Zaporizhia or Zaporozhye ' onMouseout='HidePop("15026")' href="/topics/Romanization_of_Ukrainian">transcript.
Romanization of Ukrainian
The romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin letters. Ukrainian is natively written in its own Ukrainian alphabet, a variation of Cyrillic....

 Zaporizhzhia or Zaporizhzhya, , transcript.
Romanization of Russian
Romanization of the Russian alphabet is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic alphabet into the Latin alphabet...

 Zaporozh'ye) [formerly Alexandrovsk ] is a city in southeastern Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

, situated on the banks of the Dnieper River
Dnieper River
The Dnieper River is one of the major rivers of Europe that flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, to the Black Sea.The total length is and has a drainage basin of .The river is noted for its dams and hydroelectric stations...

. It is the administrative center
Capital City
Capital City was a television show produced by Euston Films which focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman....

 of the Zaporizhia Oblast
Zaporizhia Oblast
Zaporizhia Oblast is an oblast of southern Ukraine. Its capital is Zaporizhia.This oblast is an important part of Ukraine's industry and agriculture.-Geography:...

Oblast is a type of administrative division in Slavic countries, including some countries of the former Soviet Union. The word "oblast" is a loanword in English, but it is nevertheless often translated as "area", "zone", "province", or "region"...

). Currently the city is the sixth largest one in Ukraine and has population of 776,000 people (as of 2011).


Alexandrovsk was founded on the left bank of the Dnieper.

The city is located in southern Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

 and occupies both banks of the river at present. The city area equals 334 km2. The height above sea level
Above mean sea level
The term above mean sea level refers to the elevation or altitude of any object, relative to the average sea level datum. AMSL is used extensively in radio by engineers to determine the coverage area a station will be able to reach...

 in the city equals 50 m.

In the middle of the city is situated a pearl of Ukraine – the island Khortytsia (size – 12 km x 2 km), which splits the river into two streams called the New and Old Dnieper. The New Dnieper stream has the width about 800 m, the old one – 200 m. There are several small rivers in the city, which enter the Dnieper: Sukhaya and Mokraya Moskovka, Kushugum, Verkhniaya Khortytsya.

Flora of the island Khortytsia is a unique and exclusive, because of dry steppe air and a lot of fresh water around the island. Khortytsia is a national park. On the Khortytsia island there are many large ravines ("balka"). RU

Ancient time

Archaeological finds in the area suggest that Scythian nomads were living there two to three thousand years ago. The Scythians were replaced in time by Khazars
The Khazars were semi-nomadic Turkic people who established one of the largest polities of medieval Eurasia, with the capital of Atil and territory comprising much of modern-day European Russia, western Kazakhstan, eastern Ukraine, Azerbaijan, large portions of the northern Caucasus , parts of...

, Pechenegs, Cumans
The Cumans were Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman-Kipchak confederation. After Mongol invasion , they decided to seek asylum in Hungary, and subsequently to Bulgaria...

, Tatars
Tatars are a Turkic speaking ethnic group , numbering roughly 7 million.The majority of Tatars live in the Russian Federation, with a population of around 5.5 million, about 2 million of which in the republic of Tatarstan.Significant minority populations are found in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan,...

, and Eastern Slavs. The trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks
Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks
The trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks was a trade route that connected Scandinavia, Kievan Rus' and the Byzantine Empire. The route allowed traders along the route to establish a direct prosperous trade with Byzantium, and prompted some of them to settle in the territories of...

 passed through Khortysia island in old times.

In 1552 Dmytro Vyshnevetsky
Dmytro Vyshnevetsky
Dmytro Ivanovych Vyshnevetsky was a Hetman of the Ukrainian Cossacks. He was also known as Baida in the Ukrainian folk songs.-Biography:...

 erected wood-earth fortifications on the island of Mala Khortytsya in the Dnieper River near Khortytsia
Khortytsia is a national cultural reserve located on one of the largest islands of the Dnieper river, in Ukraine.The island has played an important role in the history of Ukraine, specially in the history of the Zaporozhian Cossacks. This historic site is located within the city limits of...

 island. These fortifications were a prototype of the Zaporizhian Sich
Zaporizhian Sich
Zaporizhian Sich was socio-political, grassroot, military organization of Ukrainian cossacks placed beyond Dnieper rapids. Sich existed between the 16th and 18th centuries in the region around the today's Kakhovka Reservoir...

. The Sich was a stronghold of the Cossacks who lived south of the rapids of the Dnieper on the border of the Polish–Lithuanian Rzeczpospolita and the Moscow kingdom
Grand Duchy of Moscow
The Grand Duchy of Moscow or Grand Principality of Moscow, also known in English simply as Muscovy , was a late medieval Rus' principality centered on Moscow, and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia....


From Fort Alexander to Alexandrovsk City

The city began with a small fortress, built in the steppe in 1775 during the reign of Catherine the Great in order to protect the southern territories from Turkish threats. Fort Alexander, founded in 1770, was only one link in the so-called "Dnieper Fortification Line"(RU). The fort was built on the left bank of the Dnieper River across from Khortytsya island. Historians are uncertain when asked in honour of which people the fort was named. Hypotheses were made about the names of Alexander Golitsyn
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Golitsyn (field marshal)
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Golitsyn was a Russian prince of the Galitzine and field marshal. He was the governor of Saint Petersburg in 1780 to 1783.-Early life:...

