Dnipropetrovsk
Overview
 
Dnipropetrovsk or Dnepropetrovsk formerly Yekaterinoslav ' onMouseout='HidePop("45284")' href="/topics/Romanization_of_Ukrainian">translit.
Romanization of Ukrainian
The romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin letters.
Encyclopedia
Dnipropetrovsk or Dnepropetrovsk formerly Yekaterinoslav ' onMouseout='HidePop("45284")' href="/topics/Romanization_of_Ukrainian">translit.
Romanization of Ukrainian
The romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin letters. Ukrainian is natively written in its own Ukrainian alphabet, a variation of Cyrillic....

 Katerynoslav, also Catharinoslav on old maps) is Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

's third largest city
City
A city is a relatively large and permanent settlement. Although there is no agreement on how a city is distinguished from a town within general English language meanings, many cities have a particular administrative, legal, or historical status based on local law.For example, in the U.S...

 with one million inhabitants. It is located southeast of Ukraine's capital Kiev
Kiev
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. The population as of the 2001 census was 2,611,300. However, higher numbers have been cited in the press....

 on the Dnieper River
Dnieper River
The Dnieper River is one of the major rivers of Europe that flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, to the Black Sea.The total length is and has a drainage basin of .The river is noted for its dams and hydroelectric stations...

, in the south-central region of the country. Dnipropetrovsk is the administrative centre of the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast
Dnipropetrovsk Oblast
Dnipropetrovsk Oblast is an oblast of central Ukraine, the most important industrial region of the country. Its administrative center is Dnipropetrovsk....

 (province
Oblast
Oblast is a type of administrative division in Slavic countries, including some countries of the former Soviet Union. The word "oblast" is a loanword in English, but it is nevertheless often translated as "area", "zone", "province", or "region"...

).

Within the Dnipropetrovsk Metropolitan area there are 1,860,000 people (2001).

A vital industrial centre of Ukraine, Dnipropetrovsk was one of the key centres of the nuclear
Nuclear power
Nuclear power is the use of sustained nuclear fission to generate heat and electricity. Nuclear power plants provide about 6% of the world's energy and 13–14% of the world's electricity, with the U.S., France, and Japan together accounting for about 50% of nuclear generated electricity...

, arms
Arms industry
The arms industry is a global industry and business which manufactures and sells weapons and military technology and equipment. It comprises government and commercial industry involved in research, development, production, and service of military material, equipment and facilities...

, and space
Soviet space program
The Soviet space program is the rocketry and space exploration programs conducted by the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics from the 1930s until its dissolution in 1991...

 industries of the former Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

. In particular, it is home to Yuzhmash
Yuzhmash
The A.M. Makarov Yuzhny Machine-Building Plant, or PA Yuzhmash is a Ukrainian manufacturer of space rockets, agricultural equipment, buses, trolley buses and trams, wind turbines, and satellites...

, a major space and ballistic missile
Ballistic missile
A ballistic missile is a missile that follows a sub-orbital ballistic flightpath with the objective of delivering one or more warheads to a predetermined target. The missile is only guided during the relatively brief initial powered phase of flight and its course is subsequently governed by the...

 designer and manufacturer. Because of its military industry, the city was a closed city
Closed city
A closed city or closed town is a settlement with travel and residency restrictions in the Soviet Union and some of its successor countries. In modern Russia, such places are officially known as "closed administrative-territorial formations" ....

 until the 1990s.

Other names

In 1917 Yekaterinoslav was renamed Sicheslav by the Ukrainian People's Republic
Ukrainian People's Republic
The Ukrainian People's Republic or Ukrainian National Republic was a republic that was declared in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura.-Revolutionary Wave:...

; this name lapsed in 1919.

Time-line of name change

  • Yekaterinoslav 1776–1782, reestablished 1783–1797
  • Novorossiysk 1797–1802
  • Yekaterinoslav 1802–1917
  • Sicheslav 1917–1918
  • Yekaterinoslav 1918–1926
  • Dnepropetrovsk/Dnipropetrovsk 1926–present

Geography

The city is built mainly upon the banks of the Dnieper river
Dnieper River
The Dnieper River is one of the major rivers of Europe that flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, to the Black Sea.The total length is and has a drainage basin of .The river is noted for its dams and hydroelectric stations...

, in the loop of a major meander where the river changes its course from the north west to continue southerly and later south-westerly through Ukraine, ultimately reaching Kherson where it discharges into the Black Sea
Black Sea
The Black Sea is bounded by Europe, Anatolia and the Caucasus and is ultimately connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Mediterranean and the Aegean seas and various straits. The Bosphorus strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and the strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean...

. This location always provided significant opportunities for the advancement of agriculture, mainly thanks to the natural irrigation provided by the river and the resulting fertile soils. {fact}}

The area upon which the city is built is mainly void of hills and other physical geographical features. Being mainly flat, the land has proven easy to utilize and thus explains why the city has been able to grow to such a great extent over the past 200 years. Whilst most residential, commercial and idustrial districts of the city are to be found on the less marshy south bank of the river, some residential, commercial and idustrial areas have developed on the previously less-hospitable northern bank. With the advancements in civil engineering in Ukraine heralded by the rise of the Soviet Union's industrialization program, the northern bank was made more accessible for development and nowadays a good number of the city's residents live in districts situated there.

Nowadays both the north and south banks play home to a range of industrial enterprises and manufacturing plants. The city airport is located around 15 km (9.32 mi) south-easterly of the city.

The centre of the city is constructed on a large plateau next to the Dnieper, the old town however, is situated atop of a hill, formed as a result of the river's change of course to the south. Karla Marksa Prospekt links the two major architectural ensembles of the city and constitutes an important thoroughfare through the centre, which along with various suburban radial road systems, provides some of the area's most vital transport links for both suburban and inter-urban travel.

Climate

During the summer, Dnipropetrovsk is very warm (average day temperature in July is 24 to 27 °C (75.2 to 80.6 F), and in the winter, it is cold (average day temperature in January is 3 to 4 °C (37.4 to 39.2 F).

The best time for visiting the city is in late spring — second part of April and May, and early in autumn: September, October, when the city's trees turn yellow. Long periods of rain are normal in autumn. Other times are mainly dry with a few showers.

The climate is a mixture of temperate
Temperate
In geography, temperate or tepid latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. The changes in these regions between summer and winter are generally relatively moderate, rather than extreme hot or cold...

 and continental
Continental climate
Continental climate is a climate characterized by important annual variation in temperature due to the lack of significant bodies of water nearby...

 climates and sometimes in the winter it is very cold and snowy (sometimes dropping down to −10 to −15 °C), and in summer, the city is not very hot (up to +29 to +30 °C).

"However, the city is characterized with significant pollution of air with industrial emissions." The "severely polluted air and water" and allegedly "vast areas of decimated landscape" of Dnipropetrovsk and Donetsk
Donetsk
Donetsk , is a large city in eastern Ukraine on the Kalmius river. Administratively, it is a center of Donetsk Oblast, while historically, it is the unofficial capital and largest city of the economic and cultural Donets Basin region...

 are considered by some to be an environmental crisis. Though exactly where in Dnipropetrovsk these areas might be found is not stated.

Ancient times

The first people settled around the bend of the Dnieper River about 15,000 years ago. Traces of this settlement were discovered on Monastyrsky Island (Монастирський острів). This unique island appears throughout the history of Prydniprovia (Придніпров'я), as a consistent centre of events as well as the ancient nucleus of the city. After the last Ice Age
Ice age
An ice age or, more precisely, glacial age, is a generic geological period of long-term reduction in the temperature of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental ice sheets, polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers...

 (10,000 years ago) the settling of the Prydniprovia area began more intensely. In c.3500–2700 BC the first farmers lived here (people of the so-called Cucuteni-Trypillia culture
Cucuteni culture
The Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, also known as Cucuteni culture , Trypillian culture or Tripolye culture , is a late Neolithic archaeological culture which flourished between ca...

).

The Cimmerians
Cimmerians
The Cimmerians or Kimmerians were ancient equestrian nomads of Indo-European origin.According to the Greek historian Herodotus, of the 5th century BC, the Cimmerians inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea during the 8th and 7th centuries BC, in what is now Ukraine and Russia...

, ancient equestrian nomads who bred cattle, occupied the North Pontic steppe zone including Prydniprovye; their culture and civilization flourished between about 1000 and 800 BC The Cimmerians
Cimmerians
The Cimmerians or Kimmerians were ancient equestrian nomads of Indo-European origin.According to the Greek historian Herodotus, of the 5th century BC, the Cimmerians inhabited the region north of the Caucasus and the Black Sea during the 8th and 7th centuries BC, in what is now Ukraine and Russia...

 were driven out by the nomadic Scythians (700 BC), who in turn were overcome by the Sarmatians
Sarmatians
The Iron Age Sarmatians were an Iranian people in Classical Antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD....

 from the East (200 BC).

The mighty, broad Dnieper River
Dnieper River
The Dnieper River is one of the major rivers of Europe that flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, to the Black Sea.The total length is and has a drainage basin of .The river is noted for its dams and hydroelectric stations...

 (Greeks called it the Borysthenes
Borysthenes
Borysthenes is a geographical name from classical Antiquity. It usually refers to the Dnipro River, but occasionally to the Pontic Olbia, a town situated at the mouth of that river. The Borysthenes is mentioned numerous times in 'The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire' by Edward...

, 'Borysphen' in local pronunciation) with its picturesque islands and peaceful backwaters, lush flood-meadows and shadowy oak woods stretches along river valleys and ravines. Abundant game and fish in local forests and waters are a result of good climate and vast fertile land... All this attracted hunters, fishers, cattle-breeders and land-tillers to these parts.

In the 3rd and 4th century AD, about 40 km south of the modern city, the village of Bashmachka (Башмачка) was one of the centres of the Goths. A little later their place was taken by first the Huns, the Avars, the Bulgars, and the Magyars. After them the Slavs began to settle in the area.

The middle ages

A monastery was founded by Byzantine
Byzantine
Byzantine usually refers to the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages.Byzantine may also refer to:* A citizen of the Byzantine Empire, or native Greek during the Middle Ages...

 monks on Monastyrsky Island, probably in the 9th century (870 AD). The Dnipropetrovsk area was ruled by a steppe nomadic people called the Cumans
Cumans
The Cumans were Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman-Kipchak confederation. After Mongol invasion , they decided to seek asylum in Hungary, and subsequently to Bulgaria...

 or Kipchaks who ruled this area until the Mongol invasions
Mongol invasions
Mongol invasions progressed throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire which covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe by 1300....

