Project Nike
Project Nike was a U.S. Army
United States Army
The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...

 project, proposed in May 1945 by Bell Laboratories, to develop a line-of-sight anti-aircraft missile system. The project delivered the United States' first operational anti-aircraft missile system, the Nike Ajax, in 1953. A great number of the technologies and rocket systems used for developing the Nike Ajax were re-used for a number of functions, many of which were given the "Nike" name (after Nike
Nike (mythology)
In Greek mythology, Nike was a goddess who personified victory, also known as the Winged Goddess of Victory. The Roman equivalent was Victoria. Depending upon the time of various myths, she was described as the daughter of Pallas and Styx and the sister of Kratos , Bia , and Zelus...

, the goddess of victory from Greek mythology
Greek mythology
Greek mythology is the body of myths and legends belonging to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. They were a part of religion in ancient Greece...

The missile's first-stage solid rocket
Solid rocket
A solid rocket or a solid-fuel rocket is a rocket engine that uses solid propellants . The earliest rockets were solid-fuel rockets powered by gunpowder; they were used by the Chinese in warfare as early as the 13th century and later by the Mongols, Arabs, and Indians.All rockets used some form of...

 booster became the basis for many types of rocket including the Nike Hercules missile
Nike-Hercules Missile
The MIM-14 Nike-Hercules , was a solid fuel propelled two-stage surface-to-air missile, used by US and NATO armed forces for high- and medium-altitude air defense...

 and NASA
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research...

's Nike Smoke rocket, used for upper-atmosphere research.


Project Nike began during 1944 when the War Department
United States Department of War
The United States Department of War, also called the War Department , was the United States Cabinet department originally responsible for the operation and maintenance of the United States Army...

 demanded a new air defense system to combat the new jet aircraft
Jet aircraft
A jet aircraft is an aircraft propelled by jet engines. Jet aircraft generally fly much faster than propeller-powered aircraft and at higher altitudes – as high as . At these altitudes, jet engines achieve maximum efficiency over long distances. The engines in propeller-powered aircraft...

, as existing gun-based systems proved largely incapable of dealing with the speeds and altitudes at which jet aircraft operated. Two proposals were accepted. Bell Laboratories offered Project Nike. A much longer-ranged collision-course system was developed by General Electric
General Electric
General Electric Company , or GE, is an American multinational conglomerate corporation incorporated in Schenectady, New York and headquartered in Fairfield, Connecticut, United States...

, named Project Thumper, eventually delivering the BOMARC missile.

Bell Lab's proposal would have to deal with bombers flying at 500 mph (800 km/h) or more at altitudes of up to 60,000 ft (20,000 m).
At these speeds, even a supersonic rocket is no longer fast enough to be simply aimed at the target. The missile must "lead" the target to ensure the target is hit before the missile depletes its fuel. This means that the missile and target cannot be tracked by a single radar, increasing the complexity of the system. One part was well developed. By this point, the US had considerable experience with lead-calculating analog computer
Analog computer
An analog computer is a form of computer that uses the continuously-changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved...

s, starting with the British
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 Kerrison Predictor
Kerrison Predictor
The Kerrison Predictor was one of the first fully automated anti-aircraft fire-control systems. The predictor could aim a gun at an aircraft based on simple inputs like the observed speed and the angle to the target...

 and a series of increasingly capable U.S. designs.

For Nike, three radar
Radar is an object-detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. The radar dish or antenna transmits pulses of radio...

s were used. The acquisition radar searched for a target to be handed over to the Target Tracking Radar (TTR) for tracking. The Missile Tracking Radar (MTR) tracked the missile by way of a transponder
In telecommunication, the term transponder has the following meanings:...

, as the missile's radar signature alone was not sufficient. The MTR also commanded the missile by way of pulse-position modulation
Pulse-position modulation
Pulse-position modulation is a form of signal modulation in which M message bits are encoded by transmitting a single pulse in one of 2^M possible time-shifts. This is repeated every T seconds, such that the transmitted bit rate is M/T bits per second...

, the pulses were received, decoded and then amplified back for the MTR to track. Once the tracking radars were locked the system was able to work automatically following launch, barring any unexpected occurrences. The computer compared the two radars' directions, along with information on the speeds and distances, to calculate the intercept point and steer the missile. The entirety of this system was provided by the Bell System's electronics firm, Western Electric
Western Electric
Western Electric Company was an American electrical engineering company, the manufacturing arm of AT&T from 1881 to 1995. It was the scene of a number of technological innovations and also some seminal developments in industrial management...


The Douglas
McDonnell Douglas
McDonnell Douglas was a major American aerospace manufacturer and defense contractor, producing a number of famous commercial and military aircraft. It formed from a merger of McDonnell Aircraft and Douglas Aircraft in 1967. McDonnell Douglas was based at Lambert-St. Louis International Airport...

-built missile was a two stage missile using a solid fuel booster stage
Booster rocket
A booster rocket is either the first stage of a multi-stage launch vehicle, or else a strap-on rocket used to augment the core launch vehicle's takeoff thrust and payload capability. Boosters are generally necessary to launch spacecraft into Earth orbit or beyond...

 and a liquid fueled (IRFNA/UDMH
Unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine is a toxic volatile hygroscopic clear liquid, with a sharp, fishy, ammoniacal smell typical for organic amines. It turns yellowish on exposure to air and absorbs oxygen and carbon dioxide. It mixes completely with water, ethanol, and kerosene. In concentration...

) second stage. The missile could reach a maximum speed of 1,000 mph (1,600 km/h), an altitude of 70,000 ft (21 km) and had a range of 25 miles (40 km). The missile contained an unusual three part payload, with explosive fragmentation
Fragmentation (weaponry)
Fragmentation is the process by which the casing of an artillery shell, bomb, grenade, etc. is shattered by the detonating high explosive filling. The correct technical terminology for these casing pieces is fragments , although shards or splinters can be used for non-preformed fragments...

 charges at three points down the length of the missile to help ensure a lethal hit. The missile's limited range was seen by critics as a serious flaw, because it often meant that the missile had to be situated very close to the area it was protecting.

