch-Partenkirchen. The gorge is 702 metres long and, in places, over 80 metres deep...

, where the Partnach
Partnach
The Partnach is a 16.5 km long Bavarian mountain river. It rises at a height of on the Zugspitze Massif. The Partnach is fed by meltwaters from the Schneeferner glacier some 1100 m higher up. The glacier’s meltwaters seep into the karsty bedrock and reach the surface again near the source of the...

 river surges spectacularly through a narrow, mile-long gap between high limestone cliffs. The Zugspitze
Zugspitze
The Zugspitze, at 2,962 metres above sea level, is the highest peak of the Wetterstein Mountains as well as the highest mountain in Germany. It lies south of the town of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, and the border between Germany and Austria runs over its western summit. South of the mountain is...

 (local name 'Zugspitz') is south of Garmisch near the village of Grainau
Grainau
Grainau is a municipality in the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in Bavaria, Germany. It is located at the foot of the Zugspitze mountain, the tallest mountain in Germany in the sub-mountain range of the Wetterstein Alps which is a branch off the main mountain range it is connected to, the...

. The tallest mountain in Germany, it actually straddles the border with Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

. Also overlooking Garmisch-Partenkirchen is Germany's fourth-highest mountain, the Leutasch Dreitorspitze ('Three-Gate Peak', a name derived from its triple summit).

The King's House on Schachen
King's House on Schachen
The King's House on Schachen is a small castle at Schachen Witterstein, about 10 km south of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Bavaria, Germany, built by Ludwig II of Bavaria. The castle was constructed between 1869 and 1872...

, a small castle built for Ludwig II of Bavaria
Ludwig II of Bavaria
Ludwig II was King of Bavaria from 1864 until shortly before his death. He is sometimes called the Swan King and der Märchenkönig, the Fairy tale King...

, is also located in the mountains south of Garmisch-Partenkirchen. Its grounds contain the Alpengarten auf dem Schachen, an alpine botanical garden
Botanical garden
A botanical garden The terms botanic and botanical, and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is a well-tended area displaying a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names...

.

External links

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