. The Mongols destroyed the monastery in 1240.

The collection of so-called 'Stony Women' in the garden of the Museum of History in Karla Marksa was created by the Kipchaks. Actually they are not females, and are a modular collection from neighboring barrows. In the past they served as the index points for the steppe inhabitants.

At the beginning of the 15th century, Tatar tribes inhabiting the right bank of the Dnieper were driven away by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania
Grand Duchy of Lithuania
The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state from the 12th /13th century until 1569 and then as a constituent part of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until 1791 when Constitution of May 3, 1791 abolished it in favor of unitary state. It was founded by the Lithuanians, one of the polytheistic...

. Unfortunately, by the mid-15th century, the Nogai
Nogai
The term Nogai can refer to more than one thing:* Nogai Khan was a de facto ruler of the Golden Horde.* Nogai Horde was a Turkic state which split from the Golden Horde in late 15th century.* The Nogais are a Turkic people....

 (who lived north of the Sea of Azov
Sea of Azov
The Sea of Azov , known in Classical Antiquity as Lake Maeotis, is a sea on the south of Eastern Europe. It is linked by the narrow Strait of Kerch to the Black Sea to the south and is bounded on the north by Ukraine mainland, on the east by Russia, and on the west by the Ukraine's Crimean...

) and the Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate
Crimean Khanate, or Khanate of Crimea , was a state ruled by Crimean Tatars from 1441 to 1783. Its native name was . Its khans were the patrilineal descendants of Toqa Temür, the thirteenth son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan...

 invaded these lands. The Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Crimean Khanate agreed to a border along the Dnieper, and further east along the Samara River
Samara River
The Samara is a river in Russia, left tributary of Volga. The city of Samara is located at the confluence of Volga and Samara. It rises southwest of the southern end of the Ural Mountains close to the middle Ural River near the town of Orenburg. It then flows west or west northwest to meet the...

, i.e. through what is today the city of Dnipropetrovsk. It was in this time that there appeared a new force – the free people – Cossacks. They later became known as Zaporozhian Cossacks (Zaporizhia – the lands south of Prydniprovye, translate as "The Land Beyond the Weirs [Rapids]"). This was a period of raids and fighting causing considerable devastation and depopulation in that area; the area became known as the 'Wilderness' (Russian Дикое поле)
Wild Fields
The Wild Field or the Wilderness is a historical term used in the Polish–Lithuanian documents of the 16th and 18th centuries referring to forest steppes and steppes of the Black sea and Azov sea regions...

 (Ukrainian Дике Поле).

16th–18th centuries

The first fortified town in what is now Dnipropetrovsk was probably built in the mid-16th century, and is now referred to as "Stari Kodaky" [Old Kodaky]. In 1635, the Polish Government built the Kodak fortress
Kodak fortress
Kodak fortress was a fort built in 1635 by the order of Polish king Władysław IV Vasa and the Sejm over the Dnieper River, near what was to become the town of Stari Kodaky...

 above the Dnieper Rapids at Kodaky (on the south-eastern outskirts of modern Dnipropetrovsk), partly as a result of rivalry in the region of Poland, Turkey and Russia, and partly to maintain control over Cossack activity (i.e. to suppress the Cossacks raiders and to prevent peasants moving out of the area). Some historians date foundation of the city as 1635 because of this. On the night of 3/4 August 1635, the Cossacks of Ivan Sulyma
Ivan Sulyma
Ivan Sulyma was a Senior of Registered Cossacks in 1628-29 and a Kosh Otaman in 1630-35.-Life and Death:Son of Mykhailo Sulyma, Ivan came from a petty noble family. He was born in Rogoszcze...

 captured the fort by surprise, burning it down and butchering the garrison of about 200 West European mercenaries under Jean Marion. The fort was rebuilt by French engineer Guillaume le Vasseur de Beauplan for the Polish Government in 1638, and had a mercenary garrison. Kodak was captured by Zaporozhian Cossacks
Zaporozhian Host
The Zaporozhian Cossacks or simply Zaporozhians were Ukrainian Cossacks who lived beyond the rapids of the Dnieper river, the land also known as the Great Meadow in Central Ukraine...

 on 1 October 1648, and was garrisoned by the Cossacks until its demolition in accordance with the Treaty of the Pruth
Treaty of the Pruth
The Treaty of the Pruth was signed on the banks of the river Pruth between the Ottoman Empire and the Tsardom of Russia on 21 July 1711, ending the Russo-Turkish War of 1710–1711...

 in 1711. The ruins of the Kodak are visible now. There is a currently a project to restore it and create a tourist centre and park-museum.

Under the Treaty of Pereyaslav
Treaty of Pereyaslav
The Treaty of Pereyaslav is known in history more as the Council of Pereiaslav.Council of Pereyalslav was a meeting between the representative of the Russian Tsar, Prince Vasili Baturlin who presented a royal decree, and Bohdan Khmelnytsky as the leader of Cossack Hetmanate. During the council...

 of 1654, the territory became part of the Russian Empire
Tsardom of Russia
The Tsardom of Russia was the name of the centralized Russian state from Ivan IV's assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 till Peter the Great's foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721.From 1550 to 1700, Russia grew 35,000 km2 a year...

. For practical purposes, the Prydniprovye lands remained a self-governing border area until the destruction of the Zaporizhian Sich
Zaporizhian Sich
Zaporizhian Sich was socio-political, grassroot, military organization of Ukrainian cossacks placed beyond Dnieper rapids. Sich existed between the 16th and 18th centuries in the region around the today's Kakhovka Reservoir...

 in 1775.

The Zaporozhian village of Polovytsia was founded in the late-1760s, between the settlements of Stari (Old) and Novi (New) Kodaky. It was located at the present centre of the city to the West to district of Central Terminal and the Ozyorka farmers market.

1775–1917: Modern city establishment

The city that is now called Dnipropetrovsk was founded as part of the expansion of the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

 into the lands North of the Black Sea
Black Sea
The Black Sea is bounded by Europe, Anatolia and the Caucasus and is ultimately connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Mediterranean and the Aegean seas and various straits. The Bosphorus strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and the strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean...

, known as the Novorossiysk gubernia
Novorossiya
Novorossiya is a historic area of lands which established itself solidly after the annexation of the Crimean Khanate by the Russian Empire, but was introduced with the establishment of Novorossiysk Governorate with the capital in Kremenchuk in the mid 18th century. Until that time in both Polish...

. The city was originally known as Yekaterinoslav, which translates in English to "The glory of Yekaterina" (Catherine the Great). It became the administrative centre of the Yekaterinoslav Governorate
Yekaterinoslav Governorate
The Yekaterinoslav Governorate or Government of Yekaterinoslav was a governorate in the Russian Empire. Its capital was the city of Yekaterinoslav .-Administrative divisions:...

.

Cossack and Russian armies fought against the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 for control of this area in the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774). The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca
Treaty of Kucuk Kaynarca
The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca was signed on 21 July 1774, in Küçük Kaynarca , Dobruja between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire after the Ottoman Empire was defeated in the...

 ended this war in July 1774; and in May 1775 the Russian army destroyed the Zaporozhian Sich
Zaporozhian Host
The Zaporozhian Cossacks or simply Zaporozhians were Ukrainian Cossacks who lived beyond the rapids of the Dnieper river, the land also known as the Great Meadow in Central Ukraine...

, thus eliminating the political independence of Cossacks. In 1774 Prince Grigori Potemkin was appointed governor of Novorossiysk gubernia, and after the destruction of the Zaporozhian Sich, he started founding cities in the region and encouraging foreign settlers. The city of Yekaterinoslav was founded in 1776, not in the current location, but at the confluence of the River Samara
Samara River (Dnieper)
The Samara is a river in Ukraine, a left tributary of the river Dnieper. The city of Dnipropetrovsk is located near the confluence of Dnieper and Samara....

 with the River Kil'chen' at Loshakivka, north of the Dnieper. By 1782, the city population was 2,194. However the site had been badly chosen because spring waters were transforming the city into a bog. The settlement was later renamed Novomoskovsk.
In 1783, Yekaterinoslav was refounded on its current site, on the south bank of the Dnieper, near the Zaporozhian village of Polovytsia. The population of Yekaterinoslav-Kil'chen were (according to some sources) transferred to the new site. Potemkin's plans for the city were extremely ambitious; it was to be about 30 km by 25 km in size, and included:
  • Transfiguration Cathedral
    Transfiguration Cathedral, Dnipropetrovsk
    The Saviour's Transfiguration Cathedral is the main Orthodox church of Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine. The foundation stone was laid in 1786 by Catherine II of Russia and Emperor Joseph II. The event is described in the memoirs of comte de Ségur. Prince Grigory Potemkin envisioned the church as one of...

     (the claim that it was intended to be the largest in the world probably results from confusing Potemkin's reference to San Paulo-fuori-le-mura in Rome with St Peter's Basilica.)
  • The Potemkin palace
  • A magnificent university (never built)
  • A botanical garden on Monastyrskyi Island
  • Wide straight avenues through the city.


The site for the Potemkin palace was bought from retired Cossack yesaul (colonel) Lazar' Globa, who owned much of the land near the city. Part of Lazar' Globa's gardens still exist and are now called Globa Park.

A combination of Russian red tape, defective workmanship, and theft resulted in what was built being less than originally planned. Construction stopped after the death of Potemkin and his sponsor, Empress Catherine. Plans were reconsidered and scaled back. The size of the cathedral was reduced, and it was completed in 1835. From 1797 to 1802 the city was called Novorossiysk.

Despite the bridging of the Dnieper in 1796 and the growth of trade in the early 19th century, Yekaterinoslav remained small until the 1880s, when the railway was built and industrialization of the city began. The boom was caused by two men: John Hughes
John Hughes (businessman)
John James Hughes was a Welsh engineer, businessman and founder of a city in Ukraine. The city was originally named Yuzovka or Hughesovka after Hughes, but was renamed Stalino in 1924 .-Biography:Hughes was born in Merthyr Tydfil, Wales,...

, a Welsh businessman who built an iron works at what is now Donetsk
Donetsk
Donetsk , is a large city in eastern Ukraine on the Kalmius river. Administratively, it is a center of Donetsk Oblast, while historically, it is the unofficial capital and largest city of the economic and cultural Donets Basin region...

 in 1869–72, and developed the Donetsk coal deposits.; and Alexandr Pol', a Ukrainian who accidentally discovered the Kryvyi Rih
Kryvyi Rih
Kryvyi Rih or Krivoy Rog is a city in central Ukraine. It is situated in Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, to the southwest of the oblast's administrative center, Dnipropetrovsk, at the confluence of the Inhulets and Saksahan rivers...

 iron ores in 1866, during archaeological research.