After disputes between the Army and the Air Force (see the Key West Agreement
Key West Agreement
The Key West Agreement is the colloquial name for the policy paper Function of the Armed Forces and the Joint Chiefs of Staff drafted by James V. Forrestal, the first United States Secretary of Defense...

), all longer-range systems were assigned to the Air Force during 1948. They merged their own long-range research with Project Thumper, while the Army continued to develop Nike. During 1950 the Army formed the Army Anti-Aircraft Command (ARAACOM) to operate batteries
Artillery battery
In military organizations, an artillery battery is a unit of guns, mortars, rockets or missiles so grouped in order to facilitate better battlefield communication and command and control, as well as to provide dispersion for its constituent gunnery crews and their systems...

 of anti-aircraft guns and missiles. ARAACOM was renamed the US Army Air Defense Command (USARADCOM) during 1957. It adopted a simpler acronym, ARADCOM, in 1961.

Nike Ajax

The first successful Nike test was during November 1951, intercepting a drone B-17 Flying Fortress. The first type, Nike Ajax (MIM-3), were deployed starting in 1953. The Army initially ordered 1,000 missiles and 60 sets of equipment. They were placed to protect strategic and tactical sites within the US. As a last-line of defense from air attack, they were positioned to protect cities as well as military installations. The missile was deployed first at Fort Meade, Maryland
Fort George G. Meade
Fort George G. Meade is a United States Army installation that includes the Defense Information School, the United States Army Field Band, and the headquarters of United States Cyber Command, the National Security Agency, and the Defense Courier Service...

 during December, 1953. A further 240 launch sites were built up to 1962. They replaced 896 radar-guided anti-aircraft guns, operated by the National Guard
United States National Guard
The National Guard of the United States is a reserve military force composed of state National Guard militia members or units under federally recognized active or inactive armed force service for the United States. Militia members are citizen soldiers, meaning they work part time for the National...

 or Army to protect certain key sites. This left a handful of 75 mm Skysweeper
Skysweeper was an anti-aircraft gun deployed in the early 1950s by both the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force...

 emplacements as the only anti-aircraft artillery remaining in use by the US. By 1957 the Regular Army AAA units had been replaced by missile battalions. During 1958 the Army National Guard began to replace their guns and adopt the Ajax system.

Each launch site had three parts, separated by at least 1,000 yards (914 m). One part (designated C) of about six acres (24,000 m²) contained the IFC (Integrated Fire Control) radar
Radar is an object-detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. The radar dish or antenna transmits pulses of radio...

 systems to detect incoming targets (acquisition and target tracking) and direct the missiles (missile tracking), along with the computer systems to plot and direct the intercept. The second part (designated L), around forty acres (160,000 m²), held 1-3 underground missile magazines each serving a group of four launch assemblies and included a safety zone. The site had a crew of 109 officers and men who ran the site continuously. One launcher would be on 15 minutes alert, two on 30 minutes and one on two hour alert. The third part was the administrative area (designated A), which was usually co-located with the IFC and contained the battery headquarters, barracks, mess, recreation hall, and motor pool. The actual configuration of the Nike sites differed depending on geography. Whenever possible the sites were placed on existing military bases or National Guard armories; otherwise land had to be purchased.

The Nike batteries were organized in Defense Areas and placed around population centers and strategic locations such as long-range bomber bases, nuclear plants, and (later) ICBM sites. The Nike sites in a Defense Area formed a circle around these cities and bases. There was no fixed number of Nike batteries in a Defense Area and the actual number of batteries varied from a low of two in the Barksdale AFB Defense Area to a high of 22 in the Chicago Defense Area. In the Continental United States the sites were numbered from 01 to 99 starting at the north and increasing clockwise. The numbers had no relation to actual compass headings, but generally Nike sites numbered 01 to 25 were to the northeast and east, those numbered 26 to 50 were to the southeast and south, those numbered 51 to 75 were to the southwest and west, and those numbered 76 to 99 were to the northwest and north. The Defense Areas in the Continental United States were identified by a one- or two-letter code which were related to the city name. Thus those Nike sites starting with C were in the Chicago Defense Area, those starting with HM were in the Homestead AFB/Miami Defense Area, those starting with NY were in the New York Defense Area, and so forth. As an example Nike Site SF-88L refers to the launcher area (L) of the battery located in the northwestern part (88) of the San Francisco Defense Area (SF).

During the early-to-mid 1960s the Nike Ajax batteries were upgraded to the Hercules system. The new missiles had greater range and destructive power, so about half as many batteries provided the same defensive capability. Regular Army batteries were either upgraded to the Hercules system or decommissioned. Army National Guard units continued to use the Ajax system until 1964, when they too upgraded to Hercules. Eventually, the Regular Army units were replaced by the National Guard as a cost saving measure, since the Guard units could return to their homes when off duty.

A Nike Ajax missile exploded accidentally at a battery in Leonardo, New Jersey
Leonardo, New Jersey
Leonardo is a census-designated place located within Middletown Township, in Monmouth County, New Jersey. As of the 2010 United States Census, the CDP population was 2,757...

 on 22 May 1958, killing 6 soldiers and 4 civilians. A memorial can be found at Fort Hancock in the Sandy Hook Unit of Gateway National Recreation Area.

Nike Hercules

Even as Nike Ajax was being tested, work started on Nike-B, later renamed Nike Hercules (MIM-14). It improved speed, range and accuracy, and could intercept ballistic missile
Ballistic missile
A ballistic missile is a missile that follows a sub-orbital ballistic flightpath with the objective of delivering one or more warheads to a predetermined target. The missile is only guided during the relatively brief initial powered phase of flight and its course is subsequently governed by the...

s. The Hercules had a range of about 100 miles (160 km), a top speed in excess of 3,000 mph (4,800 km/h) and a maximum altitude of around 100,000 ft (30 km). It had solid fuel boost and sustainer rocket motors. The boost phase was four of the Nike Ajax boosters strapped together. In the electronics, some vacuum tubes were replaced with more reliable solid-state components.

