: Tengeriin Tetgesen Khaan, Manchu
: Abkai Wehiyehe hūwangdi, Tibetan
: lha skyong rgyal po, born Hongli ' onMouseout='HidePop("12970")' href="/topics/Manchu_language">Manchu language
: ;Möllendorff transliteration
: hung li), 25 September 1711 – 7 February 1799) was the sixth emperor of the Manchu
-led Qing Dynasty
, and the fourth Qing emperor to rule over China proper
. The fourth son of the Yongzheng Emperor
, he reigned officially from 11 October 1735 to 8 February 1796. On 8 February, he abdicated
in favor of his son, the Jiaqing Emperor
– a filial act in order not to reign longer than his grandfather, the illustrious Kangxi Emperor
. Despite his retirement, however, he retained ultimate power until his death in 1799. Although his early years saw the continuation of an era of prosperity in China, his final years saw troubles at home and abroad converge on the Qing Empire.
Early yearsHongli was adored both by his grandfather, the Kangxi Emperor
and his father, the Yongzheng Emperor
. Some historians argue that the main reason why Kangxi Emperor appointed Yongzheng as his successor was because Qianlong was his favourite grandson. He felt that Hongli's mannerisms were very close to his own. As a teenager he was very capable in martial arts, and possessed a high literary ability.
After his father's succession in 1722, Hongli became the Prince Bao (宝亲王/寶親王). Like many of his uncles, Hongli entered into a battle of succession with his older half-brother Hongshi
, who had the support of a large faction of court officials, as well as Yinsi, the Prince Lian. For many years the Yongzheng Emperor did not appoint anyone to the position of Crown Prince, but many in court speculated his favoring of Hongli. Hongli went on inspection trips to the south, and was known to be an able negotiator and enforcer. He was also chosen as chief regent
on occasions, when his father was away from the capital.
Ascension to the throneEven before Hongli's succession was read out to the assembled court, it was widely known who the new emperor would be. The young Hongli had been a favorite of his grandfather, Kangxi, and his father alike; Yongzheng had entrusted a number of important ritual tasks to him while Hongli was still a prince, and included him in important court discussions of military strategy. Hoping to avoid repetition of the succession crisis that had tainted his own accession to the throne, he had the name of his successor placed in a sealed box secured behind the tablet over the throne in the Palace of Heavenly Purity
(Qianqing Gong 乾清宫). The name in the box was to be revealed to other members of the imperial family in the presence of all senior ministers only upon the death of the Emperor. Yongzheng died suddenly in 1735, the will was taken out and read out before the entire Qing Court, and Hongli became the 6th Manchu Emperor of China
. He took the Calendar Name
of Qianlong (乾隆), 乾 means heaven, 隆 means prosperity, which mean "Heavenly Prosperity".
, while to the West, Ili
was conquered and garrisoned. The incorporation of Xinjiang into the Qing empire resulted from the final defeat and destruction of the Dzungars (or Zunghars), a coalition of Western Mongol tribes. According to Qing scholar Wei Yuan
, 40% of the 600,000 Zunghar people were killed by smallpox
, 20% fled to Russia
tribes, and 30% were killed by the army, in what Clarked described as "the complete destruction
of not only the Zunghar state but of the Zunghars as a people." Historian Peter Perdue has argued that the decimation of the Dzungars was the result of an explicit policy of massacre launched by the Qianlong emperor
(See Zunghar Khanate#Fall).
Throughout this period there were continued Mongol interventions in Tibet
and a reciprocal spread of Tibetan Buddhism
in Mongolia. After the Lhasa riot of 1750
he sent armies into Tibet and firmly established the Dalai Lama
as ruler, with a Qing resident and garrison to preserve Chinese sovereignty. Further afield, military campaigns against Nepalese, and Gurkha
s forced these peoples to submit and send tribute.