The Donetsk coal was necessary for smelting pig-iron from the Kryvyi Rih ore, producing a need for railway to connect Donetsk with Kryvyi Rih. Permission to build the railway was given in 1881, and it opened in 1884. The railway crossed the Dnieper at Yekaterinoslav. The city grew quickly; new suburbs appeared: Amur, Nyzhnodniprovsk and the factory areas developed. In 1897, Yekaterinoslav became the third city in the Russian Empire to have electric trams. The Higher Mining School opened in 1899, and by 1913 it had grown into the Mining Institute.

Russian defeat in the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
The Russo-Japanese War was "the first great war of the 20th century." It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea...

 in 1905 resulted in revolts against the Tsar in many places including Yekaterinoslav. Tens of people were killed and hundreds wounded. There was a wave of anti-Semitic attacks.

From 1902 to 1933, the famous historian of the Zaporozhian Cossacks, Dmytro Yavornytsky
Dmytro Yavornytsky
Dmytro Yavornytsky , was a noted Ukrainian historian, archeologist, ethnographer, folklorist, and lexicographer. He was one of the most prominent researchers of the Ukrainian Cossacks, especially the Zaporozhian Cossacks , and the author of their first general history...

, was Director of the Dnipropetrovsk Museum, which was later named after him. Before his death in 1940, Yavornytsky wrote a History of the City of Yekaterinoslav, which lay in manuscript for many years. It was only published in 1989 as a result of the Gorbachev reforms
Perestroika
Perestroika was a political movement within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during 1980s, widely associated with the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev...

.

1917–1919: Civil War

After the Russian February revolution
February Revolution
The February Revolution of 1917 was the first of two revolutions in Russia in 1917. Centered around the then capital Petrograd in March . Its immediate result was the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, the end of the Romanov dynasty, and the end of the Russian Empire...

 in 1917 Yekaterinoslav became a city within autonomy of Ukrainian People's Republic
Ukrainian People's Republic
The Ukrainian People's Republic or Ukrainian National Republic was a republic that was declared in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura.-Revolutionary Wave:...

 under Tsentralna Rada
Tsentralna Rada
The Tsentralna Rada or Central Rada at first was the All-Ukrainian council that united political, public, cultural, professional organizations. Later after the All-Ukrainian National Congress that council became the revolutionary parliament of Ukraine...

 government. In November 1917 the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists , derived from bol'shinstvo, "majority") were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903....

s led a rebellion and got power for a short time. The city experienced occupation of German and Austrian-Hungarian armies that were allies of Ukrainian Hetman
Hetman
Hetman was the title of the second-highest military commander in 15th- to 18th-century Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which together, from 1569 to 1795, comprised the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, or Rzeczpospolita....

 Pavlo Skoropadskyi and helped him to keep authority in the country.

During power of Ukrainian Directorate
Directorate of Ukraine
The Directorate, or Directory was a provisional revolutionary state committee of the Ukrainian National Republic, formed in 1918 by the Ukrainian National Union in rebellion against Skoropadsky's regime....

 government with its dictator Symon Petlura
Symon Petlura
Symon Vasylyovych Petliura was a publicist, writer, journalist, Ukrainian politician, statesman, and national leader who led Ukraine's struggle for independence following the Russian Revolution of 1917....

 the city had periods of uncertain power; at times the anarchists of Nestor Makhno
Nestor Makhno
Nestor Ivanovych Makhno or simply Daddy Makhno was a Ukrainian anarcho-communist guerrilla leader turned army commander who led an independent anarchist army in Ukraine during the Russian Civil War....

 held the city, and at others Denikin
Anton Ivanovich Denikin
Anton Ivanovich Denikin was Lieutenant General of the Imperial Russian Army and one of the foremost generals of the White movement in the Russian Civil War.- Childhood :...

's Volunteer Army
Volunteer Army
The Volunteer Army was an anti-Bolshevik army in South Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920....

. Military operations of the Red Army
Red Army
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army started out as the Soviet Union's revolutionary communist combat groups during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1922. It grew into the national army of the Soviet Union. By the 1930s the Red Army was among the largest armies in history.The "Red Army" name refers to...

 which was headed from the North brought captured the city in 1919, and despite attempts by Russian General Wrangel
Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel
Baron Pyotr Nikolayevich Wrangel or Vrangel was an officer in the Imperial Russian army and later commanding general of the anti-Bolshevik White Army in Southern Russia in the later stages of the Russian Civil War.-Life:Wrangel was born in Mukuliai, Kovno Governorate in the Russian Empire...

 in 1920, he was unable to reach Yekaterinoslav, with War ending the following year.

1919–1991: in the Soviet Union and under Nazi rule

The city was renamed after the Communist leader of Ukraine Grigory Petrovsky
Grigory Petrovsky
Grigory Ivanovich Petrovsky was one of the most prominent Russian revolutionaries of Ukrainian origin, who was the Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR from December 30, 1922, to January 12, 1938....

 in 1926.

During the German occupation of Ukraine in World War II, the city gave its name to one of the six generalbezirke in which a Nazi Generalkommissar was in charge under the authority of the Reichskommissar
Reichskommissar
Reichskommissar , in German history, was an official gubernatorial title used for various public offices during the period of the German Empire and the Nazi Third Reich....

 in Kiev. Dnipropetrovsk was an important centre of Jewish life, and 80,000 Jews lived in the city before the Holocaust
The Holocaust
The Holocaust , also known as the Shoah , was the genocide of approximately six million European Jews and millions of others during World War II, a programme of systematic state-sponsored murder by Nazi...

, but soon after the Nazis conquered the city on 12 October 1941, 11,000 were shot; in the end only 15 Jews of Dnipropetrovsk survived at the end of the war.

During the past century, the economic activity of the city has defined its political importance. Dnipropetrovsk and the surrounding oblast
Oblast
Oblast is a type of administrative division in Slavic countries, including some countries of the former Soviet Union. The word "oblast" is a loanword in English, but it is nevertheless often translated as "area", "zone", "province", or "region"...

 are the birthplace of the "Dnipropetrovsk Faction", an influential informal political group inside the CPSU, members of which were the industrial and party elite. Leonid Brezhnev
Leonid Brezhnev
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev  – 10 November 1982) was the General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union , presiding over the country from 1964 until his death in 1982. His eighteen-year term as General Secretary was second only to that of Joseph Stalin in...

, a native of the nearby city of Dniprodzerzhyns'k and later the Communist Party General Secretary
General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the title given to the leader of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. With some exceptions, the office was synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union...

, assured members of this group of a prominent place in Soviet society and politics. Members of this group are believed by many political scientists to have ruled not only the Ukrainian SSR
Ukrainian SSR
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic or in short, the Ukrainian SSR was a sovereign Soviet Socialist state and one of the fifteen constituent republics of the Soviet Union lasting from its inception in 1922 to the breakup in 1991...

 but also the entire Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 up to the accession of Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev is a former Soviet statesman, having served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1985 until 1991, and as the last head of state of the USSR, having served from 1988 until its dissolution in 1991...

 to the position of CPSU General Secretary and President of the Soviet Union.

1944–1987: as a Closed City in the Soviet Union

As early as July 1944, the State Committee of Defense in Moscow
Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

 decided to build a large military machine-building factory in Dnipropetrovsk on the location of the pre-war aircraft plant. In December 1945, thousands of German prisoners of war
Prisoner of war
A prisoner of war or enemy prisoner of war is a person, whether civilian or combatant, who is held in custody by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict...

 began construction and built the first sections and shops in the new factory. This was the foundation of the Dnipropetrovsk Automobile Factory. In 1947 and 1948 this factory produced the first cars and special military automobile
Automobile
An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor...

s. However, on May 9, 1951 the USSR Council of Ministers decided to transform the main shops and sectors of this factory into a secret enterprise, which included not only special military vehicles but also powerful rocket engine
Rocket engine
A rocket engine, or simply "rocket", is a jet engineRocket Propulsion Elements; 7th edition- chapter 1 that uses only propellant mass for forming its high speed propulsive jet. Rocket engines are reaction engines and obtain thrust in accordance with Newton's third law...

s and different modern military aircraft. The former Dnipropetrovsk Automobile Factory was transferred to the Ministry of Armament of the USSR and it received a new name – the State Union Plant #586.
Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was the Premier of the Soviet Union from 6 May 1941 to 5 March 1953. He was among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who brought about the October Revolution and had held the position of first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee...

 suggested special secret training for highly qualified engineers and scientists to become rocket construction specialists. He recommended introducing a new college degree at Dnipropetrovsk State University: a master of sciences in rocket construction. In 1952 the university administration formed the new department with the name “Physical-technical Faculty.” It was the largest department at the university, admitting an average of four hundred students per year. These students received better accommodations and a higher stipend
Stipend
A stipend is a form of salary, such as for an internship or apprenticeship. It is often distinct from a wage or a salary because it does not necessarily represent payment for work performed, instead it represents a payment that enables somebody to be exempt partly or wholly from waged or salaried...

 payment than students from other departments and colleges. The lowest stipend for this department was 450 rubles per student, while the highest stipend at another prestigious school, the Dnipropetrovsk Medical Institute, was 180 rubles.

A special commission from Moscow selected talented undergraduate students studying physics from engineering schools all over the USSR and sent them to the physical-technical department at Dnipropetrovsk State University
Dnipropetrovsk National University
Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University is one of the leading establishments of higher education in Ukraine. It was founded in 1918. The first four faculties were history and linguistics, law, medicine and physics and mathematics....