The missile also had an optional nuclear warhead
Nuclear weapon
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission or a combination of fission and fusion. Both reactions release vast quantities of energy from relatively small amounts of matter. The first fission bomb test released the same amount...

 to improve the probability of a kill. The W-31
The W31 was an American nuclear warhead used for two US missiles and as an atomic demolition munition.The W31 was produced from 1959, with the last versions phased out in 1989....

 warhead had four variants offering 2, 10, 20 and 30 kiloton yields. The 20 KT version was used in the Hercules system. At sites in the USA the missile almost exclusively carried a nuclear warhead. Sites in foreign nations typically had a mix of high explosive and nuclear warheads. The fire control
Fire-control system
A fire-control system is a number of components working together, usually a gun data computer, a director, and radar, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target. It performs the same task as a human gunner firing a weapon, but attempts to do so faster and more...

 of the Nike system was also improved with the Hercules and included a surface-to-surface
Surface-to-surface missile
A surface-to-surface missile is a guided projectile launched from a hand-held, vehicle mounted, trailer mounted or fixed installation or from a ship. They are often powered by a rocket motor or sometimes fired by an explosive charge, since the launching platform is typically stationary or moving...

 mode which was successfully tested in Alaska. The mode change was accomplished by changing a single plug on the warhead from the "Safe Plug" to "Surface to Air" or "Surface to Surface".

The Nike Hercules was deployed starting in June 1958. First deployed to Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

, 393 Hercules ground systems were manufactured. By 1960 ARADCOM had 88 Hercules batteries and 174 Ajax batteries, defending 23 zones across 30 states. Peak deployment was in 1963 with 134 Hercules batteries not including the US Army Hercules batteries deployed in Germany, Greece, Greenland, Italy, Korea, Okinawa, Taiwan, and Turkey.

In 1961, SAC and the U.S. Army began a joint training mission with benefits for both parties. SAC needed fresh (simulated) targets which the cities ringed by Nike/Hercules sites provided, and the Army needed LIVE targets to acquire and track with their radar. SAC had many Radar Bomb Scoring (RBS) sites across the country which had very similar acquisition and tracking radar, plus similar computerized plotting boards which were used to record the bomber tracks and bomb release points. Airmen from these sites were assigned TDY to NIKE sites across the country to train the NIKE crews in RBS procedures. The distances from the simulated bomb landing point and the "target" were recorded on paper, measured, encoded, and transmitted to the aircrews. The results of these bomb runs were used to promote or demote air crews. ECM activity also took place between the bombers and the NIKE sites. The performance of the NIKE crews improved remarkably with this "live target" practice.

Many Nike Hercules batteries were manned by Army National Guard
Army National Guard
Established under Title 10 and Title 32 of the U.S. Code, the Army National Guard is part of the National Guard and is divided up into subordinate units stationed in each of the 50 states, three territories and the District of Columbia operating under their respective governors...

 troops, with a single active Army officer assigned to each battalion to account for the unit's nuclear warheads. The National Guard air defense units shared responsibility for defense of their assigned area with active Army units in the area, and reported to the active Army chain of command. This is the only known instance of Army National Guard units being equipped with operational nuclear weapons.

Nike Zeus

Development continued, producing Improved Nike Hercules and then Nike Zeus A and B. The Zeus was aimed at intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).

Zeus, with a new 400,000 lbf (1.78 MN) thrust solid-fuel booster, was first test launched during August 1959 and demonstrated a top speed of 8,000 mph (12,875 km/h). The Nike Zeus system also included the Zeus Acquisition Radar (ZAR), a significant improvement over the Nike Hercules HIPAR system. Shaped like a pyramid, the ZAR featured a Luneburg lens receiver aerial weighing about 1,000 tons. The first successful intercept of an ICBM by Zeus was in 1962, at Kwajalein in the Marshall Islands. Despite its technological advancements, the Department of Defense
United States Department of Defense
The United States Department of Defense is the U.S...

 terminated Zeus development in 1963. The Zeus system, which cost an estimated $15 billion, still suffered from several technical flaws, that were believed to be uneconomical to overcome.

Still, the Army continued to develop an anti-ICBM weapon system referred to as "Nike-X" - that was largely based on the technological advances of the Zeus system. Nike-X featured phase-array radars, computer advances, and a missile tolerant of skin temperatures three times those of the Zeus. In September 1967, the Department of Defense announced the deployment of the LIM-49A Spartan
LIM-49A Spartan
The LIM-49A Spartan was a United States Army anti-ballistic missile, whose warheads were developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. It was a three-stage, solid-fuel surface-to-air missile that carried a W71 thermonuclear warhead with a lethal radius of up to 30 miles to intercept...

 missile system, its major elements drawn from Nike X development.

In March 1969. the Army started the Safeguard ABM program, which was designed to defend Minuteman ICBMs, and which was also based on the Nike-X system. It became operational in 1975, but was shut down after just three months.


Soviet development of ICBMs decreased the value of the Nike (aircraft) air defense system. Beginning around 1965, the number of Nike batteries was reduced. Thule
Thule Air Base
Thule Air Base or Thule Air Base/Pituffik Airport , is the United States Air Force's northernmost base, located north of the Arctic Circle and from the North Pole on the northwest side of the island of Greenland. It is approximately east of the North Magnetic Pole.-Overview:Thule Air Base is the...

 air defense was reduced during 1965 and SAC
Strategic Air Command
The Strategic Air Command was both a Major Command of the United States Air Force and a "specified command" of the United States Department of Defense. SAC was the operational establishment in charge of America's land-based strategic bomber aircraft and land-based intercontinental ballistic...

 air base defense during 1966, reducing the number of batteries to 112. Budgetary cuts reduced that number to 87 in 1968, and 82 in 1969.

Some small-scale work to use Nike Zeus as an anti-satellite weapon
Anti-satellite weapon
Anti-satellite weapons are designed to incapacitate or destroy satellites for strategic military purposes. Currently, only the United States, the former Soviet Union, and the People's Republic of China are known to have developed these weapons. On September 13, 1985, the United States destroyed US...