, Alexander Vyazemsky, Alexander Rumyantsev
Alexander Rumyantsev
Count Alexander Ivanovich Rumyantsev was an assistant of Peter the Great and father of Field Marshal Peter Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky. He came from the Rumyantsev family which, though little known and documented in the 17th century, later claimed descent from a prominent 14th-century boyar.Alexander...

. In 1921 the town was renamed in Zaporizhia (Zaporozhye) (literally, "beyond the rapids").

German settlers

In 1789 Mennonites from Prussia
Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia shaped the history...

 accepted an invitation from Catherine the Great and settled in what became the Chortitza
Chortitza Colony was a Russian Mennonite settlement northwest of Khortytsia Island and is now part of Zaporizhia, Ukraine. Chortitza was founded in 1789 by...

 Colony, northwest of Khortytsia
Khortytsia is a national cultural reserve located on one of the largest islands of the Dnieper river, in Ukraine.The island has played an important role in the history of Ukraine, specially in the history of the Zaporozhian Cossacks. This historic site is located within the city limits of...

 island. Mennonite-owned mills and factories were built in Alexandrovsk and later expropriated by the Communist government. After the Russian Revolution many Mennonites emigrated, fled as refugees, or were deported from the area. Currently few Mennonites live in Zaporizhia. Mennonite buildings still exist in the area and in the other main Mennonite colony center, current day Molochansk
Molochansk is a city in Zaporizhia Oblast, Ukraine. It is located at around . Molochna River flows through the city.Molochansk was founded in 1804 by Dutch Mennonite settlers who were invited to settle on the vast steppes of the czar's Russian empire. They called the new village "Halbstadt"...


The ferry

In 1829 it was proposed to build a rope ferry to transport across the Dnieper; this was built to a design that the Tsar had approved for use all over the Russian empire, and could carry a dozen carts. The ferry closed when the Kichkas Bridge replaced it in 1904.

The railway

The original railway bridge over the Dnieper was the Kichkas (Кичкасский) Bridge, which was designed by YD Proskuryakov and EO Paton. Construction was supervised by FW Lat. The bridge had a span of 336 m, and crossed the river with single arch of 190 m span. The upper tier carried a double-track railway line, whilst the lower tier was a road bridge with pedestrian walkways either side of the bridge. It was built at the narrowest part of the Dnieper river at Volchʹego Gorla (Wolf Throat). Construction started in 1900, and it opened for pedestrian traffic in 1902. The official opening of the bridge was 17 April 1904; though railway traffic on the bridge only commenced on 22 January 1908. The opening of the Kichkas Bridge led to the industrial growth of Alexandrovsk before the communist revolution.

Civil war

The Kichkas Bridge was of strategic importance during the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed to the Soviets, under the domination of the Bolshevik party. Soviet forces first assumed power in Petrograd The Russian Civil War (1917–1923) was a...

, and carried troops, ammunition, the wounded and medical supplies. Because of this bridge, Alexandrovsk and its environs was the scene of fierce fighting from 1918 to 1921 between the Red Army and the White armies of Denikin and Wrangel
Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel
Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel or Vrangel was an officer in the Imperial Russian army and later commanding general of the anti-Bolshevik White Army in Southern Russia in the later stages of the Russian Civil War.-Life:Wrangel was born in Mukuliai, Kovno Governorate in the Russian Empire...

, Petliura and German-Austrian troops, and after their defeat, the struggle with insurgents led by Grigoriev
Nikifor Grigoriev
Nikifor Grigoriev was born Nychypir Servetnyk in a small village of Zastavlia was a paramilitary leader noted for numerous switching of sides and anti-Semitism...

, and Makhno
Nestor Makhno
Nestor Ivanovych Makhno or simply Daddy Makhno was a Ukrainian anarcho-communist guerrilla leader turned army commander who led an independent anarchist army in Ukraine during the Russian Civil War....

. The bridge was closed a number of times because of damage. The most serious damage was inflicted by Makhno's troops when they retreated from Alexandrovsk in 1920 and blew a 40 m wide gap in the centre of the bridge.

People's Commissar of Railways Dzerzhinsky ordered the repair of the bridge. The metallurgic plant of Bryansk joint-stock company(RU) (Petrovsky plant at present) in Dnipropetrovsk
Dnipropetrovsk or Dnepropetrovsk formerly Yekaterinoslav is Ukraine's third largest city with one million inhabitants. It is located southeast of Ukraine's capital Kiev on the Dnieper River, in the south-central region of the country...

 built a replacement section, which was raised into place. The Kichkas Bridge reopened on 14 September 1921. On 19 October 1921, the Soviet Council of Labour and Defence (chaired by Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and communist politician who led the October Revolution of 1917. As leader of the Bolsheviks, he headed the Soviet state during its initial years , as it fought to establish control of Russia in the Russian Civil War and worked to create a...

) awarded the Yekaterininsky railroad the Order of the Red Banner of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic for the early restoration of the Kichkas Bridge.

Industrialization in the 1920s and 1930s

In the early twentieth century, Zaporizhia was a small unremarkable town of the Russian Empire, which acquired industrial importance during the socialist industrialization of the 1930s.

In the 1929–1932 master plan for city construction was developed. At 10 km from the old town Alexandrovsk at the narrowest part of the Dnieper river was planned to build the hydroelectric power station, the most powerful in Europe at that time. Close to the station should be a new modern city and a giant steel and aluminum plants. Later the station was named "DnieproHES
Dnieper Hydroelectric Station
The Dnieper Hydroelectric Station is the largest hydroelectric power station on the Dnieper River, placed in Zaporizhia, Ukraine.- Early Plans :In the lower current of the Dnieper River there were almost 100 km long part of the river filled with rapids...