, where they resumed their studies as rocket engineers. Simultaneously, the university administration announced the admission of new freshmen students in this department. The promise of a good stipend and a glamourised career as a rocket engineer attracted thousands of talented young people to this “secret” department, which provided training specialists only for one industrial enterprise, the Dnipropetrovsk Automobile Factory.
In 1954 the administration of this automobile factory opened a secret design office with the name “Southern” (konstruktorskoe biuro Yuzhnoe – in Russian) to construct military missile
Missile
Though a missile may be any thrown or launched object, it colloquially almost always refers to a self-propelled guided weapon system.-Etymology:The word missile comes from the Latin verb mittere, meaning "to send"...

s and rocket engines. Hundreds of talented physicists, engineers and machine designers moved from Moscow and other large cities in the Soviet Union to Dnipropetrovsk to join this “Southern” design office. In 1965, the secret Plant #586 was transferred to the Ministry of General Machine-Building of the USSR. The next year this plant officially changed its name into “the Southern Machine-building Factory” (Yuzhnyi mashino-stroitel’nyi zavod) or in abbreviated Russian, simply Yuzhmash. The first “General Constructor” and head of the “Southern” design office was Mikhail Yangel’, a prominent scientist and outstanding designer of space rockets, who managed not only the design office, but the entire factory from 1954 to 1971. Yangel’ designed the first powerful rockets and space military equipment for the Soviet Ministry of Defense. Moscow sent specialists and invested money into Yangel’ and his colleagues’ projects. Yangel’ collaborated with talented engineers who later became the leaders of military production in Dnipropetrovsk and the official directors of Yuzhmash. Two close collaborators of Yangel and of his successor V. Utkin (1971–1990) were the Yuzhmash directors Leonid Smirnov
Leonid Smirnov (politician)
Leonid Vasil’evich Smirnov was director of the the missile factory at Dnepropetrovsk in the late 1950s, developing strategic missiles for the defence of the USSR...

 (1952–1961) and Aleksandr Makarov (1961–1986).

In 1951 the Southern Machine-building Factory began manufacturing and testing new military rockets for the battlefield. The range of these first missiles was only 270 kilometers. By 1959 Soviet scientists and engineers developed new technology, and as a result, the “Southern” design office (KBYu – as abbreviated in Russian) started a new machine-building project making ballistic missile
Ballistic missile
A ballistic missile is a missile that follows a sub-orbital ballistic flightpath with the objective of delivering one or more warheads to a predetermined target. The missile is only guided during the relatively brief initial powered phase of flight and its course is subsequently governed by the...

s. Under the leadership of Yangel’, KBYu produced such powerful rocket engines that the range of these ballistic missiles was practically without limits. During the 1960s, these powerful rocket engines were used as launch vehicles for the first Soviet space ships. During Makarov’s directorship, Yuzhmash designed and manufactured four generations of missile complexes of different types. These included space launch vehicles Kosmos, Interkosmos, Tsyklon -2, Tsyklon-3 and Zenith. Under the leadership of Yangel’s successor, V. Utkin, the KBYu created a unique space-rocket system called Energia-Buran. Yuzhmash engineers manufactured 400 technical devices which had been launched as artificial satellites (Sputniks). For the first time in the world space industry, the Dnipropetrovsk missile plant organised the serial production of space Sputniks. By the 1980s, this plant manufactured 67 different types of space ships, 12 space research complexes and 4 defense space rocket systems. These systems were used not only for purely military purposes by the Ministry of Defense, but also for astronomic research, for global radio and television network and for ecological monitoring. Yuzhmash initiated and sponsored the international space program of socialist countries, called Interkosmos. A majority of the 25 automatic space Sputniks (22) of this program, were designed, manufactured and launched by engineers and workers from Dnipropetrovsk. Yuzhmash and KBYu became an important centre for the Soviet space industry, Soviet military industrial complex and also the main rocket producer for the entire Soviet bloc.
On the eve of the collapse of the Soviet Union, KBYu had 9 regular and corresponding members of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, 33 full professors and 290 scientists holding a Ph.D. They awarded scientific degrees and presided over a prestigious graduate school at KBYu, which attracted talented students of physics from all over the USSR. More than 50,000 people worked at Yuzhmash. At the end of the 1950s, Yuzhmash became the main Soviet design and manufacturing centre for different types of missile complexes. The Soviet Ministry of Defense included Yuzhmash in its strategic plans. The military rocket systems manufactured in Dnipropetrovsk became the major component of the newly born Soviet Missile Forces of Strategic Purpose.
According to contemporaries, Yuzhmash was separate entity inside the Soviet state. After a long period of competition with the Moscow centre of rocket construction of V. Chelomei (a successor of Koroliov) Yuzhmash rocket designs won in 1969. Since that time leaders of the Soviet military industrial complex preferred Yuzhmash rocket models. By the end of the 1970s, this plant became the major centre for designing, constructing, manufacturing, testing and deploying strategic and space missile complexes in the Soviet Union. The general designer and director of Yuzhmash supervised the work of numerous research institutes, design centres and factories all over the Soviet Union from Moscow, Leningrad
Leningrad
Leningrad is the former name of Saint Petersburg, Russia.Leningrad may also refer to:- Places :* Leningrad Oblast, a federal subject of Russia, around Saint Petersburg* Leningrad, Tajikistan, capital of Muminobod district in Khatlon Province...

 and Kiev
Kiev
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. The population as of the 2001 census was 2,611,300. However, higher numbers have been cited in the press....

, to Voronezh
Voronezh
Voronezh is a city in southwestern Russia, the administrative center of Voronezh Oblast. It is located on both sides of the Voronezh River, away from where it flows into the Don. It is an operating center of the Southeastern Railway , as well as the center of the Don Highway...

 and Yerevan
Yerevan
Yerevan is the capital and largest city of Armenia and one of the world's oldest continuously-inhabited cities. Situated along the Hrazdan River, Yerevan is the administrative, cultural, and industrial center of the country...

. The Soviet state provided billions of Soviet ruble
Ruble
The ruble or rouble is a unit of currency. Currently, the currency units of Belarus, Russia, Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Transnistria, and, in the past, the currency units of several other countries, notably countries influenced by Russia and the Soviet Union, are named rubles, though they all are...

s to finance Yuzhmash projects.

Officially, Yuzhmash manufactured agricultural tractors and special kitchen equipment for everyday needs, such as mincing-machines or juicers for peaceful Soviet households. In official reports for the general audience there was no information about the production of rockets or spaceships. However, hundreds of thousands of workers and engineers in the city of Dnipropetrovsk worked in this plant and members of their families (up to 60% of the city population!) knew about the “real production” of Yuzhmash. This missile plant became a significant factor in the arms race of the Cold War. This is why the Soviet government approved of the KGB’s secrecy about Yuzhmash and its products. According to the Soviet government’s decision, the city of Dnipropetrovsk was officially closed to foreign visitors in 1959. No citizen of a foreign country (even of the socialist ones) was allowed to visit the city or district of Dnipropetrovsk. After the late 1950s ordinary Soviet people called Dnipropetrovsk “the rocket closed city.”

Only during perestroika
Perestroika
Perestroika was a political movement within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during 1980s, widely associated with the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev...

 was Dnipropetrovsk opened to foreigners again in 1987. (see in detail in Sergei I. Zhuk, Rock and Roll in the Rocket City: The West, Identity, and Ideology in Soviet Dniepropetrovsk, 1960-1985 (Baltimore, MD: the Johns Hopkins University Press & Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 2010), 18-28.

After 1991: Since Ukrainian independence

In June 1990, the women’s department of Dnipropetrovsk preliminary prison was destroyed in prison riots. In the ten years that followed, women under investigation (i.e. not convicted) in Dnipropetrovsk oblast were either held in Preliminary Prison 4 in Kryvyi Rih
Kryvyi Rih
Kryvyi Rih or Krivoy Rog is a city in central Ukraine. It is situated in Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, to the southwest of the oblast's administrative center, Dnipropetrovsk, at the confluence of the Inhulets and Saksahan rivers...

 or in "detention blocks" in Dnipropetrovsk; this contravened Ukrainian Law "On preliminary incarceration". Journeys from Kryviy Rih took up to six hours in special railway carriages with grated windows. Some prisoners had to do this 14 or 15 times. After complaints by the ombudsman (Nina Karpacheva) the head of the State prison department of Ukraine (Vladimir Levochkin) arranged that finances were given for the provision of women cells in Dnipropetrovsk Preliminary Prison, making the lives of the 15,000 unconvicted women-detainees easier from August 2000.

In 2005, the most powerful representative of the "Dnipropetrovsk Faction" in Ukrainian politics was Leonid Kuchma
Leonid Kuchma
Leonid Danylovych Kuchma was the second President of independent Ukraine from 19 July 1994, to 23 January 2005. Kuchma took office after winning the 1994 presidential election against his rival, incumbent Leonid Kravchuk...

, the former President of Ukraine
President of Ukraine
Prior to the formation of the modern Ukrainian presidency, the previous Ukrainian head of state office was officially established in exile by Andriy Livytskyi. At first the de facto leader of nation was the president of the Central Rada at early years of the Ukrainian People's Republic, while the...

 and former senior manager
Management
Management in all business and organizational activities is the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively...

 of Yuzhmash.

In June and July 2007, Dnipropetrovsk experienced a wave of serial killings
Serial killer
A serial killer, as typically defined, is an individual who has murdered three or more people over a period of more than a month, with down time between the murders, and whose motivation for killing is usually based on psychological gratification...

 that were dubbed by the media as the work of the Dnipropetrovsk maniacs
Dnepropetrovsk maniacs
The Dnepropetrovsk Maniacs is the media epithet for the killers responsible for a string of brutal murders in Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine in June and July 2007. The case gained additional notoriety because the killers made video recordings of some of the murders, with one of the videos leaking to the...

. In February 2009, three youths were sentenced for their part in 21 murders.

Subdivisions

Name of raion Year of creation Area (hectares) Populations in 2006, (thous.) Most important streets and areas
Amur-Nyzhnodniprovskyi 1918/1926 7,162.6 154.4 Streets: Vulytsia Peredova, Vorontsova Propspekt, Prospekt 'Gazeta Pravdy', Vulytsia Kalynova, Vulytsia Vidcuznyana, Vulytsia Yantarna, Donetske Shosse
Areas: Amur, Nizhnedniprovsk, Kirillovka, Borzhom, Sultanovka, Sakhalin, Berezanovka, Sonyachnyi Estate, Frunzensky Estate, Livoberezhnyi Estates 1 and 2.
Babushkinskyi
Babushkinskyi Raion, Dnipropetrovsk
Babushkinskyi Raion is a right-bank raion of Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine.It was formed on 12 April 1973 from the territory of Zhovtnevyi, Kirovskyi and Krasnohvardiiskyi raions and named after Russian Bolshevik revolutionary Ivan Babushkin.- Main streets :* Prospekt Karla Marksa , former...