 (ASAT) was carried out from 1962 until the project was canceled in favor of the Thor based Program 437
Program 437
Program 437 was the second anti-satellite weapons program of the U.S. military. The US anti-satellite weapons program began development in the early 1960s and was officially discontinued on 1 April 1975. Program 437 was approved for development by U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara on...

 system during 1966.
In the end, neither development would enter service. However, the Nike Zeus system did demonstrate a hit-to-kill capability against ballistic missiles during the early 1960s. See National Missile Defense
National Missile Defense
National missile defense is a generic term for a type of missile defense intended to shield an entire country against incoming missiles, such as intercontinental ballistic missile or other ballistic missiles. Interception might be by anti-ballistic missiles or directed-energy weapons such as lasers...

 and anti-ballistic missile systems
Anti-ballistic missile
An anti-ballistic missile is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles .A ballistic missile is used to deliver nuclear, chemical, biological or conventional warheads in a ballistic flight trajectory. The term "anti-ballistic missile" describes any antimissile system designed to counter...


Nike Hercules was included in SALT I discussions as an ABM
Anti-ballistic missile
An anti-ballistic missile is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles .A ballistic missile is used to deliver nuclear, chemical, biological or conventional warheads in a ballistic flight trajectory. The term "anti-ballistic missile" describes any antimissile system designed to counter...

. Following the treaty signed during 1972, and further budget reduction, almost all Nike sites in the continental United States were deactivated by April, 1974. Some units remained active until the later part of that decade in a coast air defense role.


MissileNike AjaxNike HerculesNike Zeus ANike Zeus B (XLIM-49A)Spartan (LIM-49A)
Length 10.36 metre overall
6.41 metresecond stage
12.53 metre overall
8.18 metre second stage
13.5 metre 14.7 metre 16.8 metre
Diameter 0.3 metre 0.8 metre booster
0.53 metre second stage
0.91 metre 0.91 metre 1.09 metre
Fin span 1.22 metre 3.5 metre booster
1.88 metre second stage
2.98 metre 2.44 metre 2.98 metre
Mass 1116 kg (2,460.4 lb) at launch
523 kg (1,153 lb) second stage
4850 kg (10,692.4 lb) at launch
2505 kg (5,522.6 lb) second stage
4980 kg (10,979 lb) 10300 kg (22,707.6 lb) 13100 kg (28,880.6 lb)
Maximum speed Mach
Mach number
Mach number is the speed of an object moving through air, or any other fluid substance, divided by the speed of sound as it is in that substance for its particular physical conditions, including those of temperature and pressure...

 2.25 (ca. 1,900 mph; 3000 km/h)
Mach 3.65 (ca. 2,900 mph; 4,700 km/h) Mach 4 > (ca. 3,000 mph; 4,900 km/h)
Range 40 km (24.9 mi) 140 km (87 mi) 320 km (198.8 mi) 400 km (248.5 mi) 740 km (459.8 mi)
Ceiling 21300 m (69,881.9 ft) 45700 m (149,934.4 ft) ? 280 km (174 mi) 560 km (348 mi)
First stage Solid-fuel
(59,000 lbf or 263 kN static thrust for 2.5 seconds)
Hercules M42 solid-fueled rocket cluster
(4x M5E1 Nike boosters)
220,000 lbf (978 kN) total
Thiokol is a U.S. corporation concerned initially with rubber and related chemicals, and later with rocket and missile propulsion systems...

400,000 lbf (1,800 kN)
Thiokol TX-135
450,000 lbf (2,000 kN)
Thiokol TX-500
500,000 lbf (2,200 kN)
Second stage Liquid-fuel
(2,600 lbf or 11.6 kN static thrust for 21 seconds)
Thiokol M30 solid-fueled rocket
10,000 lbf (44.4 kN)
? Thiokol TX-238 Thiokol TX-454
Third stage None None None Thiokol TX-239 Thiokol TX-239
Warhead conventional 3 warheads each surrounded with
2 layers of in (6 mm) hardened steel cubes
Nose: M2: 4.5 lb (2.0 kg) Composition B
Composition B
Composition B, colloquially "comp B", is an explosive consisting of castable mixtures of RDX and TNT. It is used as the main explosive filling in artillery projectiles, rockets, land mines, hand grenades, sticky bombs and various other munitions...

 12 lb (5.4 kg) total
Mid-body: M3: 92 lb (42 kg) Comp. B, 176.8 lb (80.2 kg) total
Aft: M4: 59 lb (27 kg) Comp B, 121.3 lb (55.0 kg) total
T-45 HE warhead weighed
1106 lb (500 kg) and contained 600 lb (272 kg) of HBX-6
HBX is a family of binary explosives that are composed of RDX, TNT, powdered aluminium, and D-2 wax with calcium chloride. It is used in missile warheads and underwater ordnance....

M17 blast-fragmentation
Nuclear warhead only Nuclear warhead only Nuclear warhead only
Warhead nuclear Conventional warhead only W-31 nuclear 20 kt (M-22) W-31 nuclear W50
W50 (atomic weapon)
The W-50 or W50 thermonuclear warhead was a nuclear bomb used on the MGM-31 Pershing intermediate range nuclear missile.There were two major variants produced , in three yield options .All variants were in diameter and long, weighing .The W50 used the Tsetse primary design...

 (400 kt)
The W-71 nuclear warhead was a US thermonuclear warhead developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California and deployed on the LIM-49A Spartan Anti-ballistic missile...

 (5 Mt)

Support vehicles

These trucks and trailers were used with the Nike system.
  • Trucks
M254 truck, missile rocket motor, Nike Ajax
M255 truck, body section, Nike Ajax
M256 truck, inert, Nike Ajax
M257 truck, inert, Nike Ajax
M442 truck, guided missile, rocket motor, Nike Hercules
M451 truck, guided missile test set, Nike Hercules
M473 truck, guided missile body section, Nike Hercules
M489 truck, missile nose section, Nike Hercules

  • G789 Trailers

M242 trailer, M33 fire control, radar dish van mount, 2-ton,
M243 trailer, M33 fire control, antenna hauler, 2-ton,
M244 trailer, M33 fire control, computer van, 2-ton,
M258 van, radar tracking central
M259 van, guided missile directors trailer
M260 low bed antenna mount
M261 flat bed, guided missile
M262 van, launch control station
M304 van, electronic shop, Nike Ajax
M359 van, electronic repair shop
M382 van, electronic repair shop
M383 van, electronic repair shop
M406 low bed antenna mount
M424 van, guided missile directors trailer
M428 van, guided missile tracking station
M429 dolly, for Nike trailers