The Qianlong Emperor sought to conquer Burma to the south, but the Sino–Burmese War ended in complete failure. He initially believed that it would be an easy victory against a barbarian tribe, and sent only the Green Standard Army
based in Yunnan
, which borders Burma. The Qing invasion came as the majority of Burmese forces were deployed in their latest invasion of Siam
. Nonetheless, battle-hardened Burmese troops defeated the first two invasions of 1765–1766 and 1766–1767 at the border. The regional conflict now escalated to a major war that involved military maneuvers nationwide in both countries. The third invasion (1767–1768) led by the elite Manchu Bannermen
nearly succeeded, penetrating deep into central Burma within a few days' march from the capital, Ava
. But the Bannermen of northern China could not cope with unfamiliar tropical terrains and lethal endemic diseases, and were driven back with heavy losses. After the close-call, King Hsinbyushin
redeployed his armies from Siam to the Chinese front. The fourth and largest invasion got bogged down at the frontier. With the Qing forces completely encircled, a truce was reached between the field commanders of the two sides in December 1769. The Qing kept a heavy military lineup in the border areas of Yunnan for about one decade in an attempt to wage another war while imposing a ban on inter-border trade for two decades. When Burma and China resumed a diplomatic relationship in 1790, the Qing unilaterally viewed the act as Burmese submission, and claimed victory.
The circumstances in Vietnam were not successful either. In 1787 the last Le king Le Chieu Thong
fled Vietnam and formally requested that he be restored to his throne in Thanglong
(Hanoi today). The Qianlong Emperor agreed and sent a large army into Vietnam to remove the Tay Son (peasant rebels who had captured all of Vietnam). The capital, Thanglong, was conquered in 1788 but a few months later, the Chinese army was defeated and the invasion turned into a debacle due to the surprise attack during Tết
by Nguyen Hue
, the second and most capable of the three Tay Son brothers. The Chinese
gave formal protection to the Le emperor and his family, and would not intervene in Vietnam for another 90 years.
Despite setbacks in the south, overall the Qianlong Emperor's military expansion nearly doubled the area of the already vast empire, and brought into the fold many non-Han-Chinese peoples—such as Uyghurs
, Kyrgyzs, Evenks
—who were potentially hostile. It was also a very expensive enterprise; the funds in the Imperial Treasury were almost all put into military expeditions. Though the wars were successful, they were not overwhelmingly so. The army declined noticeably and had a difficult time facing some enemies: the Jin Chuan area took 2–3 years to conquer—at first the Qing army were mauled, though Yue Zhongqi later took control of the situation. The battle with the Dzungars was closely fought, and caused heavy losses on both sides.
At the end of the frontier wars, the army had started to weaken significantly. In addition to a more lenient military system, warlords became satisfied with their lifestyles. Since most of the warring had taken place, warlords no longer saw any reason to train their armies, resulting in a rapid military decline by the end of Qianlong's reign. This is the main reason for the military's failure against the White Lotus
Sect, at the very end of Qianlong's years.
The imperial collection had its origins in the first century B.C., and had gone through many vicissitudes of fire, civil wars and foreign invasions in the centuries that followed. But it was Qianlong who lavished the greatest attention on it, certainly of any of the Manchu rulers.... One of the many roles played by Qianlong, with his customary diligence, was that of the emperor as collector and curator. ...how carefully Qianlong followed the art market in rare paintings and antiquities, using a team of cultural advisers, from elderly Chinese literati to newly fledged Manchu connoisseurs. These men would help the emperor spot which great private collections might be coming up for sale, either because the fortunes of some previously rich merchant family were unraveling or because the precious objects acquired by Manchu or Chinese grandees during the chaos of the conquest period were no longer valued by those families’ surviving heirs. Sometimes, too, Qianlong would pressure or even force wealthy courtiers into yielding up choice art objects: he did this by pointing out failings in their work, which might be excused if they made a certain “gift,” or, in a couple of celebrated cases, by persuading the current owners that only the secure walls of the forbidden City and its guardians could save some precious painting from theft or from fire.
His massive art collection became an intimate part of his life; he took landscape paintings
with him on his travels in order to compare them with the actual landscapes, or to hang them in special rooms in palaces where he lodged, to inscribe them on every visit there. "He also regularly added poetic inscriptions to the paintings of the imperial collection, following the example of the emperors of the Song dynasty
and the literati painters of the Ming
. They were a mark of distinction for the work, and a visible sign of his rightful role as Emperor. Most particular to the Qianlong Emperor is another type of inscription, revealing a unique practice of dealing with works of art that he seems to have developed for himself. On certain fixed occasions over a long period he contemplated a number of paintings or works of calligraphy which possessed special meaning for him, inscribing each regularly with mostly private notes on the circumstances of enjoying them, using them almost as a diary."