", the steel plant – "Zaporizhstal'
Zaporizhstal, is Ukraine's fourth largest steel maker with an annual capacity of 4.5 mil. tonnes of steel, 3.3 mil. tonnes of pig iron, 4.1 mil. of finished steel products, and ranks 54th in the world. The leader of the national industry is Kryvorizhstal...

" (Zaporizhia Steel Plant), and the new part of the city – "Sotsgorod". (Socialist city)
Production of the aluminum plant ("DAZ"- Dnieper Aluminium Plant) according to the plan should exceed the overall production of the aluminum all over Europe at that time.

State Institute for Design of Metallurgical Plants(RU) (GIPROMEZ) developed a project of creation of the Dnieper Industrial Complex. GIPROMEZ consulted with various companies, including the Freyn Engineering Company of Chicago (USA), which participated in the design and construction of the blast furnaces.

American United Engineering and Foundry Company built the strip mill
Strip mill
The strip mill was a major innovation, with the first being erected at Ashland, Kentucky in 1923. This provided a continuous process, cutting out the need to pass the plates over the rolls and to double them, as in a pack mill. At the end the strip was cut with a guillotine shear or rolled into a...

, which produced hot and cold rolling steel strip. Annual capacity of the mill reached 600 tons. Strip width was 66 inches.

The hydro-electric dam, DniproHES

The turning point in the history of the city is the construction of the hydro-electric dam (DniproHES)
Dnieper Hydroelectric Station
The Dnieper Hydroelectric Station is the largest hydroelectric power station on the Dnieper River, placed in Zaporizhia, Ukraine.- Early Plans :In the lower current of the Dnieper River there were almost 100 km long part of the river filled with rapids...

, which began in 1927 and completed in 1932. The principal designer of the project was I. G. Alexandrov(RU), the construction manager – A. V. Vinter(RU), the chief architect – V. A. Vesnin
Vesnin brothers
The Vesnin brothers: Leonid Vesnin , Victor Vesnin and Alexander Vesnin were the leaders of Constructivist architecture, the dominant architectural school of the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s...

 and the chief American advisor – Hugh Cooper. According to the project, the installed generating capacity was 560 megawatts, the length of a convex dam was 760 m, the width was 56 m, the height was 60 m. Eight water turbines and five generators were designed and manufactured in the United States, other three generators were made at the Leningrad factory "Electrosila". As a result of commissioning of the station the Dnieper rapids were flooded and the river has become available for the navigation from Kiev to Kherson. In 1980, DniproHES power was increased to 1,388 megawatts.


Between the hydroelectric dam and industrial area in 10 km from the center of the old Alexandrovsk was established residential district # 6, which was named "Sotsgorod". In 20-th doctrinaire idealistic enthusiasm of the architects was reflected in the intense debate about the habitation of the socialist community. The architects believed that they create a new society, using new architectural forms. District № 6 was one of the few implementation of urban development concepts. The construction of the district began in 1929 and finished in 1932. The main idea leading the architects was the creation of the garden city, the city of the future. Many storey houses (not more than 4 floors) with large, roomy apartments were built in Sotsgorod. Very comfortable yards planted with grass and trees around the buildings.
Nikolai Kolli
Nikolai Kolli
Nikolai Dzhemsovich Kolli was a Russian Constructivist architect and city planner.Born in Moscow, Kolli studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture and then at Vkhutemas...

, V.A.Vesnin
Vesnin brothers
The Vesnin brothers: Leonid Vesnin , Victor Vesnin and Alexander Vesnin were the leaders of Constructivist architecture, the dominant architectural school of the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s...

, G.M.Orlov, V.G.Lavrov and others designed the DniproHES and SotsGorod. Le Corbusier
Le Corbusier
Charles-Édouard Jeanneret, better known as Le Corbusier , was a Swiss-born French architect, designer, urbanist, writer and painter, famous for being one of the pioneers of what now is called modern architecture. He was born in Switzerland and became a French citizen in 1930...

 visited the town few times in 1930s. The architects used the ideas of the constructivist architecture
Constructivist architecture
Constructivist architecture was a form of modern architecture that flourished in the Soviet Union in the 1920s and early 1930s. It combined advanced technology and engineering with an avowedly Communist social purpose. Although it was divided into several competing factions, the movement produced...

. The known ring house ( "40 years of Soviet Ukraine street #31" was designed by V.G.Lavrov. Families of the Soviet and American engineers, advisers and industry bosses lived in Sotsgorod at that time. Most of the workers during the construction of the hydro-power station and plants lived in the dugouts at 15-th and Aluminum districts. The District border is limited by Verkhnya Ulitsa (Upper st.) in the south and by the hydroelectric power in the north. At the intersection between Lenin ave. and Verkhnya Ulitsa. architect I.L. Kosliner set the tower in seven stories. The tower supposedly indicates the entrance in the Sotsgorod from the south (from Alexandrovsk). Closer to the Dam the second tower was raised (the authors are I.L. Kosliner and L.Ya. Gershovich). These two towers point out a straight line of the central street of the district.

The names of the streets have changed several times. The original name of Metallurgist Avenue was Enthusiasts Alley. This road leads to the factories. At that time, they believed that people going to the plant have only positive feelings like joy, pride and enthusiasm. At the end of the road stands a sculpture of the metallurgist (sculptor – Ivan Nosenko, 1963). During the German occupation, it was named Shevchenko
Shevchenko , a family name of Ukrainian origin. It is derived from the Ukrainian word shvets’, "shoemaker" and/or "tailor", and the suffix -enko, denoting descent...