M430 dolly, trailer, rear, for Nike trailers
M431 dolly, trailer, front, for Nike trailers
M432 dolly, trailer, rear, for Nike trailers
M529 trailer, low bed, 7-ton, missile, Nike
M564 trailer van, electronic shop, 9-ton,
M565 dolly, trailer, front,
M573 dolly, front, launch control station,
M582 van, shop
M583 van, shop
M584 dolly, trailer, front,
M589 dolly, trailer, front, electronic,
M595 dolly, trailer , front, antenna,
M657 trailer, van radar simulator test station,
M699 dolly trailer, rear,
M802 trailer, electric shop, radar course direct central, Nike Hercules


By 1958, the Army deployed nearly 200 Nike Ajax batteries at 40 "Defense Areas" within the United States (including Alaska and Hawaii) in which Project Nike missiles were deployed. Within each Defense Area, a "Ring of Steel" was developed with a series of Nike Integrated Firing and Launch Sites constructed by the Corps of Engineers.

The deployment was designed to initially supplement and then replace gun batteries deployed around the nation's major urban areas and vital military installations. The defense areas consisted of major cities and selected United States Air Force
United States Air Force
The United States Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on September 18, 1947 under the National Security Act of...

 Strategic Air Command
Strategic Air Command
The Strategic Air Command was both a Major Command of the United States Air Force and a "specified command" of the United States Department of Defense. SAC was the operational establishment in charge of America's land-based strategic bomber aircraft and land-based intercontinental ballistic...

 bases which were deemed vital to national defense. The original basing strategy projected a central missile assembly point from which missiles would be taken out to prepared above-ground launch racks ringing the defended area. However, the Army discarded this semimobile concept because the system needed to be ready for instantaneous action to fend off a "surprise attack." Instead, a fixed-site scheme was devised.

Due to geographical factors, the placement of Nike batteries differed at each location. Initially, the planners chose fixed sites well away from the defended area and the Corps of Engineers Real Estate Offices began seeking tracts of land in rural areas However, Army planners determined that close-in perimeter sites would provide enhanced firepower. Staggering sites between outskirt and close-in locations to urban areas gave defenders a greater defense-in-depth capability.

Each Nike missile battery was divided into two basic parcels: the Battery Control Area and the Launch Area.

The Battery Control Area contained the radar and computer equipment. Housing and administration buildings, including the mess hall, barracks, and recreation facilities. were sometimes located in a third parcel of land. More likely, however. the housing and administration buildings were located at either the Battery Control Area or the Launch Area, depending upon site configuration, obstructions, and the availability of land.

The Launch Area provided for the maintenance, storage, testing, and firing of the Nike missiles. The selection of this area was primarily influenced by the relatively large amount of land required, its suitability to extensive underground construction, and the need to maintain a clear line-of-sight between the missiles in the Launch Area and the missile-tracking-radar in the Battery Control Area.

The first Nike sites featured above-ground launchers. This quickly changed as land restrictions forced the Army to construct space-saving underground magazines. Capable of hosting 12 Nike Ajax missiles, each magazine had an elevator that lifted the missile to the surface in a horizontal position. Once above ground, the missile could be pushed
manually along a railing to a launcher placed parallel to the elevator. Typically, four launchers sat atop the magazine.
Near the launchers, a trailer housed the launch control officer and the controls he operated to launch missiles. In addition to the launch control trailer, the launch area contained a generator building with three diesel generators, frequency converters, and missile assembly and maintenance structures.

Because of the larger size of the Nike Hercules, an underground magazine's capacity was reduced to eight missiles. Thus, storage racks, launcher rails, and elevators underwent modification to accept the larger missiles. Two additional features that readily distinguished newly converted sites were the double fence and the kennels housing dogs that patrolled the perimeter between the two fences.

The Nike Hercules was designed to use existing Nike Ajax facilities. With the greater range of the Nike Hercules allowing for wider area coverage, numerous Nike Ajax batteries were permanently deactivated. In addition, sites located further
away from target areas were desirable due to the nuclear warheads carried by the missile. Unlike the older Ajax sites, these batteries were placed in locations that optimized the missiles' range and minimized the warhead damage. Nike Hercules batteries at SAC bases and in Hawaii were installed in an outdoor configuration. In Alaska, a unique above-ground shelter configuration was provided for batteries guarding Anchorage and Fairbanks. Local Corps of Engineer Districts supervised the conversion of Nike Ajax batteries and the construction of new Nike Hercules batteries

Nike missiles remained deployed around strategically important areas within the continental United States until 1974. The Alaskan sites were deactivated in 1978 and Florida sites stood down during the following year. Although the missile left the U.S. inventory, other nations maintained the missiles in their inventories into the early 1990s and sent their soldiers to the United States to conduct live-fire exercises at Fort Bliss, Texas.

Leftover traces of the approximately 265 Nike missile bases can still be seen around cities across the country. As the sites were decommissioned they were first offered to federal agencies. Many were already on Army National Guard bases who continued to use the property. Others were offered to state and local governments while others were sold to school districts. The left-overs were offered to private individuals. Thus, many Nike sites are now municipal yards, communications and FAA facilities (the IFC areas), probation camps, and even renovated for use as Airsoft gaming and MilSim training complexes. Several were completely obliterated and turned into parks. Some are now private residences. Only a few remain intact and preserve the history of the Nike project. There are also a few sites abroad, notably in Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 and Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....


