Tacoma, Washington
Overview
Tacoma is a mid-sized urban port city and the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of Pierce County, Washington
Pierce County, Washington
right|thumb|[[Tacoma, Washington|Tacoma]] - Seat of Pierce CountyPierce County is the second most populous county in the U.S. state of Washington. Formed out of Thurston County on December 22, 1852, by the legislature of Oregon Territory...

, United States. The city is on Washington's Puget Sound
Puget Sound
Puget Sound is a sound in the U.S. state of Washington. It is a complex estuarine system of interconnected marine waterways and basins, with one major and one minor connection to the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Pacific Ocean — Admiralty Inlet being the major connection and...

, 32 miles (51.5 km) southwest of Seattle, 31 miles (49.9 km) northeast of the state capital, Olympia
Olympia, Washington
Olympia is the capital city of the U.S. state of Washington and the county seat of Thurston County. It was incorporated on January 28, 1859. The population was 46,478 at the 2010 census...

, and 58 miles (93.3 km) northwest of Mount Rainier National Park
Mount Rainier National Park
Mount Rainier National Park is a United States National Park located in southeast Pierce County and northeast Lewis County in Washington state. It was one of the US's earliest National Parks, having been established on March 2, 1899 as the fifth national park in the United States. The park contains...

. The population was 198,397, according to the 2010 census. Tacoma is the second-largest city in the Puget Sound area and the third largest in the state.
Encyclopedia
Tacoma is a mid-sized urban port city and the county seat
County seat
A county seat is an administrative center, or seat of government, for a county or civil parish. The term is primarily used in the United States....

 of Pierce County, Washington
Pierce County, Washington
right|thumb|[[Tacoma, Washington|Tacoma]] - Seat of Pierce CountyPierce County is the second most populous county in the U.S. state of Washington. Formed out of Thurston County on December 22, 1852, by the legislature of Oregon Territory...

, United States. The city is on Washington's Puget Sound
Puget Sound
Puget Sound is a sound in the U.S. state of Washington. It is a complex estuarine system of interconnected marine waterways and basins, with one major and one minor connection to the Strait of Juan de Fuca and the Pacific Ocean — Admiralty Inlet being the major connection and...

, 32 miles (51.5 km) southwest of Seattle, 31 miles (49.9 km) northeast of the state capital, Olympia
Olympia, Washington
Olympia is the capital city of the U.S. state of Washington and the county seat of Thurston County. It was incorporated on January 28, 1859. The population was 46,478 at the 2010 census...

, and 58 miles (93.3 km) northwest of Mount Rainier National Park
Mount Rainier National Park
Mount Rainier National Park is a United States National Park located in southeast Pierce County and northeast Lewis County in Washington state. It was one of the US's earliest National Parks, having been established on March 2, 1899 as the fifth national park in the United States. The park contains...

. The population was 198,397, according to the 2010 census. Tacoma is the second-largest city in the Puget Sound area and the third largest in the state. Tacoma also serves as the center of business activity for the South Sound region that has a population of around 1 million people.

Tacoma adopted its name after the nearby Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier
Mount Rainier is a massive stratovolcano located southeast of Seattle in the state of Washington, United States. It is the most topographically prominent mountain in the contiguous United States and the Cascade Volcanic Arc, with a summit elevation of . Mt. Rainier is considered one of the most...

, originally called Mount Tahoma. It is known as the "City of Destiny" because the area was chosen to be the western terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad in the late 19th century. The decision of the railroad was influenced by Tacoma's neighboring deep-water harbor, Commencement Bay
Commencement Bay
Commencement Bay is a bay of Puget Sound in the U.S. state of Washington. The city of Tacoma is located on the bay, with the Port of Tacoma occupying the southeastern end. A line drawn from Point Defiance in the southwest to Browns Point in the northeast serves to mark the generally accepted...

. By connecting the bay with the railroad Tacoma's motto became "When rails meet sails." Today Commencement Bay serves the Port of Tacoma
Port of Tacoma
The Port of Tacoma is an independent seaport located in Tacoma, Washington. The port was created by a vote of Pierce County citizens on November 5, 1918...