"Most of the several thousand jade items in the imperial collection date from his reign. The Emperor was also particularly interested in collecting ancient bronzes, bronze mirrors and seals," in addition to pottery, ceramics and applied arts such as enameling, metal work and lacquer work, which flourished during his reign; a substantial part of his collection is in the Percival David Foundation in London. The Victoria and Albert Museum and The British Museum also have good collections of Qianlong period Art.
"The Qianlong Emperor was a passionate poet and essayist. In his collected writings, which were published in a tenfold series between 1749 and 1800, over 40,000 poems and 1,300 prose texts are listed, making him one of the most prolific writers of all time. There is a long tradition of poems of this sort in praise of particular objects (yongwu shi), and the Qianlong Emperor used it in order to link his name both physically and intellectually with ancient artistic tradition."
One of Qianlong’s grandest projects was to "assemble a team of China’s finest scholars for the purpose of assembling, editing, and printing the largest collection ever made of Chinese philosophy, history, and literature." Known as The Four Treasuries project, or Siku Quanshu
(四庫全書) it was published in 36,000 volumes, containing about 3450 complete works and employing as many as 15,000 copyists. It preserved numerous books, but was also intended as a way to ferret out and suppress political opponents, requiring the "careful examination of private libraries to assemble a list of around eleven thousand works from the past, of which about a third were chosen for publication. The works not included were either summarized or—in a good many cases—scheduled for destruction."
Burning of books and modification of textsSome 2,300 works were listed for total suppression and another 350 for partial suppression. The aim was to destroy the writings that were anti-Qing
or rebellious, that insulted previous "barbarian" dynasties, or that dealt with frontier or defense problems.
The full editing of Siku Quanshu
was completed in about ten years; during these ten years, 3100 titles (or works), about 150,000 copies of books were either burnt or banned. Of those volumes that had been categorized into Siku Quanshu, many were subjected to deletion and modification. Books published during the Ming dynasty suffered the greatest damage.
The authority would judge any single character or any single sentence's neutrality; if the authority had decided these words, or sentence were derogatory or cynical towards the rulers, then persecution would begin. In Qianlong's time, there were 53 cases of literary inquisition
, resulting in the victims being beheaded
, or corpses being mutilated, or victims being slowly sliced into pieces until death (Lingchi).
European stylesArchitecturally, Qianlong took personal interest in the expansion of the Old Summer Palace
and commissioned the Italian Jesuit Giuseppe Castiglione for the construction of the Xiyanglou (西洋楼), or the Western-style mansion, to satisfy his taste for exotic buildings and objects. He also commissioned the French Jesuit Michel Benoist
, to design a series of timed waterworks and fountains complete with underground machinery and pipes, for the amusement of the Imperial family. The French Jesuit Jean Denis Attiret
also became "Painter to the Emperor" Qianlong.
During his reign the Emin Minaret
was built in Turpan to commemorate his father.
Later yearsIn his later years, Qianlong was spoiled with power and glory, becoming disillusioned and complacent in his reign, placing his trust in corrupt officials like Yu Minzhong (于敏中), and later Heshen
Qianlong began his reign with about 33,950,000 tael
s of silver in Treasury surplus. At the peak of Qianlong's reign, around 1775, even with further tax cuts, the treasury surplus still reached 73,900,000 taels, a record unmatched by his predecessors, Kangxi or Yongzheng both of whom had implemented remarkable tax cut policies.
However, due to numerous factors such as long term embezzlement and corruption by officials, frequent expeditions South, huge palace constructions, many war and rebellion campaigns as well as his own extravagant lifestyle, all of these cost the treasury a total of 150,200,000 silver taels. This, coupled with his senior age and the lack of political reforms, ushered the beginning of the gradual decline and eventual demise of the Qing dynasty and empire, casting a shadow over his glorious and brilliant political life.
The Macartney Embassy
, was sent by King George III as ambassador extraordinary to seek a range of trade concessions. He was granted an audience with the Qianlong Emperor, and attended the Emperor's 80th birthday. There is continued discussion about the nature of the audience, and what level of ceremonials were performed. Demands from the Qing Court that the British Trade ambassadors kneel and perform the kowtow
were strongly resisted by Macartney, and debate continues as to what exactly occurred, differing opinions recorded by Qing courtiers and British delegates.