1973 3,145.2 152.0 Streets: Vulytsia Geroiv Stalingrada, Vulytsia Karl Liebknecht/Artema, Karl Marx Prospekt, Vulytsia Chkalova, Zaporizhske Shosse, Vulytsia Krotova
Areas: Tsentr, Slobodka, Razvlika-Podstantsiya, 12th Kvartal, Topol Estate 1,2 and 3, Mirnyi, Danila Nechaya.
Zhovtnevyi 1935 4,409.3 169.5 Streets: Prospekt Gagarina, Karl Marx Prospekt, Naberezhna Lenina/Peremogy, Vulytsia Dzerzhinskogo, Vulytsia Gogolya, Vulytsia Chesnyshevskogo, Vulytsia Kosmichna, Vulytsia Yasnopolyanska
Areas: Tsentr, Narodny (Lagerny), Podstantsiya, Sokol Estate 1 and 2, Peremoga Estate 1-6, Mandyrovka, Lotskamenka, Tonnelnaya Balka, Monastyrskyi Ostriv, Kosa.
Industrialnyi 1969 3,267.9 132.7 Streets: Prospekt 'Gazeta Pravdy', Vulytsia Kosirova, Vulytsia Osinnya, Vulytsia Baykalska, Vulytsia Vinokurova
Areas: Klochko, Samarovka (Yozhefstal), Oleksandrivka, Livoberezhnyi Estate 1-3; Nizhnedniprovksyi Pipe Production Plant.
Kirovskyi 1932 1,040.3 67.2 Streets: Prospekt Kirova, Karl MArx Prospekt, Prospekt Pushkina, Vulytsia Boytsekhovicha, Vulytsia Korolenko, Vulytsia Geroiv Stalingrada, Ostrovskogo Square
Areas: Bus Station, River Station and port.
Krasnohvardiiskyi 1933 3,589.7 120.6 Vulytsia Rabitnycha, Prospekt Kalinina, Prospekt Pushkina, Vulytsia Kirovozhska, Vulytsia Makorova, Vulytsia Titova, Vulytsia Beduvelnukiv, Vulytsia Geroiv Stalingrada
Areas: Chechelovka, Aptekarska Balka/Shlyakhova, 12th Kvartal, Krasnopole, Southern Machine-building Plant.
Leninskyi 1920 10,928 157.4 Streets: Vulytsia Naberezhna Zavodska, Prospekt Kalinina, Prospekt Petrovskogo, Prospekt Metallurgov, Vulytsia Kyivska, Vulytsia Kommunarovska, Prospekt Svobody, Vulytsia Brativ Trofimovykh, Vulytsia Mostova, Vulytsia Mayakovskogo, Vulytsia Budennogo
Areas: Toromske, Dievka, Sukhachevka, Yasny, Novi Kaydaki, Sukhii Ostriv, Chervonij Kamin Estate, Kommunar Estate, Parus Estate 1 and 2, Zakhidnyi Estate, Petrovsky Factory and other metallurgical plants.
Samarskyi 1977 6,683.4 77.9 Streets: Vulytsia Marshala Malinovskogo, Vulytsia Molodogvardiiska, Vulytsia Semaforna, Vulytsia Tomska, Vulytsia Kosmonavta Volkova, Vulytsia 20 rokiv Peremogy, Vulytsia Gavanska
Areas: Chapli, Pridniprovsk, Igren, Rybalske (Fischersdorf), Odinkovka, Shevchenko, Pivnichnyi Estate, Nizhnedniprovsk-Vuzel.

Cityscape

Dnipropetrovsk is a primarily industrial city of around one million people; in being such it has developed into a large urban centre over the past few centuries to become, today, Ukraine's third-largest city.
Immediately after its foundation Dnipropetrovsk, or as it was then known Yekaterinoslav, began to develop exclusively on the right bank of the Dnieper River. At first the city developed radially from the central point provided by the Transfiguration Cathedral. Neo-classical structures of brick and stone construction were preferred and the city began to take on the appearance of a typical European city of the era. Of these buildings many have been retained in the city's older Zhovtnevy Raion (district). Amongst the most important buildings of this era are the Transfiguration Cathedral, and a number of buildings in the area surrounding Prospekt Karla Marksa.

Over the next few decades, until the October Revolution in 1917 the city did not change much in appearance and the predominant architectural style remained that of neo-classicism. Notable buildings built in the era preceding the Bolshevik's rise to power and the establishment of communist Ukraine and later its absorption into the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

, include the main building of the National Mining University
National Mining University of Ukraine
The National Mining University , colloquially known in Ukrainian as NGU is located in Dnipropetrovsk, the third most populous city in Ukraine. It was founded in 1899 as the Yekaterinoslav Higher Mining School...

, which was built in 1899-1901, the art-nouveau inspired building of the city's former Duma, the Dnipropetrovsk National Historical Museum, and the Mechnikov Regional Hospital. Other buildings of the era which did not fit the typical architectural style of the time in Dnipropetrovsk include, the Ukrainian-influenced Grand Hotel Ukraine, the railway station (since reconstructed) which was built in a Russian revivalist style, and the art-nouveau Astoriya building on Karla Marksa.
Once the bolsheviks had taken power in Dnipropetrovsk the city was gradually purged of tsarist-era monuments and monumental architecture was stripped of Imperial coats of arms and other non-socialist symbolism. In 1917 the monument to Catherine the Great which stood in front of the Mining Institute was replaced with one of Russian academic Mikhail Lomonosov
Mikhail Lomonosov
Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov was a Russian polymath, scientist and writer, who made important contributions to literature, education, and science. Among his discoveries was the atmosphere of Venus. His spheres of science were natural science, chemistry, physics, mineralogy, history, art,...

. Later, due to the effects of the Second World War, a number of large buildings had to be reconstructed. The main railway station, for example, was stripped of its Russian-revival ornamentation and redesigned in the style of Stalinist social-realism, whilst the Grand Hotel Ukraine survived the war but was later simplified much in design, with its roof being reconstructed in a typical French mansard style as opposed to the ornamental Ukrainian baroque of the pre-war era. Other buildings which had been badly damaged were, more often than not, demolished completely and replaced with new structures. This is one of the main reasons why much of Dnipropetrovsk's central avenue, Karla Marksa Prospekt, is designed in the style of Stalinist Social Realism. Many pre-revolution buildings were also reconstructed to suit new purposes. For example, the Emperor Nicholas II Commercial Institute in Dnipropetrovsk was reconstructed in order to serve as the administrative centre for the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, a function which it fulfils to this day. Other buildings, such as the Potemkin Palace were given over to the proletariat, in this case as the students' union of the Dnipropetrovsk National University
Dnipropetrovsk National University
Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University is one of the leading establishments of higher education in Ukraine. It was founded in 1918. The first four faculties were history and linguistics, law, medicine and physics and mathematics....

.
After the death of Stalin and appointment of Khrushchev, a Ukrainian, as party secretary, the industrialisation of Dnipropetrovsk became even more profound, with the Southern (Yuzhne) Missile and Rocket factory being set up in the city. However, this was not the only development and many other factories, especially metallurgical and heavy-manufacturing plants, were set up in the city. At this point Dnipropetrovsk became one of the most important manufacturing cities in the Soviet Union, producing many goods from small articles like screws and vacuum cleaners to aircraft engine pieces and ballistic missiles. As a result of all this industrialisation the city's inner suburbs became increasingly polluted and were gradually given over to large, unsightly industrial enterprises. At the same time the estensive development of the city's left bank and western suburbs as new residential areas began. The low-rise tenant houses of the Khrushchev era (Khrushchyovkas) gave way to the construction of high-rise prefabricated apartment blocks (similar to German Plattenbau
Plattenbau
Plattenbau is the German word for a building whose structure is constructed of large, prefabricated concrete slabs. The word is a compound of Platte and Bau...

s). In 1976 in line with the city's 1926 renaming a large monumental statue of Grigoriy Petrovsky was placed on the square in front of the city's station.

To this day the city is characterised by its mix of architectural styles, with much of the city's centre consisting of pre-revolutionary buildings in a variety of styles, stalinist buildings and constructivist architecture, whilst residential districts are, more often than not, made up of aesthetically simple, technically outdated mid-rise and high-rise housing stock from the Soviet era. Despite this, the city does have a large number of 'private sectors' were the tradition of building and maintaining individual detached housing has continued to this day.

Since the independence of Ukraine in 1991 and the economic development that followed, a number of large commercial and business centres have been built in the city's outskirts. Nowadays Dnipropetrovsk is effectively a city of great contrasts, with the grand architecture of the past mixing with that of the non-ornamental Soviet era, and modernist glass and steel of the modern day.

Demographics

Year Ethnicity of Citizens Foreign
Citizens
Reference
Russian Ukrainian Jewish Polish German
1897 47,200 17,787 39,979 3,418 1,438 1,075
1897 42.6% 16.0% 36.1% 3.1% 1.3% 1.0%
1904(?) 52% 40% 4.5% Not Stated Not Stated


Between 1923 and 1933 the Ukrainian proportion of the population of Dnipropetrovsk increased from 16% to 48%. This was part of a national trend.
Ukrainization
Ukrainization is a policy of increasing the usage and facilitating the development of the Ukrainian language and promoting other elements of Ukrainian culture, in various spheres of public life such as education, publishing, government and religion.The term is used, most prominently, for the...


Attractions

The city has a variety of theatres (plus an Opera) and museums which may be of interest to tourists. There are also several parks, restaurants and beaches.

The major streets of the city were renamed in honour of Marxist heroes during the Soviet era. The central thoroughfare is known as Karla Marksa Prospekt, a beautiful, wide and long boulevard that stretches east to west through the centre of the city. It was founded in the 18th century and parts of its buildings are the actual decoration of the city. In the heart of the city is Zhovtneva [October] Square, which includes the majestic cathedral founded by order of Catherine the Great in 1787.

On the square, there are some remarkable buildings: the Museum of History, Diorama "Battle for the Dnieper River (World War II
Eastern Front (World War II)
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of World War II between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland, and some other Allies which encompassed Northern, Southern and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945...

)", and also the beautiful park in which one can rest in the hot summer. Walking down the hill to the Dnieper River
Dnieper River
The Dnieper River is one of the major rivers of Europe that flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, to the Black Sea.The total length is and has a drainage basin of .The river is noted for its dams and hydroelectric stations...

, one arrives in the large Taras Shevchenko
Taras Shevchenko
Taras Hryhorovych Shevchenko -Life:Born into a serf family of Hryhoriy Ivanovych Shevchenko and Kateryna Yakymivna Shevchenko in the village of Moryntsi, of Kiev Governorate of the Russian Empire Shevchenko was orphaned at the age of eleven...