Defense areas within the United States were (click on link for more information):
  • Anchorage Defense Area, AK
  • Barksdale Defense Area. LA
  • Bergstrom AFB Defense Area, TX
  • Boston Defense Area, MA
  • Bridgeport Defense Area, CT
  • Chicago-Gary Defense Area, IL-IN
  • Cincinnati-Dayton Defense Area, OH-IN
  • Cleveland Defense Area, OH
  • Dallas-Fort Worth Defense Area, TX
  • Detroit Defense Area, MI
  • Dyess AFB Defense Area, TX
  • Ellsworth AFB Defense Area, SD
  • Fairbanks Defense Area, AK
  • Fairchild AFB Defense Area, WA
  • Hanford Defense Area, WA
  • Hartford Defense Area. CT
  • Homestead-Miami Defense Area, FL
  • Kansas City Defense Area, KS-MO
  • Lincoln AFB Defense Area, NE
  • Loring AFB Defense Area, ME

  • Los Angeles Defense Area, CA
  • Milwaukee Defense Area, WI
  • Minneapolis-St.Paul Defense Area, MN
  • New York Defense Area, NY
  • Niagara Falls-Buffalo Defense Area, NY
  • Norfolk Defense Area, VA
  • Oahu Defense Area, HI
  • Offutt AFB Defense Area, NE
  • Philadelphia Defense Area, PA-NJ
  • Pittsburgh Defense Area, PA
  • Providence Defense Area, RI-MA
  • Robbins AFB Defense Area, GA
  • St. Louis Defense Area, MO
  • San Francisco Defense Area, CA
  • Schilling AFB Defense Area, KS
  • Seattle Defense Area, WA
  • Travis AFB Defense Area, CA
  • Turner AFB Defense Area, GA
  • Walker AFB Defense Area, NM
  • Washington-Baltimore Defense Area, MD-VA

Nike as sounding rocket

The Nike was also used as sounding rocket
Sounding rocket
A sounding rocket, sometimes called a research rocket, is an instrument-carrying rocket designed to take measurements and perform scientific experiments during its sub-orbital flight. The origin of the term comes from nautical vocabulary, where to sound is to throw a weighted line from a ship into...

 in the following versions:
  • Nike Apache
    Nike Apache
    The Nike Apache was a two-stage sounding rocket used by NASA to loft instruments into the upper atmosphere. The Nike Apache was launched 636 times between 1961 and 1978...

  • Nike Hydac
    Nike Hydac
    Nike Hydac is the designation of an American sounding rocket with two stages, based upon the Nike Ajax system. The Nike Hydac was launched 87 times from many missile sites...

  • Nike Iroquois
    Nike Iroquois
    Nike Iroquois is the designation of a two-stage American sounding rocket. The Nike Iroquois was launched 213 times between 1964 and 1978. The maximum flight height of the Nike Iroquois amounts to 290 km , the takeoff thrust 48,800 lbf , the takeoff weight 700 kg and the length 8.00...

  • Nike Javelin
    Nike Javelin
    Nike Javelin is the designation of an American two-stage sounding rocket. The Nike Javelin was launched 34 times between 1964 and 1978. The maximum flight altitude of the Nike Javelin was 130 km, the takeoff thrust 217 kN, takeoff weight 900 kg, diameter 0.42 m and length...

  • Nike Malemute
    Nike Malemute
    Nike Malemute is the designation of a two-stage American sounding rocket, consisting of a Nike starting stage and a Malemute upper stage. The Nike Malemute has a ceiling of 500 km , a takeoff thrust of 48,800 lbf , a takeoff weight of 1,000 kg , a diameter of 0.42 m and a length of...

  • Nike Nike
    Nike Nike
    Nike Nike is the designation of a U.S. sounding rocket. The Nike Nike consists of two Nike rocket stages and reaches a ceiling of 352 km. The Nike Nike was used 16 times between 1954 and 1979....

  • Nike Orion
    Nike Orion
    Nike Orion is the designation of a two-stage American elevator research rocket, with a Nike base stage and an Orion upper stage. The Nike Orion is 9 m long, has a diameter of 0.42 m, a launch weight of 1100 kilograms , a launch thrust of 217 kN and a ceiling of 140 km .-External links:*...

  • Nike Recruit
    Nike Recruit
    Nike Recruit is the designation of a two-stage American sounding rocket, using a Nike rocket as the booster stage. The Nike Recruit has an apogee of 5 km, a liftoff thrust of 217 kN, a total mass of 1100 kg and a total length of 8.00 m....

  • Nike T40 T55
    Nike T40 T55
    Nike T40 T55 is the designation of an Japanese three-stage sounding rocket consisting of a Nike, a T40 and a T55 stage. It has a liftoff thrust of 217 kN and a length of 9 metres....

  • Nike Tomahawk
    Nike Tomahawk
    The Nike Tomahawk was a two stage American sounding rocket. The first stage was a Nike rocket, the second a Tomahawk rocket.The Nike Tomahawk has a ceiling of 230 statute miles , a payload capacity of 100 pounds , a launch thrust of 49,000 pounds of force , a launch weight of 2,200 pounds , a...

  • Nike Viper
    Nike Viper
    Nike Viper is the designation of a two-stage American sounding rocket, consisting of a Nike starting stage and a Viper upper stage. The Nike Viper has a ceiling of 80 km, a takeoff thrust of 217 kN , a takeoff weight of 600 kg and a length of 8.00 m....

  • Nike-Asp
    Nike Asp is the designation of an American sounding rocket. The Nike Asp has a ceiling of 220 km, a takeoff thrust of 217 kN, a takeoff weight of 700 kg, a diameter of 0.42 m and a length of 7.90 m....

  • Nike-Cajun
    The Nike-Cajun was a two-stage sounding rocket built by combining a Nike base stage with a Cajun upper stage. It was launched 714 times between 1956 and 1976 and was the most frequently used sounding rocket of the western world...

  • Nike-Deacon
    Nike Deacon is the designation of an American sounding rocket. The Nike Deacon has a ceiling of 189 km, a takeoff thrust of 217 kN, a takeoff weight of 710 kg, a diameter of 0.42 m and a length of 7.74 m....


  • The best preserved Nike installation is site SF88L located in the Marin Headlands just west of the Golden Gate Bridge
    Golden Gate Bridge
    The Golden Gate Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Golden Gate, the opening of the San Francisco Bay into the Pacific Ocean. As part of both U.S. Route 101 and California State Route 1, the structure links the city of San Francisco, on the northern tip of the San Francisco Peninsula, to...

     in San Francisco, California
    San Francisco, California
    San Francisco , officially the City and County of San Francisco, is the financial, cultural, and transportation center of the San Francisco Bay Area, a region of 7.15 million people which includes San Jose and Oakland...