A description of the Emperor is provided in the account of one of the visiting Englishmen, Aeneas Anderson:
The Emperor is about five feet ten inches in height, and of a slender but elegant form; his complexion is comparatively fair, though his eyes are dark; his nose is rather aquiline, and the whole of his countenance presents a perfect regularity of feature, which, by no means, announce the great age he is said to have attained; his person is attracting, and his deportment accompanies by an affability, which, without lessening the dignity of the prince, evinces the amiable character of the man. His dress consisted of a loose robe of yellow silk, a cap of black velvet with a red ball on the top, and adorned with a peacock's feather, which is the peculiar distinction of mandarins of the first class. He wore silk boots embroidered with gold, and a sash of blue girded his waist.
It is uncertain whether Anderson actually saw the Emperor, or repeated another's sighting, as he was not involved in the ceremonies.
George Macartney's Manchu Qing observationsIn George Macartney's memoirs, there were many passages describing what was, in his opinion, an overall poor quality of life for the Chinese under Qing rule. Macartney expressed opinions which were widely disseminated:
- The Empire of China is an old, crazy, first-rate Man of War, which a fortunate succession of and vigilant officers have contrived to keep afloat for these hundred and fifty years past, and to overawe their neighbours merely by her bulk and appearance. But whenever an insufficient man happens to have the command on deck, adieu to the discipline and safety of the ship. She may, perhaps, not sink outright; she may drift some time as a wreck, and will then be dashed to pieces on the shore; but she can never be rebuilt on the old bottom.
The Titsingh Embassy
Representing Dutch and Dutch East India Company
interests, Isaac Titsingh
traveled to Pekin
in 1794–95 for celebrations of the sixtieth anniversary of the Qianlong Emperor's reign. The Titsingh delegation also included the Dutch-American Andreas Everardus van Braam Houckgeest
, whose detailed description of this embassy to the Chinese court was soon after published in the U.S. and Europe. Titsingh's French translator, Chrétien-Louis-Joseph de Guignes
published his own account of the Titsingh mission in 1808. Voyage a Pékin, Manille et l'Ile de France provided an alternate perspective and a useful counterpoint to other reports which were then circulating. Titsingh himself died before he could publish his version of events.
In contrast to Macartney, Isaac Titsingh, the Dutch and VOC
emissary in 1795 did not refuse to kowtow. In the year following Mccartney's rebuff, Titsingh and his colleagues were much feted by the Chinese because of what was construed as seemly compliance with conventional court etiquette.
, who had reigned for 61 years.
Qianlong anticipated moving out of the Hall of Mental Cultivation in the Forbidden City. The Hall had been conventionally dedicated for the exclusive use of the reigning sovereign, and in 1771 the emperor ordered the beginning of construction on what was ostensibly intended as his retirement residence in another part of the Forbidden City
: a lavish, two-acre walled retreat called the Ningshou gong, or "Palace of Tranquil Longevity", today more commonly known as the Qianlong Garden. The complex, completed in 1776, is currently undergoing a ten-year restoration led by the Palace Museum in Beijing and the World Monuments Fund
(WMF). The first of the restored apartments, Qianlong's Juanqinzhai, or "Studio of Exhaustion From Diligent Service," began an exhibition tour of the United States in 2010.
Qianlong resigned the throne at the age of 85, in the 60th year of his reign, to his son, the Jiaqing emperor in 1795. For the next four years, he held the title "Retired Emperor (太上皇)," though he continued to hold on to power and the Jiaqing Emperor ruled only in name. He never moved into his retirement suites in the Qianlong Garden. He died in 1799.
However there are major problems with this story being:
1) His eldest surviving son Hongshi was only 7 when Hongli was born far too early to make the drastic choice of replacing a child of royal birth with an outsider (and risking disgrace if not death)
2) Yongzheng had three other princes that survived to adulthood who had the potential of ascending the throne.
Indeed given the fact that Hongshi was forced to commit suicide, the story would have been far more logical if he was the adopted child of Yongzheng.
Stories about Qianlong's 6 visits to the Jiangnan
area disguised as a commoner had been a popular topic for many generations. In total, he has visited Jiang Nan for eight times, as opposed to the Kangxi emperor's 6 inspections.
- Father: the Yongzheng EmperorYongzheng EmperorThe Yongzheng Emperor , born Yinzhen , was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty and the third Qing emperor from 1722 to 1735. A hard-working ruler, Yongzheng's main goal was to create an effective government at minimal expense. Like his father, the Kangxi Emperor, Yongzheng used military...