 Park (which is on the right bank of the river) and on Monastyrsky Island. This island is one of the most interesting places in the city. In the 9th century, the Byzantine monks based a monastery here. It was destroyed by Mongol-Tatars in the 13th century.
While there is no longer any compact "old town" in Dnipropetrovsk, there are still many surviving buildings of historical interest. (Most of them, especially churches, were destroyed during World War II and Joseph Stalin
Joseph Stalin
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin was the Premier of the Soviet Union from 6 May 1941 to 5 March 1953. He was among the Bolshevik revolutionaries who brought about the October Revolution and had held the position of first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee...

's reign of terror in the 1930s.

A few areas retain their historical character: all of Central Avenue, some street-blocks on the main hill (the Nagorna part) between Pushkin Prospekt and Embankment, and sections near Globa (formerly known as Chkalov park until it was recently renamed) and Shevchenko parks have been untouched for 150 years.

The Dnieper River keeps the climate mild. It is visible from many points in Dnipropetrovsk. From any hill (there are 3 in the city) you will find a beautiful view of the river, islands, parks, outskirts, river banks and hills.

There was no need to build skyscrapers in the city in Soviet times. The major industries preferred to locate their offices close to their factories and away from the centre of town. In the last ten years since independence the price of real estate has increased considerably. Most new office buildings are being built in the same architectural style as the old buildings, there are however a number with more modern aesthetics as well as those which utilize the two styles in a blend of old and new.

Sport

The city also houses the Ukrainian Premier League
Ukrainian Premier League
The Ukrainian Premier League is the highest division of Ukrainian annual football championship. As the Supreme League it was founded in 1991 after the fold of the Soviet Union's Vysshaya Liga. In 2008 it was reformed into a more autonomous entity of the Football Federation of Ukraine and changed...

 football
Football (soccer)
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball...

 club, FC Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk
FC Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk
Football Club Dnipro is a Ukrainian professional football club from the city of Dnipropetrovsk.-BRIT:The club's franchise traces its history all the way back when the first team that was formed in 1918 by the Petrovsky factory and was called as BRIT . The team participated in the regional competition...

. This club, commonly seen as representing the city at large, holds a record for being the only Soviet team to win the USSR Federation Cup twice; since independence they have gone on to win the Ukrainian Championship once and the Ukrainian League Cup three times. Despite Dnipro's dominance, a number of other teams also call Dnipropetrovsk their home, these include, amongst others, FC Lokomotyv Dnipropetrovsk and FC Spartak Dnipropetrovsk, both of which have large fan bases in the city. On a national/international stage however, no team from the city has met with the same level of success experienced by FC Dnipro.

The Dnipro Arena hosted the 2010 FIFA World Cup
2010 FIFA World Cup
The 2010 FIFA World Cup was the 19th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams. It took place in South Africa from 11 June to 11 July 2010...

 qualification game between Ukraine
Ukraine national football team
The Ukraine national football team is the national football team of Ukraine and is controlled by the Football Federation of Ukraine. After Ukrainian Independence and breakaway from the Soviet Union, they played their first match against Hungary on 29 April 1992...

 and England
England national football team
The England national football team represents England in association football and is controlled by the Football Association, the governing body for football in England. England is the joint oldest national football team in the world, alongside Scotland, whom they played in the world's first...

 on 10 October 2009.

Dnipropetrovsk is represented within Ukrainian Bandy
Bandy
Bandy is a team winter sport played on ice, in which skaters use sticks to direct a ball into the opposing team's goal.The rules of the game have many similarities to those of association football: the game is played on a rectangle of ice the same size as a football field. Each team has 11 players,...

 and Rink-bandy Federation.

Recently the city built a new football stadium; the Dnipro Arena has a capacity of 31,003 people and was built as a replacement for Dnipro's old stadium, Stadium Meteor
Stadium Meteor
Stadium Meteor was a multi-purpose stadium in Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine. It was used mostly for football matches, and was the home of FC Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk. The stadium can hold 24,381 people. Currently its tenant, Dnipro was relocated to Dnipro Stadium after a long spell at this...

. The Dnipro Arena was initially chosen as one of the Ukrainian venues for their joint Euro 2012 bid with Poland. However it was dropped from the list in May 2009 as the capacity fell short of the minimum 33,000 seats required by UEFA
UEFA
The Union of European Football Associations , almost always referred to by its acronym UEFA is the administrative and controlling body for European association football, futsal and beach soccer....

.

Economy

Dnipropetrovsk is a major industrial centre of Ukraine. It has several facilities devoted to heavy industry that produce a wide range of products, including cast-iron, rolled metal, pipes, machinery, different mining combines, agricultural equipment, tractor
Tractor
A tractor is a vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high tractive effort at slow speeds, for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used in agriculture or construction...

s, trolleybus
Trolleybus
A trolleybus is an electric bus that draws its electricity from overhead wires using spring-loaded trolley poles. Two wires and poles are required to complete the electrical circuit...

es, refrigerators, different chemicals and many others. The most famous and the oldest (founded in the 19th century) is the Metallurgic Plant named after Petrovsky. The city also has big food processing and light industry factories. Many sewing and dress-making factories work for France, Canada, Germany and Great Britain, using the most advanced technologies, materials and design. Dnipropetrovsk has also dominated in the aerospace industry since the 1950s; construction department Yuzhnoye Design Bureau
Yuzhnoye Design Bureau
Yuzhnoye Design Bureau , located in Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine, is a designer of satellites and rockets, and formerly of Soviet intercontinental ballistic missiles established by Mikhail Yangel. Yuzhnoye's OKB designation was OKB-586....

 and Yuzhmash
Yuzhmash
The A.M. Makarov Yuzhny Machine-Building Plant, or PA Yuzhmash is a Ukrainian manufacturer of space rockets, agricultural equipment, buses, trolley buses and trams, wind turbines, and satellites...

 are well known to the specialists all over the world.
Dniproavia
Dniproavia
Dniproavia is an airline headquartered at Dnipropetrovsk International Airport in Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine, operating scheduled and chartered passenger flights.The main shareholder of the company is PrivatBank, controlled by Ihor Kolomoyskyi.-History:...

, an airline, has its head office on the grounds of Dnipropetrovsk International Airport
Dnipropetrovsk International Airport
Dnipropetrovsk International Airport is an airport serving Dnipropetrovsk, a city in Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, Ukraine. It is located southeast from the city center.-Facilities:...

.
Year Factories
& Plants
Employees Production Volume (1) Conversion to contemporary Sterling used table 18 which accompanies Marc Flandreau and Frédréric Zumer's book The Making of Global Finance, 1880–1913, OECD 2004.
(2) Conversion to 2007 Sterling used RPI data from Table 63 of National Income Expenditure and Output of the United Kingdom 1855–1965, by CH Feinstein, pub Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house, and the second largest university press in the world...

, 1972 and Retail Prices Index: annual index numbers of retail prices 1948–2007 (RPI) (RPIX)
(3) Conversion to 2007 US Dollars used the calculated 2007 Sterling value and the average exchange rate for 2007 $1 =£0.49987, taken from FXHistory: historical currency exchange rates. It would have been better to have used contemporary ruble/dollar exchange rates and US RPI data, but the latter were not available to author (March 2008).
Reference
rubles 2007 £
million
2007 USD
million
1880 49 572 1,500,000 £10.5 m $21 m
1903 194 10,649 21,500,000 £177.5 m $355 m

Year Enterprises Earnings Reference
rubles 2007 £
million
2007 USD
million
1900 1,800 40,000,000 £328.7 m $658 m
1940 622 1,096,929,000 £2,120.3 m $4,242 m

Education

Dnipropetrovsk is a major educational centre in Ukraine and is home to two of Ukraine's top-ten universities; the Dnipropetrovsk National University
Dnipropetrovsk National University
Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University is one of the leading establishments of higher education in Ukraine. It was founded in 1918. The first four faculties were history and linguistics, law, medicine and physics and mathematics....

 and National Mining University
National Mining University of Ukraine
The National Mining University , colloquially known in Ukrainian as NGU is located in Dnipropetrovsk, the third most populous city in Ukraine. It was founded in 1899 as the Yekaterinoslav Higher Mining School...

.

In 2003 158 schools of all varieties were registered as operating in Dnipropetrovsk. As was later recorded in 2010, around 80,000 pupils between the ages of six and nineteen study in schools in the city (of which there were, by 1. September 2010, 164). Of this figure almost 9,000 pupils were in their first year of compulsory education.

Currently the city has 173 kindergartens, 39 of which were located within educational establishments, and in which around 30 000 children are educated. There are also 5 orphanages in the city, and in 1992 the first judicial lyceum in Ukraine was founded in Dnipropetrovsk.

In 2006 Dnipropetrovsk hosted the All-Ukrainian Olympiad in Information Technology; in 2008, that for Mathematics, and in 2009 the semi-final of the All-Ukrainian Olympiad in Programming for the Eastern Region. In the same year as the latter took place, the youth group 'Eksperiment', an organisation promoting increased cultural awareness amongst Ukrainians, was founded in the city.

Higher Education

In Dnipropetrovsk there are currently 14 state-run higher educational institutions and a large number of those which are privately organised.

The list below is a list of all current state-organised higher educational institutions (not included are non-independent subdivisions of other universities not based in Dnipropetrovsk).
  • Dnipropetrovsk National University
    Dnipropetrovsk National University
    Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University is one of the leading establishments of higher education in Ukraine. It was founded in 1918. The first four faculties were history and linguistics, law, medicine and physics and mathematics....

  • Dnipropetrovsk State Institute of Physical Culture and Sport
  • National Mining University of Ukraine
    National Mining University of Ukraine
    The National Mining University , colloquially known in Ukrainian as NGU is located in Dnipropetrovsk, the third most populous city in Ukraine. It was founded in 1899 as the Yekaterinoslav Higher Mining School...

  • National Metallurgical Academy of Ukraine
  • Ukrainian State Chemical-Technological University
  • Dnipropetrovsk State University of Internal Affairs
  • Prydniprovska State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture
    Prydniprovska State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture
    The Prydniprovska State Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture is one of the major academic institutions of higher education in Ukraine, specializing in engineering and economics, located in Dnipropetrovsk...

  • Dnipropetrovsk National University of Rail Transport
  • Dnipropetrovsk Agricultural University
  • Dnipropetrovsk Academy of Finance
  • Alfred Nobel University of Economics and Law
  • Academy of the Customs Service of Ukraine
  • Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy
  • Dnipropetrovsk Institute of the Inter-regional Academy for Human Resources
  • Dnipropetrovsk regional institute of the Presidential Civil Service Academy of Ukraine
  • Dnipropetrovsk Institute for the Preparation of Industrial Experts


  • Currently around 55, 000 students study in Dnipropetrovsk, a significant number of which are students from abroad.