    . The site is a museum, and contains the missile bunkers, and control area, as well as period uniforms and vehicles that would have operated at the site. The site has been preserved in the condition it was in at the time it was decommissioned in 1974. The site began as a Nike Ajax base and was later converted to Nike Hercules. Three Nike Hercules are displayed in the original bunkers. The base is open to the public. Tours are conducted by members of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area
    Golden Gate National Recreation Area
    The Golden Gate National Recreation Area is a U.S. National Recreation Area administered by the National Park Service that surrounds the San Francisco Bay area. It is one of the most visited units of the National Park system in the United States, with over 13 million visitors a year...

  • The second best preserved Nike installation is site NY-56 at Fort Hancock
    Fort Hancock
    Fort Hancock may refer to:* Fort Hancock, Texas, a census-designated place in Hudspeth County, Texas* Fort Hancock, New Jersey, a fort on the Sandy Hook beach of New Jersey* Fort Hancock, U.S. Life Saving Station, located in Highlands, New Jersey...

     in Sandy Hook, New Jersey
    Sandy Hook, New Jersey
    Sandy Hook is a barrier spit, approximately 6.0 miles in length and varying between 0.10 and 1 miles wide in Middletown Township in Monmouth County, along the Atlantic Ocean coast of eastern New Jersey in the United States. The barrier spit encloses the southern entrance of Lower New York Bay...

    . The site has been restored and contains the original missile bunkers, as well as three Nike Ajax and a Nike Hercules on display. Each fall the base hold a Cold War Day. Tours one weekend a month from April to October. The site is on the National Register of Historic Places
    National Register of Historic Places
    The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...



  • A Nike Zeus is on display at the Space Camp
    Space Camp
    Space Camp may refer to:*SpaceCamp, 1986 movie starring Joaquin Phoenix...

     in Huntsville, Alabama
    Huntsville, Alabama
    Huntsville is a city located primarily in Madison County in the central part of the far northern region of the U.S. state of Alabama. Huntsville is the county seat of Madison County. The city extends west into neighboring Limestone County. Huntsville's population was 180,105 as of the 2010 Census....

  • A Nike Ajax, Nike Hercules, and Nike Zeus are on display at the Redstone Arsenal
    Redstone Arsenal
    Redstone Arsenal is a United States Army base and a census-designated place adjacent to Huntsville in Madison County, Alabama, United States and is part of the Huntsville-Decatur Combined Statistical Area...

     in Alabama
  • A Nike Ajax and Nike Hercules are on display at the Royal Museum of the Army and Military History in Brussels, Belgium
  • A Nike missile is on display at Camp San Luis Obispo
    Camp San Luis Obispo
    Camp San Luis Obispo is the original home of the California Army National Guard. It served as an Infantry Division Camp and Cantonment Area for the United States Army during World War II.-History:...

     near Morro Bay, California
    Morro Bay, California
    Morro Bay is a waterfront city in San Luis Obispo County, California, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 10,234, down from 10,350 at the 2000 census.- History :...

  • A Nike Ajax and Hercules are on display at the Peterson Air and Space Museum
    Peterson Air and Space Museum
    Peterson Air and Space Museum is located inside Peterson Air Force Base, Colorado Springs, Colorado. Access to the museum is limited due to security concerns, so tour groups should contact the museum curator...

     in Colorado Springs, Colorado
    Colorado Springs, Colorado
    Colorado Springs is a Home Rule Municipality that is the county seat and most populous city of El Paso County, Colorado, United States. Colorado Springs is located in South-Central Colorado, in the southern portion of the state. It is situated on Fountain Creek and is located south of the Colorado...

  • Two Nike Ajax and a Hercules are on display at the Cape Canaveral Space & Missile Museum in Cape Canaveral, Florida
    Cape Canaveral, Florida
    Cape Canaveral is a city in Brevard County, Florida, United States. The population was 8,829 at the 2000 census. As of 2008, the estimated population according to the U.S. Census Bureau was 10,147...

  • A Nike Ajax is on display at the War Museum in Athens, Greece
  • A Nike Ajax and Hercules are on display in front of the VFW
    VFW may refer to:*Vereinigte Flugtechnische Werke*Veterans of Foreign Wars*Veterans of Future Wars*Video for Windows*VFW Parkway...

     post in Cedar Lake,Indiana
  • A Nike missile is on display at the Combat Air Museum
    Combat Air Museum
    The Combat Air Museum is located in Williamsport Township, Shawnee County, near Topeka, Kansas at Forbes Field airport. The Museum rents two hangars from the MTAA. It is one of a handful of major aviation museums in the United States located on an active air field...

     in Topeka, Kansas
    Topeka, Kansas
    Topeka |Kansa]]: Tó Pee Kuh) is the capital city of the U.S. state of Kansas and the county seat of Shawnee County. It is situated along the Kansas River in the central part of Shawnee County, located in northeast Kansas, in the Central United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was...

  • A Nike Ajax is on display in Marion, Kentucky
    Marion, Kentucky
    Marion is a city in Crittenden County, Kentucky, United States. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 3,196. It is the county seat of Crittenden County...

  • A Nike Ajax and Hercules are on display at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds in Aberdeen, Maryland
    Aberdeen, Maryland
    As of the census of 2000, there were 13,842 people, 5,475 households, and 3,712 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,166.2 people per square mile . There were 5,894 housing units at an average density of 922.4 per square mile...

  • A Nike Ajax is on display in front of the VFW post in Hancock, Maryland
    Hancock, Maryland
    Hancock is a town in Washington County, Maryland, United States. The population was 1,725 at the 2000 census. The Western Maryland community is notable for being located at the narrowest part of the state...

  • Two Nike Ajax and a Hercules are on display at a small Cold War museum in Ft. Mead, Maryland
  • A Nike Ajax and Hercules are on display at the Dutch Air Force Museum in Soesterberg, Netherlands
  • A Nike Ajax is on display at The Space Center in Alamagordo, New Mexico
  • A Nike Ajax is on display near the administrative buildings at the former Nike site in Rustan, about 40 km to the southwest of Oslo, Norway
  • Two Nike Ajax and a Nike Hercules are on display near the Bataan Building at Camp Perry
    Camp Perry
    Camp Perry is a National Guard training facility located on the shore of Lake Erie in northern Ohio near Port Clinton. In addition to its regular mission as a military training base, Camp Perry also boasts the largest outdoor rifle range in the world...