(of whom he was the 4th son)
- Mother: Empress Xiaoshengxian (1692–1777) of the Niuhuru Clan (Chinese: 孝聖憲皇后; Manchu: Hiyoošungga Enduringge Temgetulehe Hūwanghu)
- Empress XiaoxianchunEmpress XiaoxianchunEmpress Xiaoxianchun was the first Empress Consort of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing Dynasty.- Family background :...
- Ulanara, the Step Empress
- Empress Xiaoyichun
- Imperial Noble Consort Huixian
- Imperial Noble Consort Chunhui
- Imperial Noble Consort Shujia (?-1755) was Korean of origin. She was the mother of four of Qianlong's sons.
- Imperial Noble Consort Qinggong
- Imperial Noble Consort Zhemin (?-20 May 1735), of the Manchu Fuca clan, died shortly before Qianlong ascended the throne and has never been and imperial consort during her lifetime.
- Noble Consort YingNoble Consort YingThe Noble Consort Ying was a concubine of the Qianlong Emperor, who ruled China from 1735 till 1796.-Biography:Noble Consort Ying née Barin was Mongolian from origin. She was the daughter of banner Lieutenant General Nachin . She was born in the ninth year of Emperor Yongzheng's reign on the...
- Noble Consort WanNoble Consort WanThe Noble Consort Wan 1716 - 1807, was the daughter of Chen Tingzhang .-Biography:Lady Chen was given to the Prince Hongli as a concubine, by the order of Emperor Yongzheng. When Prince Hongli ascended to the throne, Lady Chen was at first given the title Female Attendant Hai ...
- Noble Consort XunNoble Consort XunThe Noble Consort Xun , was the daughter of the Governor General Guilin . She came from the Manchu Irgen-Gioro clan.-Biography:Lady Irgen-Gioro entered the Imperial Court on November 18, during the forty-first year of Emperor Qianlong's reign, and was given the title Imperial Concubine with the...
- Noble Consort XinNoble Consort XinThe Noble Consort Xin , was a concubine of the Qianlong Emperor, who rules China from 1735 till 1796.-Biography:Noble Consort Xin née Daigiya , Manchu of origin, was the daughter of Governor General Nasutu , who's family belonged to the Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner Corps.Lady Daigiya entered the...
- Noble Consort Yu (1714–1792) of the Manchu Keliyete clan.
- Consort DunConsort DunThe Consort Dun was a concubine of the Qianlong Emperor who ruled Qing China from 1735 till 1796. She was the mother of Qianlong's favorite daughter, Kurun Princess Hexiao .-Biography:...
- Consort ShuConsort ShuThe Consort Shu , , was a concubine of the Qianlong Emperor, who ruled China from 1735 till 1796.-Biography:Consort Shu née Yehenara was Manchu of origin and was the daughter of Assitant Minister Yǒng Shòu...
- Consort Rong, The Fragrant ConcubineFragrant ConcubineThe Fragrant Concubine is a figure in Chinese legend who was taken as a consort by the Qianlong Emperor during the 18th century. Although the stories about her are believed to be mythical, they may have been based on an actual concubine from western China who entered the harem of the emperor in...
(?) likely amalgam of lore and reality, the story of Consort Rong, whose beauty and pleasing aroma was legendary, is still re-told today.
- Consort Jin (?-1822) of the Manchu Fuca clan. She was given the title of Consort by Qianlong's grandson, the Daoguang Emperor, in 1820 for she was the last widow of Qianlong.
- Consort Yu (1730–1774) of the Mongolian Borjigit clan
- Consort Fang (?-1801) of the Han Chinese Chen clan.
- Worthy Lady ShunWorthy Lady ShunThe Worthy Lady Shun was a concubine of the Qianlong Emperor who ruled China from 1735 till 1796.-Biography:Worthy Lady Shun née Niohuru was Manchu of origin...
- Eldest son: Prince Yonghuang (5 July 1728 – 21 April 1750), son of Imperial Noble Consort Zhemin
- 2nd: Prince Yonglian [永璉] (9 August 1730 – 23 November 1738), first Crown Prince, son of Empress XiaoxianchunEmpress XiaoxianchunEmpress Xiaoxianchun was the first Empress Consort of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing Dynasty.- Family background :...