 Avenue; later it was renamed Stalin Avenue; and after his death it got present name of Metallurgist Avenue. Lenin Avenue originally had the name Libkhnet Avenue. "Forty Years of Soviet Ukraine" Street was once called Sovnarkomovskaya Street and during the German occupation Hitler Alley.

Big Zaporizhia

The District #6 is a small part of the global project called Big Zaporizhia. This project was designed for the city, to enable half million people to live in seven different areas – Voznesenka, Boburka, Kichkas, Alexandrovsk, Pavlo-Kichkas, Island Khortitsa. Each district must be independent from the others and at the same time part of а united city. The city line should be stretched along the banks of the Dnieper River in 22 km.

The Dnieper railway bridges

The location of the Kichkas Bridge was in the flood zone upstream of the hydro-electric dam. Initially it was planned to disassemble it and rebuilt it in another location. But expert advice was that this was not cost-effective as it was cheaper to build a new bridge.

The building of the hydro-electric dam meant that a new bridge was required to take the railway over the Dnieper. Instead of having a single bridge, as before, it was decided to take the railway over the island of Khortytsia
Khortytsia is a national cultural reserve located on one of the largest islands of the Dnieper river, in Ukraine.The island has played an important role in the history of Ukraine, specially in the history of the Zaporozhian Cossacks. This historic site is located within the city limits of...

. The wide part of the river between Khortytsia and the city is known as the New Dnieper, and the narrower part between Khortytsia and the suburbs on the right bank of the river is known as the Old Dnieper. The New Dnieper was crossed by a three-arch two-tier bridge. Each of the arches has a span of 140 m; on left bank, however when the approach spans are included the total length is 715 m. The bridge weighed 8,480 tons. The Old Dnieper was crossed by a single span arch bridge; the bridge had a total length of 370 m; the arch having a span of 224 m, and was then the largest single span bridge in Europe. This bridge weighed 5,220 tons. Both bridges were designed by Professor Streletsky. They were made of riveted steel, and had two tiers: the upper tier for rail traffic and the lower tier for road traffic and pedestrians. They were assembled by a combination of Czechoslovakian and Soviet workers under the direction of a Soviet engineer called Konstantinov. The arches were made from steel made by the Vitkovetskom steel plant in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia was a sovereign state in Central Europe which existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until 1992...

, other steelwork was made at the Dnipropetrovsk Metallurgical Plant. The new bridges opened on 6 November 1931. The Kichkas Bridge was demolished afterwards.

The Great Patriotic War, 1941–1945 (World War II)

German occupation

The war (World War II
Eastern Front (World War II)
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of World War II between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland, and some other Allies which encompassed Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945...

) between the USSR and Germany began on 22 June 1941. In the USSR this war was called the Great Patriotic War, 1941–1945
Great Patriotic War (term)
The term Great Patriotic War , Velíkaya Otéchestvennaya voyná,) is used in Russia and some other states of the former Soviet Union to describe the portion of World War II from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945, against Nazi Germany and its allies in the many fronts of Soviet-German war.-History:The term...


After the outbreak of the war the Soviet government started evacuating industrial equipment from the city to Siberia
Siberia is an extensive region constituting almost all of Northern Asia. Comprising the central and eastern portion of the Russian Federation, it was part of the Soviet Union from its beginning, as its predecessor states, the Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire, conquered it during the 16th...

 before the Germans reached the city. The NKVD
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the public and secret police organization of the Soviet Union that directly executed the rule of power of the Soviets, including political repression, during the era of Joseph Stalin....

 shot political prisoners in the city. On 18 August 1941, elements of the German 1st Panzergruppe seized the outskirts of Zaporizhia on the right bank and the island of Khortytsya. The Red Army blew a 120m x 10m hole in the Dnieper hydroelectric dam (DniproHES)
Dnieper Hydroelectric Station
The Dnieper Hydroelectric Station is the largest hydroelectric power station on the Dnieper River, placed in Zaporizhia, Ukraine.- Early Plans :In the lower current of the Dnieper River there were almost 100 km long part of the river filled with rapids...

 at 16:00 on 18 August, producing a flood wave that swept from Zaporizhia to Nikopol, killing local residents as well as soldiers from both sides. After two days, the city defenders received reinforcements, and held the left bank of the river for 45 days. During this time people dismantled heavy machinery, packed and loaded them on the railway platform, marked and accounted for with wiring diagrams. Zaporizhstal alone exported 9,600 railway cars with the equipment. Zaporizhia was taken on 3 October 1941.

The German occupation of Zaporizhia lasted 2 years and 10 days. During this time the Germans shot over 35,000 people, and sent 58,000 people to Germany as forced labour. The Germans also used forced labor (mostly POWs) to try to restore the Dnieper hydroelectric dam, and the steelworks. Local citizens established an underground resistance organisation in Spring 1942.

The Donbass – Stalingrad and Moscow – Crimea
Crimea , or the Autonomous Republic of Crimea , is a sub-national unit, an autonomous republic, of Ukraine. It is located on the northern coast of the Black Sea, occupying a peninsula of the same name...

 railway lines through Zaporizhia were an important supply line for the Germans in 1942–43, but the big three-arch Dnieper railway bridge at Zaporizhia was blown up by the retreating Red Army
Red Army
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army started out as the Soviet Union's revolutionary communist combat groups during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1922. It grew into the national army of the Soviet Union. By the 1930s the Red Army was among the largest armies in history.The "Red Army" name refers to...

 on 18 August 1941, with further demolition work done during September 1941. and the Germans did not bring it back into operation until Summer 1943. "As a result all goods had to be reloaded, and tank-wagons carrying petrol could not go through to the front."