    , near Port Clinton, Ohio
    Port Clinton, Ohio
    Port Clinton is a city in and the county seat of Ottawa County, Ohio, United States. The population was 6,056 at the 2010 census. The city has been nicknamed the "Walleye Capital of the World."...

  • A Nike Ajax is displayed in front of an Army Surplus store located near the Letterkenny Army Depot
    Letterkenny Army Depot
    Letterkenny Army Depot, the Center of Industrial and Technical Excellence for Air Defense and Tactical Missile Systems, was established in 1942. The depot is under the command structure of the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Command...

     in Pennsylvania
    The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is a U.S. state that is located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The state borders Delaware and Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, New York and Ontario, Canada, to the north, and New Jersey to...

  • A Nike Ajax and Herclules are on display at the Pennsylvania National Guard Department of Military Arts buiilding at Fort Indiantown Gap
    Fort Indiantown Gap
    Fort Indiantown Gap, also referred to as "The Gap" or "FIG", is a census-designated place and U.S. Army post primarily located in Lebanon County, Pennsylvania. A portion of the installation is located in eastern Dauphin County...

    , Pennsylvania.
  • A Nike Ajax and Hercules are on display at the Air Power Park in Hampton, Virginia
    Hampton, Virginia
    Hampton is an independent city that is not part of any county in Southeast Virginia. Its population is 137,436. As one of the seven major cities that compose the Hampton Roads metropolitan area, it is on the southeastern end of the Virginia Peninsula. Located on the Hampton Roads Beltway, it hosts...

  • A Nike Ajax missile cutaway, as well as a complete Nike Ajax missile are on display at the Udvar-Hazy Center of the Smithsonian Air & Space Museum at Washington Dulles International Airport
    Washington Dulles International Airport
    Washington Dulles International Airport is a public airport in Dulles, Virginia, 26 miles west of downtown Washington, D.C. The airport serves the Baltimore-Washington-Northern Virginia metropolitan area centered on the District of Columbia. It is named after John Foster Dulles, Secretary of...

    , in Washington D.C.
  • A Nike Ajax and Nike Hercules are on display in the Berryman War Memorial Park in Bridgeport, Washington
    Bridgeport, Washington
    Bridgeport is a city in Douglas County, Washington, United States. It is part of the Wenatchee–East Wenatchee Metropolitan Statistical Area. Bridgeport's population was 2,059 at the 2000 census.Bridgeport is located near the Chief Joseph Dam.-History:...

  • A Nike Ajax is on display at the Ft. Lewis Military Museum in Tacoma, Washington
    Tacoma, Washington
    Tacoma is a mid-sized urban port city and the county seat of Pierce County, Washington, United States. The city is on Washington's Puget Sound, southwest of Seattle, northeast of the state capital, Olympia, and northwest of Mount Rainier National Park. The population was 198,397, according to...

  • A Nike Ajax on its launcher is on display outside an American Legion
    American Legion
    The American Legion is a mutual-aid organization of veterans of the United States armed forces chartered by the United States Congress. It was founded to benefit those veterans who served during a wartime period as defined by Congress...

     hall in Okauchee Lake, Wisconsin
    Okauchee Lake, Wisconsin
    Okauchee Lake is a census-designated place in Waukesha County, Wisconsin, United States. The population was 4,422 at the 2010 census. Okauchee Lake is located in the town of Oconomowoc.-Geography:Okauchee Lake is located at...

  • A Nike Ajax on its transporter (trailer) is on display outside a public storage (former site MS-20) facility in Roberts, Wisconsin
    Roberts, Wisconsin
    Roberts is a village in St. Croix County, Wisconsin, United States. The population was 969 at the 2000 census. In 2009, the population was estimated to be 1,658, a 71.1% increase...

  • A Nike Ajax is on display in front of the American Legion Post in Waynesboro, Pennsylvania
    Waynesboro, Pennsylvania
    Waynesboro is a borough in Franklin County, Pennsylvania, located northwest of Baltimore, Maryland, 67 miles southwest of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and north of the Mason-Dixon Line. The population within the borough limits was 9,614 at the 2000 census. When combined with the surrounding...

See also

  • Wasserfall
    The Wasserfall Ferngelenkte Flakrakete , was a World War II guided surface-to-air missile developed at Peenemünde, Germany.-Technical characteristics:...

     was a World War II
    World War II
    World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

     German project for a surface-to-air missile.
  • Missile guidance
    Missile guidance
    Missile guidance refers to a variety of methods of guiding a missile or a guided bomb to its intended target. The missile's target accuracy is a critical factor for its effectiveness...

  • Sprint
    Sprint (missile)
    The Sprint was a two-stage, solid-fuel anti-ballistic missile, armed with a W66 enhanced radiation thermonuclear warhead. It was designed as the short-range high-speed counterpart to the longer-range LIM-49 Spartan as part of the Sentinel program. Sentinel never became operational, but the...

  • LIM-49 Spartan
  • Safeguard Program
    Safeguard Program
    The Safeguard Program was a United States Army anti-ballistic missile system developed during the late 1960s. Safeguard was designed to protect U.S. ICBM missile sites from counterforce attack, thus preserving the option of an unimpeded retaliatory strike. Safeguard used much of the same technology...

  • S-25 Berkut
  • Soviet Air Defence Forces
  • ABM-1 Galosh
    ABM-1 Galosh
    ABM-1 Galosh was a Soviet, nuclear tipped surface-to-air anti-ballistic missile . The Galosh is based on the A-35 ABM System using Grushin model A-350 missile. The primary mission was to destroy U.S...

  • List of U.S. military vehicles by supply catalog designation (G-789)
  • Cold War Museum
    Cold War Museum
    The Cold War Museum is a planned history museum in the United States focused on Cold War history.Founded in 1996 by Francis Gary Powers Jr. and John C...

  • List of U.S. Army Rocket Launchers By Model Number


  • Morgan, Mark L., & Berhow, Mark A., Rings of Supersonic Steel, Second Edition, Hole in the Head Press, 2002, ISBN 0-615-12012-1.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.