- 3rd: Prince Yongzhang [永璋] (15 July 1735 – 26 August 1760), son of Imperial Noble Consort Chun HuiImperial Noble Consort Chun HuiThe Imperial Noble Consort Chun Hui was a concubine of the Qianlong Emperor. Emperor Qianlong was emperor China from 1736 til 1795.- Biography :...
, bore the title Prince of the second rank Xun (循郡王)
- 4th: Prince Yongcheng [永珹] (21 February 1739 – 5 April 1777), son of Imperial Noble Consort Shujia, bore the title Prince of the first rank Luduan (履端親王)
- 5th: Prince YongqiYongqi, Prince RongAisin-Gioro Yongqi was the fifth son of the Qianlong Emperor, and bore the title "Prince Rong" . His mother was Noble Consort Yu, a member of the Haigiya clan.-Portrayal In Dramas:...
[永琪] (23 March 1741 – 16 April 1766), son of Noble Consort Yu, bore the title Prince of the Blood Rong (榮親王)
- 6th: Prince Yongrong [永瑢] (28 January 1744 – 13 June 1790), son of Imperial Noble Consort Chunhui, bore the title Prince of the first rank Zhizhuang (質莊親王)
- 7th: Prince Yong Zhong [永琮] (27 May 1746 – 29 January 1748), 2nd Crown Prince, initially bore the title Prince of the First Rank Zhe (哲親王), son of Empress XiaoxianchunEmpress XiaoxianchunEmpress Xiaoxianchun was the first Empress Consort of the Qianlong Emperor of the Qing Dynasty.- Family background :...
- 8th: Prince Yongxuan [永璇] (31 August 1746 – 1 September 1832), son of the Imperial Noble Consort Shujia, bore the title Prince of the First Rank Yishen (儀慎親王)
- 9th: Prince ? (2 August 1748 – 11 June 1749), son of Imperial Noble Consort Shujia
- 10th: Prince Yongyue (12 June 1751 – 7 July 1753), son of Consort ShuConsort ShuThe Consort Shu , , was a concubine of the Qianlong Emperor, who ruled China from 1735 till 1796.-Biography:Consort Shu née Yehenara was Manchu of origin and was the daughter of Assitant Minister Yǒng Shòu...
- 11th: Prince Yongxing [永瑆] (22 March 1752 – 10 May 1823), son of the Imperial Noble Consort Shujia, bore the title Prince of the First Rank Chengzhe(成哲親王)
- 12th: Prince Yongji [永璂] (7 June 1752 – 17 March 1776), son of Ulanara, the Step Empress
- 13th: Prince Yongjing [永璟] (2 January 1756 – 7 September 1757), son of Ulanara, the Step Empress
- 14th: Prince Yonglu [永璐] (31 August 1757 – 3 May 1760), son of Empress Xiaoyichun
- 15th: Prince Yongyan [永琰] (13 November 1760 – 2 September 1820), son of Empress Xiaoyichun. created Prince of the First Rank Jia (嘉親王) in 1789, ascended the throne on 9 February 1796 as the Jiaqing EmperorJiaqing EmperorThe Jiaqing Emperor was the seventh emperor of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty, and the fifth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1796 to 1820....
- 16th: Prince ? (13 January 1763 – 6 May 1765), son of Empress Xiaoyichun
- 17th: Prince Yonglin [永璘] (17 June 1766 – 25 April 1820), son of Empress Xiaoyichun, created a beile in 1789, elevated to Prince of the Second Rank Qing (慶郡王) in 1799, elevated to Prince of the First Rank Qing (慶親王) in 1820 but died that same year. His grandson was Yikuang, Prince QingYikuang, Prince QingYikuang, the Prince Qing , was a Manchu prince of the late Qing Dynasty, who was the first premier of China...
- Famous general Fu Kang'an (福康安) was rumored to be an illegitimate son of Qianlong but this has never been proven, however, he was the most favoured general in the Qianlong's reign.