When the Germans reformed Army Group South
Army Group South
Army Group South was the name of a number of German Army Groups during World War II.- Poland campaign :Germany used two army groups to invade Poland in 1939: Army Group North and Army Group South...

 in February 1943, it had its headquarters in Zaporizhia. The loss of Kharkiv
Kharkiv or Kharkov is the second-largest city in Ukraine.The city was founded in 1654 and was a major centre of Ukrainian culture in the Russian Empire. Kharkiv became the first city in Ukraine where the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed in December 1917 and Soviet government was...

 and other cities caused Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

 to fly to this headquarters on 17 February 1943, where he stayed until 19 February and met the army group commander Field Marshal von Manstein
Erich von Manstein
Erich von Manstein was a field marshal in World War II. He became one of the most prominent commanders of Germany's World War II armed forces...

, and was persuaded to allow Army Group South to fight a mobile defence that quickly led to much of the lost ground being recaptured by the Germans
Third Battle of Kharkov
The Third Battle of Kharkov was a series of offensive operations on the Eastern Front of World War II, undertaken by the German Army Group South against the Red Army, around the city of Kharkov , between 19 February and 15 March 1943...

. Hitler visited the headquarters in Zaporizhia again on 10 March 1943, where he was briefed by von Manstein and his air force counterpart Field Marshal von Richthofen. Hitler visited the headquarters at Zaporizhia for the last time on 8 September 1943. In mid-September 1943 the Army Group moved its headquarters from Zaporizhia to Kirovograd.

Both big railway bridge over the New Dnieper and the smaller one over the Old Dnieper were damaged in an air raid by a group of 8 Ilyushin Il-2
Ilyushin Il-2
The Ilyushin Il-2 was a ground-attack aircraft in the Second World War, produced by the Soviet Union in very large numbers...

s led by Lieutenant A Usmanov in 21 September 1943.


In mid-August 1943, the Germans started building the Panther-Wotan
Panther-Wotan line
The Panther-Wotan Line was a defensive line partially built by the German Wehrmacht in 1943 on the Eastern Front. The first part of the name refers to the short northern section between Lake Peipus and the Baltic Sea at Narva.-Purpose :...

 defence line along the Dnieper from Kiev
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. The population as of the 2001 census was 2,611,300. However, higher numbers have been cited in the press....

 to Crimea
Crimea , or the Autonomous Republic of Crimea , is a sub-national unit, an autonomous republic, of Ukraine. It is located on the northern coast of the Black Sea, occupying a peninsula of the same name...

, and retreated back to it in September 1943. The Germans held the city as a bridgehead over the Dnieper, with elements of 40th Panzer and 17th Corps. The Soviet Southwestern Front, commanded by Army General Rodion Malinovsky
Rodion Malinovsky
Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky was a Soviet military commander in World War II and Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s. He contributed to the major defeat of Nazi Germany at the Battle of Stalingrad and the Battle of Budapest...

, attacked the city on 10 October 1943. Whilst the defenders held against the attacks, the Red Army reinforced its troops and launched a surprise night attack at 22:00 on 13 October, "laying down a barrage of shellfire bigger than anything... seen to date (it was here that entire 'divisions' of artillery appeared for the first time) and throwing in no fewer than ten divisions strongly supported by armour", the Red Army broke into the bridgehead forcing the Germans to abandon it on 14 October. The retreating Germans destroyed the Zaporizhstal steel plant almost completely; they demolished the big railway bridge again, and demolished the turbine building and damaged 32 of the 49 bays of the Dnieper hydro-electric dam. The city has a street between Ordjonikidzevkij and Zhovtnevyj Districts and a memorial in Zhovtnevyj District dedicated to Red Army
Red Army
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army started out as the Soviet Union's revolutionary communist combat groups during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1922. It grew into the national army of the Soviet Union. By the 1930s the Red Army was among the largest armies in history.The "Red Army" name refers to...

 Lieutenant Yatsenko(RU) who commanded the tank, which first entered the city; he and his crew were killed in the battle for the city.

The Red Army did not recapture the parts of the city on the right bank until 1944.

The rebuilding of the Dnieper hydro-electric dam commenced on 7 July 1944, and the first electricity was produced from the restored dam on 3 March 1947.

City population

{| class="wikitable" width=100%
| ||
{| class="wikitable"

| 1902 || 35,000 ||
| 1915 || about 60,000 ||
| 1916 || 72,900 ||
| 1917 || 58,517 ||
| 1926 || 55,744 ||
| 1937 || 243,148 ||
| 1939 || 289,188 ||
| 1943 || 120,000 ||
| ||
{| class="wikitable"

| 1956 || 381,000 ||
| 1959 || 449,000 ||

| 1970 || 658,000 ||
| 1971 || 676,000 ||
| 1979 || 781,000 ||
| 1989 || 897,600 ||
| 1991 || 896,600 ||
| 2001 || 815,300||
| 2010 || 776,918 ||
| 2011 || 775,678 ||
|****  || ||


Ethnic structure

According to the 2001 census
Ukrainian Census (2001)
The first Ukrainian Census was carried out by State Statistics Committee of Ukraine on 5 December 2001, twelve years after the last Soviet Union census in 1989....