    Local transportation

    The main forms of public transport used in Dnipropetrovsk are trams, buses, electric trolley buses and marshrutka
    Marshrutka
    Marshrutka , from marshrutnoye taksi is a share taxi in the CIS countries, the Baltic states, and Bulgaria. Marshrutnoye taksi literally means routed taxicab...

    s—private minibuses. In addition to this there are a large number of taxi firms operating in the city, and many residents have private cars. Bicycles are rarely used due to the poor cycle infrastructure available for use, and whilst this situation is slowly beginning to improve, the lack of well maintained roads and designated cycle paths proves to be a major issue.

    Trams are generally in poor condition; the network has suffered from almost chronic underfunding since the end of the Soviet era, and now much of the track and other infrastructure has become outdated. The city's municipal roads also suffer from the same funding problems as the trams, with many of them in a very poor technical state. It is not uncommon to find very large potholes and crumbling surfaces on many of Dnipropetrovsk's smaller roads. Major roads and highways are of better quality. In recent years the situation has, however, been improving, with a number of new used trams bought from the German cities of Dresden and Magdeburg, and a number of roads, including Schmidt Street and Moskovsky Street being reconstructed with modern road-building techniques.

    Dnipropetrovsk also has a metro system
    Dnipropetrovsk Metro
    The Dnipropetrovsk Metro is a single-line metro system that serves the city of Dnipropetrovsk, the third largest city in Ukraine by population. The metro was the third system constructed in Ukraine, after the Kiev and Kharkiv metro systems, respectfully, when it opened on December 29, 1995...

    , opened in 1995, which consists of one line and 6 stations. Work on other stations was abandoned when the city ran out of money for this project; two of these abandoned building works are in the central portion of Karla Marksa Prospekt. Completion of the next two stations is necessary to make the municipal subway system profitable. At the present time the completion date is unknown. As of 2011 the central portion of the city's metro line has seen renewed construction efforts and the metro has been transferred to municipal ownership in the hope that this will help it secure a loan from the European Bank for Development and Reconstruction.  Current plans will see the three station section from Teatralna, through Tsentralna, to Muzeina completed by 2015.

    Suburban transportation

    Dnipropetrovsk has some highways crossing through the city. The most popular routes are from Kiev
    Kiev
    Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. The population as of the 2001 census was 2,611,300. However, higher numbers have been cited in the press....

    , Donetsk
    Donetsk
    Donetsk , is a large city in eastern Ukraine on the Kalmius river. Administratively, it is a center of Donetsk Oblast, while historically, it is the unofficial capital and largest city of the economic and cultural Donets Basin region...

    , Kharkiv
    Kharkiv
    Kharkiv or Kharkov is the second-largest city in Ukraine.The city was founded in 1654 and was a major centre of Ukrainian culture in the Russian Empire. Kharkiv became the first city in Ukraine where the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed in December 1917 and Soviet government was...

     and Zaporizhia
    Zaporizhia
    Zaporizhia or Zaporozhye [formerly Alexandrovsk ] is a city in southeastern Ukraine, situated on the banks of the Dnieper River. It is the administrative center of the Zaporizhia Oblast...

    . Transit through the city is also available. As of 2011 the city is also seeing construction of a southern urban bypass, which will allow automobile traffic to proceed around the city centre. This is expected to both improve air quality and reduce the city's transport issues which arise from heavy freight lorries passing through the city centre.

    The largest bus station in eastern Ukraine is located in Dnipropetrovsk, from where bus routes are available to all over the country, including some international routes to Russia
    Russia
    Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

    , Poland
    Poland
    Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

    , Germany
    Germany
    Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

    , Moldova
    Moldova
    Moldova , officially the Republic of Moldova is a landlocked state in Eastern Europe, located between Romania to the West and Ukraine to the North, East and South. It declared itself an independent state with the same boundaries as the preceding Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1991, as part...

     and Turkey
    Turkey
    Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

    . It is located near the city's central railway station.

    In the summertime, there are some routes available by hydrofoil
    Hydrofoil
    A hydrofoil is a foil which operates in water. They are similar in appearance and purpose to airfoils.Hydrofoils can be artificial, such as the rudder or keel on a boat, the diving planes on a submarine, a surfboard fin, or occur naturally, as with fish fins, the flippers of aquatic mammals, the...

    s on the Dnieper River
    Dnieper River
    The Dnieper River is one of the major rivers of Europe that flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, to the Black Sea.The total length is and has a drainage basin of .The river is noted for its dams and hydroelectric stations...

    , whilst various tourist ships on their way down the river, (Kiev–Kherson–Odessa) tend to make a stop in the city. Dnipropetrovsk's river port is located close to the area surrounding the central railway station, on the banks of the river. It is a good example of constructivist architecture from the late period of the Soviet Union.

    Railways

    The city is a large railway junction, with many daily trains running to and from Eastern Europe
    Eastern Europe
    Eastern Europe is the eastern part of Europe. The term has widely disparate geopolitical, geographical, cultural and socioeconomic readings, which makes it highly context-dependent and even volatile, and there are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region"...

     and on domestic routes within Ukraine. There are two railway terminals, "Dnipropetrovsk Golovny" (main station)and "Dnipropetrovsk Yuzhnyi" (south station).

    Two express passenger services run each day between Kiev
    Kiev
    Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. The population as of the 2001 census was 2,611,300. However, higher numbers have been cited in the press....

     and Dnipropetrovsk under the name 'Capital Express'. Other daytime services include suburban trains to towns and villages in the surrounding Dnipropetrovsk Oblast
    Dnipropetrovsk Oblast
    Dnipropetrovsk Oblast is an oblast of central Ukraine, the most important industrial region of the country. Its administrative center is Dnipropetrovsk....

    . Most long-distance trains tend to run at night in order to reduce the amount of daytime hours spent travelling by each passenger.

    Domestic connections exist between Dnipropetrovsk and Kiev
    Kiev
    Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and the largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper River. The population as of the 2001 census was 2,611,300. However, higher numbers have been cited in the press....

    , Lviv
    Lviv
    Lviv is a city in western Ukraine. The city is regarded as one of the main cultural centres of today's Ukraine and historically has also been a major Polish and Jewish cultural center, as Poles and Jews were the two main ethnicities of the city until the outbreak of World War II and the following...

    , Simferopol
    Simferopol
    -Russian Empire and Civil War:The city was renamed Simferopol in 1784 after the annexation of the Crimean Khanate to the Russian Empire by Catherine II of Russia. The name Simferopol is derived from the Greek, Συμφερόπολις , translated as "the city of usefulness." In 1802, Simferopol became the...

    , Odessa
    Odessa
    Odessa or Odesa is the administrative center of the Odessa Oblast located in southern Ukraine. The city is a major seaport located on the northwest shore of the Black Sea and the fourth largest city in Ukraine with a population of 1,029,000 .The predecessor of Odessa, a small Tatar settlement,...

    , Ivano-Frankivsk
    Ivano-Frankivsk
    Ivano-Frankivsk is a historic city located in the western Ukraine. It is the administrative centre of the Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast , and is designated as its own separate raion within the oblast, municipality....

    , Truskavets
    Truskavets
    Truskavets is a city in western Ukraine's Lviv Oblast , near the border with Poland. The city is designated as a separate raion within the oblast....

    , Donetsk
    Donetsk
    Donetsk , is a large city in eastern Ukraine on the Kalmius river. Administratively, it is a center of Donetsk Oblast, while historically, it is the unofficial capital and largest city of the economic and cultural Donets Basin region...

    , Kharkiv
    Kharkiv
    Kharkiv or Kharkov is the second-largest city in Ukraine.The city was founded in 1654 and was a major centre of Ukrainian culture in the Russian Empire. Kharkiv became the first city in Ukraine where the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed in December 1917 and Soviet government was...

     and many other smaller Ukrainian cities, whilst international destinations include, amongst others, Minsk
    Minsk
    - Ecological situation :The ecological situation is monitored by Republican Center of Radioactive and Environmental Control .During 2003–2008 the overall weight of contaminants increased from 186,000 to 247,400 tons. The change of gas as industrial fuel to mazut for financial reasons has worsened...

     in Belarus, Moscow
    Moscow
    Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

    's Kursky Station
    Kursky Rail Terminal
    Kursky Rail Terminal is one of the nine rail terminals in Moscow. It was built in 1896.There are currently plans in the pipeline to completely rebuild or refurbish the Kursky Rail Terminal.-Long distance from Moscow:-Long distance via Moscow:...

     and Saint Petersburg
    Saint Petersburg
    Saint Petersburg is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River at the head of the Gulf of Finland on the Baltic Sea...

    's Vitebsky Station in Russia, Baku
    Baku
    Baku , sometimes spelled as Baki or Bakou, is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, which projects into the Caspian Sea. The city consists of two principal...

     - the capital of Azerbaijan, and the Bulgarian seaside resort of Varna
    Varna
    Varna is the largest city and seaside resort on the Bulgarian Black Sea Coast and third-largest in Bulgaria after Sofia and Plovdiv, with a population of 334,870 inhabitants according to Census 2011...

    .

    Air travel

    The city is served by an Dnipropetrovsk International Airport
    Dnipropetrovsk International Airport
    Dnipropetrovsk International Airport is an airport serving Dnipropetrovsk, a city in Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, Ukraine. It is located southeast from the city center.-Facilities:...

      and is connected to other European cities with daily flights.

    Notable people from Dnipropetrovsk

    • Oksana Baiul
      Oksana Baiul
      Oksana Serhiyivna Baiul is a Ukrainian professional figure skater. She is the 1994 Olympic Champion in Ladies' Singles and 1993 World Champion.-Early and personal life:...

       — figure skating
      Figure skating
      Figure skating is an Olympic sport in which individuals, pairs, or groups perform spins, jumps, footwork and other intricate and challenging moves on ice skates. Figure skaters compete at various levels from beginner up to the Olympic level , and at local, national, and international competitions...

       Olympic Gold Medalist in 1994
    • Helena Blavatsky — founder of Theosophical Society
      Theosophical Society
      The Theosophical Society is an organization formed in 1875 to advance the spiritual principles and search for Truth known as Theosophy. The original organization, after splits and realignments has several successors...

    • Viktor Sayenko - brutal murderer and torturer, animal abuser.
    • Alexander Hanzha - robber.
    • Igor Suprunyuck - brutal murderer and torturer, animal abuser.
    • Marina Maximillian Blumin
      Marina Maximillian Blumin
      Marina Maximilian Blumin , is an Israeli singer and actress. She was the runner up of the 5th season of Kokhav Nolad .-Early life:...