- Eldest: (1728–1729), daughter of Empress XiaoxianchunEmpress Xiaoxianchun
- Second: (1731) daughter of Imperial Noble Consort Zhemin
- Third: Kurun Princess Hejing [固倫和敬公主] (28 June 1731 – 15 August 1792), daughter of Empress XiaoxianchunEmpress Xiaoxianchun
- Fourth: Heshuo Princess Hejia [和硕和嘉公主] (24 December 1745 – 29 October 1767), daughter of the Imperial Noble Consort Chunhui
- Fifth: (1753–1755) daughter of Ulanara, the Step Empress
- Sixth: (24 August 1755 – 27 September 1758), daughter of Noble Consort XinNoble Consort XinThe Noble Consort Xin , was a concubine of the Qianlong Emperor, who rules China from 1735 till 1796.-Biography:Noble Consort Xin née Daigiya , Manchu of origin, was the daughter of Governor General Nasutu , who's family belonged to the Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner Corps.Lady Daigiya entered the...
- Seventh: Kurun Princess Hejing [固伦和静公主] (10 August 1756 – 9 February 1975), daughter of Empress Xiaoyichun
- Eight: (1758–1767) daughter of Noble Consort XinNoble Consort XinThe Noble Consort Xin , was a concubine of the Qianlong Emperor, who rules China from 1735 till 1796.-Biography:Noble Consort Xin née Daigiya , Manchu of origin, was the daughter of Governor General Nasutu , who's family belonged to the Manchu Bordered Yellow Banner Corps.Lady Daigiya entered the...
- Ninth: Heshuo Princess Heke [和硕和恪公主] (17 August 1758 – 14 April 1780), daughter of Empress Xiaoyichun
- Tenth: Kurun Princess Hexiao [固伦和孝公主] (2 February 1775 – 13 October 1823), daughter of Consort DunConsort DunThe Consort Dun was a concubine of the Qianlong Emperor who ruled Qing China from 1735 till 1796. She was the mother of Qianlong's favorite daughter, Kurun Princess Hexiao .-Biography:...
and Qianlong's favorite daughter.
- Heshuo Princess Hewan [和硕和婉公主] (24 July 1734 – 2 May 1760), originally the eldest daughter of Hongzhou, Prince HeHongzhou, Prince HeAisin-Gioro Hongzhou, the Prince He was the fifth son of the Yongzheng Emperor of Qing Dynasty. His mother, Imperial Noble Consort Chun Yi of Geng, was the daughter of Kanrei Geng Dejin ....
, the fifth son of the Yongzheng EmperorYongzheng EmperorThe Yongzheng Emperor , born Yinzhen , was the fifth emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty and the third Qing emperor from 1722 to 1735. A hard-working ruler, Yongzheng's main goal was to create an effective government at minimal expense. Like his father, the Kangxi Emperor, Yongzheng used military...
and therefore Qianlong's niece. Her biological mother was Lady Ujaku (乌札库氏), Hongzhou's principal wife.
- Jean Joseph Marie AmiotJean Joseph Marie AmiotJean Joseph Marie Amiot was a FrenchJesuit missionary.-Life:Joseph Marie Amiot was born at Toulon. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1737 and was sent in 1750 as a missionary to China. He soon won the confidence of the Qianlong Emperor and spent the remainder of his life at Beijing...
- Giuseppe Castiglione
- Manwen LaodangManwen LaodangManwen Laodang is a set of Manchu official documents of the Qing Dynasty, compiled during the late Qianlong period based on Jiu Manzhou Dang....
- Canton SystemCanton SystemThe Canton System served as a means for China to control trade with the west within its own country. Seen from the European view, it was a complement to the Old China Trade.-History:...
- Xi Yang Lou
- Long CorridorLong CorridorThe Long Corridor is a covered walkway in the Summer Palace in Beijing, China. First erected in the middle of the 18th century, it is famous for its length in conjunction with its rich painted decoration .-History:...
- Putuo Zongcheng TemplePutuo Zongcheng TempleThe Putuo Zongcheng Temple of Chengde, Hebei province, China is a Qing Dynasty era Buddhist temple complex built between 1767 and 1771, during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor . It is located near the Chengde Mountain Resort, which is south of the Putuo Zongcheng. Along with the equally famed...
- Qianlong DynastyQianlong DynastyQianlong Dynasty is a Chinese television series based on the novel Qianlong Huangdi by Er Yuehe. The series was preceded by Yongzheng Dynasty in 1997 and Kangxi Dynasty in 2001, both of which were also based on Er Yuehe's novels.-Cast:*Jiao Huang as Qianlong Emperor*Chen Rui as Heshen*Zuo Xiaoqing...