, Zaporizhia had the following ethnic structure::
Total(thousand) Ukrainians Russians Belorussians Bulgarians Jews Georgians Armenians Tatar Azeris Gypsies Poles Germans Moldavians Greeks
815.3 573 207 5.5 3.6 3.4 3.11 3.08 2.2 1.2 0.92 0.78 0.76 0.72 0.6
100% 70.28% 25.39% 0.67% 0.44% 0.42% 0.38% 0.38% 0.27% 0.15% 0.11% 0.1% 0.09% 0.09% 0.07%

Zaporizhia residents speak mostly in Russian. For official government business Ukrainian
Ukrainian language
Ukrainian is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. It is the official state language of Ukraine. Written Ukrainian uses a variant of the Cyrillic alphabet....

 is used.


There are few different religion societies in the city

rthodox church]

Most popular religion among city-people is Orthodox Christianity, which governed by Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchy and Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Kiev Patriarchy. The main orthodox church is Church of the Intercession
Pokrov (disambiguation)
Pokrov may refer to:*Pokrov or Pokrova , name for the Intercession of the Theotokos, one of the most important Russian and Ukrainian Orthodox feasts*Pokrov , name of several inhabited localities in Russia...

 of Ukrainian Orthodox Church of Moscow Patriarchy.

There are another Orthodox cathedrals in a city: St. Nicholas Church
St. Nicholas Church
-Albania:*St. Nicholas' Church, Moscopole*St. Nicholas' Church, Perondi*St. Nicholas' Church, Shelcan-Bulgaria:*Church of St Nicholas, Sapareva Banya*Russian Church, Sofia*Church of St. Nicholas, Sofia*Church of St Nicholas, Vukovo-Germany:...

, St. Andrew's Cathedral
St. Andrew's Cathedral
St. Andrew's Cathedral, or the Cathedral Church of St. Andrew, may refer to:In Australia:* St. Andrew's Cathedral, SydneyIn Canada:* St. Andrew's Cathedral, Victoria, British ColumbiaIn England:* Rochester Cathedral before 1642...


Protestantism is presented by:
  • All-Ukrainian Union of Christians of Evangelical Faith
    Evangelical Baptist Union of Ukraine
    Evangelical Baptist Union of Ukraine aka All-Ukrainian Union of Churches of Evangelical Christian Baptists '; ; is a union of Baptists in Ukraine. It is the largest protestant union in Ukraine.-History:...

  • Seventh-day Adventist Church
    Seventh-day Adventist Church
    The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent second coming of Jesus Christ...

  • Jehovah's Witnesses
    Jehovah's Witnesses
    Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity. The religion reports worldwide membership of over 7 million adherents involved in evangelism, convention attendance of over 12 million, and annual...

  • Full Gospel Church
    Pentecostalism is a diverse and complex movement within Christianity that places special emphasis on a direct personal experience of God through the baptism in the Holy Spirit, has an eschatological focus, and is an experiential religion. The term Pentecostal is derived from Pentecost, the Greek...



Catholicism is represented by:
  • Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church
    Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church
    The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church , Ukrainska Hreko-Katolytska Tserkva), is the largest Eastern Rite Catholic sui juris particular church in full communion with the Holy See, and is directly subject to the Pope...

  • The Roman Catholic Church.

The biggest catholic church is Church of God, the Father of Mercy

Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism
Orthodox Judaism , is the approach to Judaism which adheres to the traditional interpretation and application of the laws and ethics of the Torah as legislated in the Talmudic texts by the Sanhedrin and subsequently developed and applied by the later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and...

 is presented by one union and six communities.

Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

In the Zaporizhia district exists five communities which are part of the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Ukraine
Islam in Ukraine
The majority of Muslims in Ukraine are ethnic Crimean Tatars and live in the Crimean peninsula. According to a Pew Forum study, the Muslim population in Ukraine is 393,000, while according to the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Ukraine there are 2 million Muslims in Ukraine.- History of...

 and four ones independently.

Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

There is a branch of the Vedic Academy
Historical Vedic religion
The religion of the Vedic period is a historical predecessor of Hinduism. Its liturgy is reflected in the mantra portion of the four Vedas, which are compiled in Sanskrit. The religious practices centered on a clergy administering rites...

 in a city.


Zaporizhia is an important industrial center of Ukraine, the country's main car manufacturing company, the Motor-Sich
The Motor Sich Public Joint Stock Company in Zaporizhia is among the largest engine manufactures for airplanes and helicopters worldwide. It also is the only enterprise in Ukraine manufacturing engines for airplanes and helicopters as well as industrial gas turbine installations...

 world-famous aircraft engine manufacturer. Well supplied with electricity, Zaporizhzhya forms, together with the adjoining Donets Basin and the Nikopol manganese and Kryvyy Rih iron mines, one of Ukraine's leading industrial complexes.

After the end of the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution of 1917
The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which destroyed the Tsarist autocracy and led to the creation of the Soviet Union. The Tsar was deposed and replaced by a provisional government in the first revolution of February 1917...

, the city became an important industrial center. The presence of cheap labor and the proximity of deposits of coal, iron ore, and manganese created favorable conditions for large-scale enterprises of the iron and mechanical engineering industry. Today Zaporizhia is an important industrial centre of the region with heavy industry (particularly metallurgy
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. It is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to their practical use...