       — Singer/Songwriter and Kokhav Nolad
      Kokhav Nolad
      Kokhav Nolad is an Israeli reality television show searching for talented new vocalists based on the British Pop Idol and American Idol model. Since its debut on Israeli Channel 2 in 2003, Kokhav Nolad has achieved great popularity and turned out many new musical stars...

       contestant
    • Katherine Esau
      Katherine Esau
      Katherine Esau was a German-American botanist.She was born in Yekaterinoslav, Russian Empire to a family of Mennonites of German descent. After the Revolution her family moved to Germany, and then to California, where she achieved her doctorate in 1931...

       — botanist
    • Kyrylo Fesenko
      Kyrylo Fesenko
      Kyrylo Fesenko is a Ukrainian professional basketball player. He is a 7'1" and 280 lb center.-Ukrainian career:Born in Dnipropetrovsk, Fesenko began his basketball career in the Ukrainian Basketball SuperLeague, first with the second division team of BC Azovmash in 2003 then to its first division...

       — NBA basketball player
    • Ilya Kabakov
      Ilya Kabakov
      Ilya Kabakov, Russian Илья́ Ио́сифович Кабако́в , is a Russian-American conceptual artist of Jewish descent, born in Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine. He worked for thirty years in Moscow, from the 1950s until the late 1980s. He now lives and works on Long Island...

       — contemporary artist
    • Leonid Kogan — violinist
    • Victor Kravchenko — Soviet dissident
    • Inessa Kravets
      Inessa Kravets
      Inessa Mykolajivna Kravets is an Ukrainian triple jumper and long jumper.She jumped the world record at the 1995 World Championships in Gothenburg with 15.50m after studying a picture of Jonathan Edwards....

       — long jumper and triple jumper (holds women's record in triple jump)
    • Leonid Kuchma
      Leonid Kuchma
      Leonid Danylovych Kuchma was the second President of independent Ukraine from 19 July 1994, to 23 January 2005. Kuchma took office after winning the 1994 presidential election against his rival, incumbent Leonid Kravchuk...

       — President of Ukraine
      President of Ukraine
      Prior to the formation of the modern Ukrainian presidency, the previous Ukrainian head of state office was officially established in exile by Andriy Livytskyi. At first the de facto leader of nation was the president of the Central Rada at early years of the Ukrainian People's Republic, while the...

       in 1994–2005
    • Pavlo Lazarenko
      Pavlo Lazarenko
      Pavlo Ivanovych Lazarenko is a former Ukrainian politician and former Prime Minister who, in August 2006, was convicted and sentenced to prison in the United States for money laundering, wire fraud and extortion...

       — Prime Minister of Ukraine
      Prime Minister of Ukraine
      The Prime Minister of Ukraine is Ukraine's head of government presiding over the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, which is the highest body of the executive branch of the Ukrainian government....

       in 1996-97
    • Leonid Levin
      Leonid Levin
      -External links:* at Boston University....

       — computer scientist
      Computer scientist
      A computer scientist is a scientist who has acquired knowledge of computer science, the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their application in computer systems....

    • Igor Morozov
      Igor Morozov
      Igor Morozov is an Estonian professional footballer, who plays in Estonian Meistriliiga, for FC Levadia Tallinn. He plays the position of defender and is 1.93 m tall and weighs 82 kg...

       (singer) — Russian-Ukrainian opera singer, soloist of Moscow's Bolshoi-Theatre, "People's Artist of Russia"
    • Mikhail Nekrich — musician
    • Igor Olshansky
      Igor Olshansky
      Igor Olshansky is a Ukrainian-born American football defensive end free agent in National Football League. He last played for the Miami Dolphins....

       — NFL defensive tackle
    • Viktor Petrov
      Viktor Petrov
      Viktor Petrov was a prominent Ukrainian existentialist writer. He signed his works with pen names Viktor Domontovych and Viktor Ber . Together with Valerian Pidmohylny Petrov is considered to be the founder of the Ukrainian intellectual novel. Although Petrov is remembered as a writer today,...

       - Ukrainian historian and writer also known under his pen names Domontovych and Ber
    • Gregor Piatigorsky
      Gregor Piatigorsky
      Gregor Piatigorsky was a Russian-born American cellist.-Early life:...

       — cellist
    • Viktor Pinchuk
      Viktor Pinchuk
      Victor Pinchuk is a Jewish-Ukrainian businessman and philanthropist. Forbes ranked him # 336 on the list of the wealthiest people in the world, with a fortune of $3.3 billion...

       — Ukrainian business oligarch
      Business oligarch
      Business oligarch is a near-synonym of the term "business magnate", borrowed by the English speaking and western media from post-Soviet parlance to describe the huge, fast-acquired wealth of some businessmen of the former Soviet republics during the privatization in Russia and other post-Soviet...

    • Sergei Prokofiev
      Sergei Prokofiev
      Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev was a Russian composer, pianist and conductor who mastered numerous musical genres and is regarded as one of the major composers of the 20th century...

       — composer
    • Inna Ryzhykh
      Inna Ryzhykh
      Inna Ryzhykh is a professional Ukrainian triathlete, silver medalist at the Ukrainian Championships 2010, and a permanent member of the National Team....

       - professional triathlete
    • Boris Sagal
      Boris Sagal
      Boris Sagal was a Ukrainian-born American television and film director.-Early life and career:Born in Yekaterinoslav, Soviet Union, Sagal emigrated to the United States where he attended the Yale School of Drama. Sagal's many TV credits include directing episodes of The Twilight Zone, "T.H.E...

       – American television and film director, born there.
    • Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson — "Lubavitcher Rebbe" headed the Worldwide Chabad-Lubavitch Movement. Posthumously awarded the U.S. Congressional Gold Medal.
    • Moses Schönfinkel
      Moses Schönfinkel
      Moses Ilyich Schönfinkel, also known as Moisei Isai'evich Sheinfinkel , was a Russian logician and mathematician, known for the invention of combinatory logic.- Life :Schönfinkel attended the Novorossiysk University of Odessa, studying mathematics under Samuil Osipovich...

       — logician and mathematician
      Mathematician
      A mathematician is a person whose primary area of study is the field of mathematics. Mathematicians are concerned with quantity, structure, space, and change....

    • Oleg Tverdokhleb
      Oleg Tverdokhleb
      Oleh Tverdokhlib was a Ukrainian athlete. He was still an improving competitor at 400 metre hurdles when he was killed by electric shock while fixing wiring at his parental home in September 1995.At global level in athletics he had finished both sixth in the 1992 Summer Olympics and 1993 World...

       — Athlete – 400 metre hurdles
    • Yulia Tymoshenko
      Yulia Tymoshenko
      Yulia Volodymyrivna Tymoshenko , née Grigyan , born 27 November 1960, is a Ukrainian politician. She was the Prime Minister of Ukraine from 24 January to 8 September 2005, and again from 18 December 2007 to 4 March 2010. She placed third in Forbes Magazine's List of The World's 100 Most Powerful...

       — Prime Minister of Ukraine
      Prime Minister of Ukraine
      The Prime Minister of Ukraine is Ukraine's head of government presiding over the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, which is the highest body of the executive branch of the Ukrainian government....

       in 2005 and 2007–10


    See also List of mayors and political chiefs of the Dnipropetrovsk city administration.

    Twin towns — Sister cities

    The city of Dnipropetrovsk is twinned with:
    Krasnoyarsk
    Krasnoyarsk
    Krasnoyarsk is a city and the administrative center of Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia, located on the Yenisei River. It is the third largest city in Siberia, with the population of 973,891. Krasnoyarsk is an important junction of the Trans-Siberian Railway and one of Russia's largest producers of...

    , Russia
    Russia
    Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

     Žilina
    Žilina
    Žilina is a city in north-western Slovakia, around from the capital Bratislava, close to both the Czech and Polish borders. It is the fourth largest city of Slovakia with a population of approximately 85,000, an important industrial center, the largest city on the Váh river, and the seat of a...

    , Slovakia
    Slovakia
    The Slovak Republic is a landlocked state in Central Europe. It has a population of over five million and an area of about . Slovakia is bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east and Hungary to the south...

    , since 13 February 1993 Thessaloniki
    Thessaloniki
    Thessaloniki , historically also known as Thessalonica, Salonika or Salonica, is the second-largest city in Greece and the capital of the region of Central Macedonia as well as the capital of the Decentralized Administration of Macedonia and Thrace...

    , Greece
    Greece
    Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....

    , since 27 February 1984
    Vilnius
    Vilnius
    Vilnius is the capital of Lithuania, and its largest city, with a population of 560,190 as of 2010. It is the seat of the Vilnius city municipality and of the Vilnius district municipality. It is also the capital of Vilnius County...

    , Lithuania
    Lithuania
    Lithuania , officially the Republic of Lithuania is a country in Northern Europe, the biggest of the three Baltic states. It is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, whereby to the west lie Sweden and Denmark...

    , since 29 September 1998 Samara
    Samara, Russia
    Samara , is the sixth largest city in Russia. It is situated in the southeastern part of European Russia at the confluence of the Volga and Samara Rivers. Samara is the administrative center of Samara Oblast. Population: . The metropolitan area of Samara-Tolyatti-Syzran within Samara Oblast...

    , Russia. since 25 May 1993 Tashkent
    Tashkent
    Tashkent is the capital of Uzbekistan and of the Tashkent Province. The officially registered population of the city in 2008 was about 2.2 million. Unofficial sources estimate the actual population may be as much as 4.45 million.-Early Islamic History:...

    , Uzbekistan
    Uzbekistan
    Uzbekistan , officially the Republic of Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia and one of the six independent Turkic states. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south....

    , since 1998
    Dalian
    Dalian
    Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning province, Northeast China. It faces Shandong to the south, the Yellow Sea to the east and the Bohai Sea to the west and south. Holding sub-provincial administrative status, Dalian is the southernmost city of Northeast China and China's...

    , China
    People's Republic of China
    China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

     Xi'an
    Xi'an
    Xi'an is the capital of the Shaanxi province, and a sub-provincial city in the People's Republic of China. One of the oldest cities in China, with more than 3,100 years of history, the city was known as Chang'an before the Ming Dynasty...

    , China
    People's Republic of China
    China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

    , since 1998 Herzliya
    Herzliya
    Herzliya is a city in the central coast of Israel, at the western part of the Tel Aviv District. It has a population of 87,000 residents. Named after Theodor Herzl, the founder of modern Zionism, Herzliya covers an area of 26 km²...

    , Israel
    Israel
    The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...


    External links

    The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
     
    x
    OK