), aluminium, and chemical industry. In the city cars, avia motors, radioelectronics are manufactured. The port of Zaporizhia is an important place of transshipment for goods from the Donbass. Zaporizhstal
Zaporizhstal, is Ukraine's fourth largest steel maker with an annual capacity of 4.5 mil. tonnes of steel, 3.3 mil. tonnes of pig iron, 4.1 mil. of finished steel products, and ranks 54th in the world. The leader of the national industry is Kryvorizhstal...

, Ukraine's fourth largest steel maker, ranks 54th in the world and is based in the city.

Electricity generation

Zaporizhia also has a big electricity generating complex catering to industrial demand. The city is a home for the hydroelectric power plant known as "DnieproGES" Dnieper Hydroelectric Station
Dnieper Hydroelectric Station
The Dnieper Hydroelectric Station is the largest hydroelectric power station on the Dnieper River, placed in Zaporizhia, Ukraine.- Early Plans :In the lower current of the Dnieper River there were almost 100 km long part of the river filled with rapids...

 located inside the city. The largest nuclear power plant in Europe, the Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant
Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Plant
The Zaporizhzhia Nuclear Power Station in Ukraine is the largest nuclear power plant in Europe and the third largest in the world.The plant is located in Central Ukraine near the city of Enerhodar, on the banks of the Kakhovka Reservoir on the Dnieper river. It has 6 VVER-1000 pressurized light...

 is located near the Enerhodar
Enerhodar is the city in north-west part of Zaporizhia Oblast, Ukraine.Enerhodar is located on the left bank of Dnieper river near the Kakhovka Reservoir....

, around 60 km from Zaporizhia.


The Zaporizhia transportation system includes roadway, rail, river and air options for passenger and freight transit. Public city transport includes buses, minivans, trams, trolleybus
A trolleybus is an electric bus that draws its electricity from overhead wires using spring-loaded trolley poles. Two wires and poles are required to complete the electrical circuit...

es and railways. The city has two railway stations, Zaporizhia-the-First and Zaporizhia-the-Second. The First is the central station. It is located in the southern part of the city and is a part of the "north-south" transit route Simferopol
-Russian Empire and Civil War:The city was renamed Simferopol in 1784 after the annexation of the Crimean Khanate to the Russian Empire by Catherine II of Russia. The name Simferopol is derived from the Greek, Συμφερόπολις , translated as "the city of usefulness." In 1802, Simferopol became the...

-Moscow. The line of the Zaporizhia-the-Second station connects the Donbass coalfield with Kryvoi Rog
Kryvyi Rih
Kryvyi Rih or Krivoy Rog is a city in central Ukraine. It is situated in Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, to the southwest of the oblast's administrative center, Dnipropetrovsk, at the confluence of the Inhulets and Saksahan rivers...

 iron ore site. Two river ports connect Kiev
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. The population as of the 2001 census was 2,611,300. However, higher numbers have been cited in the press....

 to Kherson
Kherson is a city in southern Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Kherson Oblast , and is designated as its own separate raion within the oblast. Kherson is an important port on the Black Sea and Dnieper River, and the home of a major ship-building industry...

 and cutter boats travel between Zaporizhia and nearby villages. The city's sole airport
Zaporizhia International Airport
Zaporizhia International Airport is the international airport that serves Zaporizhia, Ukraine one of three airfields around the city. The aircraft engine factory Motor Sich has its base here....

 includes both domestic and international flights.

Environmental problems

The city was very much an 'industrial city' during Soviet times, with all the consequences in terms of pollution that might be expected. The move to a market economy since the independence of Ukraine has seen the demise of some of these concerns. This has improved the air quality.


The cultural background of Zaporizhia is creating by philharmonic, a number of museums, theaters, libraries
In a traditional sense, a library is a large collection of books, and can refer to the place in which the collection is housed. Today, the term can refer to any collection, including digital sources, resources, and services...

. Among them are:
  • Magara Academic Drama Theatre
  • Municipal Theatre Lab «VIE»
  • Theatre for Young People
  • Theatre of Horse Riding «Zaporizhzhian Cossacks»
  • Zaporizhia Regional Museum
  • National Museum of Zaporizhzhian Cossacks History
  • Zaporizhia Regional Art Museum
  • Gorky
    Gorky may refer to:People:*Maxim Gorky , Russian author and political activist, founder of socialist realism*Arshile Gorky , Armenian/American abstract expressionist painterInhabited localities:...

     Zaporizhia Regional Public Library

There are a lot of small amateur groups, folk music and song bands, art galleries
Art gallery
An art gallery or art museum is a building or space for the exhibition of art, usually visual art.Museums can be public or private, but what distinguishes a museum is the ownership of a collection...

 in Zaporizhia. The city is regularly held festivals and feast
Feast may refer to:* Banquet, a large meal* A Festival or feria* Ramadan, Muslim's holy month* Nineteen Day Feast, a monthly meeting held in Bahá'í communities to worship, consult, and socialize....

s, competitions of the Cossack
Cossacks are a group of predominantly East Slavic people who originally were members of democratic, semi-military communities in what is today Ukraine and Southern Russia inhabiting sparsely populated areas and islands in the lower Dnieper and Don basins and who played an important role in the...

 martial arts and exhibitions of people art masters.

Zaporizhia has a open-air exhibition-and-sale of Zaporizhzhia city association of artists «Kolorit»
Zaporizhzhia city association of artists «Kolorit»
Zaporizhzhia city association of artists «Kolorit»   — is a democratic creative organization in Zaporizhzhia, Ukraine, the members of which are as professional artists, designers, cartoonists, members of the Union of Artists of Ukraine, national Union of Masters of Ukraine, and also those...

 near the 'Fountain of Life' at the Mayakovskoho square. A daily exhibition of artists' organizations of the city is a unique place in Zaporizhzhia, where people can communicate with craftsmen and artists, watch classes of carving
- Arts :*Bone carving*Chip carving*Gourd carving or Gourd art*Ice carving or Ice sculpture*Ivory carving*Stone carving**Petroglyph*Vegetable carving*Wood carving- Others :*Data carving and/or file carving, two closely related data recovery techniques...

, embroidery
Embroidery is the art or handicraft of decorating fabric or other materials with needle and thread or yarn. Embroidery may also incorporate other materials such as metal strips, pearls, beads, quills, and sequins....

, beading and other creative works, receive lessons from professional artists, designers, cartoonist
A cartoonist is a person who specializes in drawing cartoons. This work is usually humorous, mainly created for entertainment, political commentary or advertising...


Some attractions

The Island of Khortytsia (sizes 2x12 km) is located in the geographical center of the city. The city embraces the island by banks of the New and Old Dnieper streams.
Two concrete bridges connect the Island to the city.
They have been designed and constructed by the engineer Boris N. Preobrazhensky in 1952. Two level bridges have height about 54 meters. High level of the bridges is intended for rail and bottom – for cars and pedestrians.

The historical and cultural museum "Zaporizhian Sich" is placed on the northern rocky part of the Island of Khotritsa.
The museum is the reconstructed stronghold of the Zaporizhian Cossacs. All features of the military cossack's camp life and their lifestyle are presented in the museum.

The smaller islands are located between the dam and the island of Khortytsya. Each of these islands has its own legend. On one of them named Durnya Scala (Rock of the Fool) Tzar Peter the Great punished the Cossacks by flogging for their betrayal on the side of Charles XII of Sweden
Charles XII of Sweden
Charles XII also Carl of Sweden, , Latinized to Carolus Rex, Turkish: Demirbaş Şarl, also known as Charles the Habitué was the King of the Swedish Empire from 1697 to 1718...

 during the Great Northern War
Great Northern War
The Great Northern War was a conflict in which a coalition led by the Tsardom of Russia successfully contested the supremacy of the Swedish Empire in northern Central Europe and Eastern Europe. The initial leaders of the anti-Swedish alliance were Peter I the Great of Russia, Frederick IV of...

 between Russia and the Sweden.

The another small island, named Stolb (Pillar), has a geological feature, which looks like a large bowl in granite slabs, it's diameter equals 1,4 м, the depth – 1 м. This bowl has name Cossack's bowl. People say that in summer days under the hot sun, it is easy to boil water in this "bowl" and the Cossacks have used it for cooking galushki
(boiled dough in a spicy broth )

The panoramic view of the DnieproHES from the island of Khortytsia is very impressive.
The straight and long Lenin avenue (10 km) ends in the SotsGorod near the Dam, which built up of the constructivist architecture of the XX century.

Sister cities

Zaporizhia has an agreement about sister city
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 relations with 9 cities:
Lahti is a city and municipality in Finland.Lahti is the capital of the Päijänne Tavastia region. It is situated on a bay at the southern end of lake Vesijärvi about north-east of the capital Helsinki...

, Finland, since 1953 Belfort
Belfort is a commune in the Territoire de Belfort department in Franche-Comté in northeastern France and is the prefecture of the department. It is located on the Savoureuse, on the strategically important natural route between the Rhine and the Rhône – the Belfort Gap or Burgundian Gate .-...

, France, since 1967 Birmingham
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands of England. It is the most populous British city outside the capital London, with a population of 1,036,900 , and lies at the heart of the West Midlands conurbation, the second most populous urban area in the United Kingdom with a...

, Great Britain, since 1973 Linz
Linz is the third-largest city of Austria and capital of the state of Upper Austria . It is located in the north centre of Austria, approximately south of the Czech border, on both sides of the river Danube. The population of the city is , and that of the Greater Linz conurbation is about...

, Austria, since 1983
Oberhausen is a city on the river Emscher in the Ruhr Area, Germany, located between Duisburg and Essen . The city hosts the International Short Film Festival Oberhausen and its Gasometer Oberhausen is an anchor point of the European Route of Industrial Heritage. It is also well known for the...

, Germany, since 1986 Yichang
Yichang is a prefecture-level city located in Hubei province of the People's Republic of China. It is the second largest city in Hubei province after the province capital, Wuhan. The Three Gorges Dam is located within its administrative area, in Yiling District.-History:In ancient times Yichang...

, China, since 1993 Novokuznetsk
Novokuznetsk is a city in Kemerovo Oblast, Russia. It serves as the administrative center of Novokuznetsky District, but it is not administratively a part of it...

, Russia, since 1997 Magdeburg
Magdeburg , is the largest city and the capital city of the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Magdeburg is situated on the Elbe River and was one of the most important medieval cities of Europe....

, Germany, since 2008 Chongqing
Chongqing is a major city in Southwest China and one of the five national central cities of China. Administratively, it is one of the PRC's four direct-controlled municipalities , and the only such municipality in inland China.The municipality was created on 14 March 1997, succeeding the...

, China

In 1969 the city Zaporizhia named one of its streets "Wrocław",the Wrocław communist government acknowleding that they should honour the Ukrainian city in a similar way and a part of the Sudecka - Grabiszyńska street towards the square of the Silesian Insurgents - was renamed to Zaporoska street . It is about 1.3 km long.

External links

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