, a center of international trade
International trade
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories. In most countries, such trade represents a significant share of gross domestic product...

 on the Pacific Coast
Pacific Coast
A country's Pacific coast is the part of its coast bordering the Pacific Ocean.-The Americas:Countries on the western side of the Americas have a Pacific coast as their western border.* Geography of Canada* Geography of Chile* Geography of Colombia...

 and Washington state's largest port.

Like most central cities, Tacoma suffered a prolonged decline in the mid-20th century as a result of suburbanization
Suburbanization
Suburbanization a term used to describe the growth of areas on the fringes of major cities. It is one of the many causes of the increase in urban sprawl. Many residents of metropolitan regions work within the central urban area, choosing instead to live in satellite communities called suburbs...

 and divestment. Since the 1990s, developments in the downtown core include the University of Washington, Tacoma
University of Washington, Tacoma
The University of Washington Tacoma is a four-year undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate campus in downtown Tacoma, Washington. Students can choose majors in business, education, nursing, computer science, information technology, criminal justice, social work, environmental science, urban...

; Tacoma Link, the first modern electric light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

 service in the state; the state's highest density of art and history museums; and a restored urban waterfront, the Thea Foss Waterway
Thea Foss Waterway
The Thea Foss Waterway is a waterway running roughly north-south immediately east of downtown Tacoma, Washington. It is an inlet of Commencement Bay.Tacoma was the site of an early sawmill in 1853.The deepwater port began to boom in the 1870s, sailing...

.

With a long history of blue-collar labor politics — from the railroad workers of the 19th century, to the longshoremen of the 20th century, to the Labor Ready
Labor Ready
Labor Ready, based in Tacoma, WA, is the United States' largest provider of temporary workers for manual day labor to the construction industry, other light industry, and small businesses. Its shares are traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol TBI...

 workers of today — Tacoma has long been known for its rough, gritty image. Tacoma is also known for the odor caused by the Pulp mill, which non-locals call "the aroma of Tacoma." A song about Tacoma, "Thrice All American", by American singer-songwriter and former resident Neko Case
Neko Case
Neko Case is an American singer-songwriter, best known for her solo career and her contributions as a member of the Canadian indie rock group The New Pornographers....

, describes it as "a dusty old jewel in the South Puget Sound / where the factories churn / and the timber's all cut down".

Tacoma-Pierce County has been named one of the most livable areas in the country. Tacoma was also recently listed as the 19th most walkable city in the country. In contrast, the city is also ranked as the most stressed-out city in the country in a 2004 survey. In 2006, women's magazine Self
Self (magazine)
Self magazine is an American magazine for women that specializes in health, fitness, nutrition, beauty and happiness. Published by Condé Nast Publications 12 times a year, it has a circulation of 1,486,992 and a total audience of 5,541,000 readers, according to its corporate media kit. The...

named Tacoma the "Most Sexually Healthy City" in the United States.

Tacoma is famous for the 1940 collapse of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge
Tacoma Narrows Bridge (1940)
The 1940 Tacoma Narrows Bridge was the first incarnation of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, a suspension bridge in the U.S. state of Washington that spanned the Tacoma Narrows strait of Puget Sound between Tacoma and the Kitsap Peninsula. It opened to traffic on July 1, 1940, and dramatically collapsed...

.

History

Tacoma was inhabited for thousands of years by American Indians
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

, predominantly the Puyallup
Puyallup (tribe)
The Puyallup are a Coast Salish Native American tribe from western Washington state, U.S.A. They were forcibly relocated onto reservation lands in what is today Tacoma, Washington, in late 1854, after signing the Treaty of Medicine Creek. The Puyallup Indian Reservation today is one of the most...

 people, who lived in settlements on the delta of the Puyallup River
Puyallup River
The Puyallup River is a river in the U.S. state of Washington. About long, it is formed by glaciers on the west side of Mount Rainier. It flows generally northwest, emptying into Commencement Bay, part of Puget Sound...

 and called the area Squa-szucks. It was visited by European and American explorers, including George Vancouver
George Vancouver
Captain George Vancouver RN was an English officer of the British Royal Navy, best known for his 1791-95 expedition, which explored and charted North America's northwestern Pacific Coast regions, including the coasts of contemporary Alaska, British Columbia, Washington and Oregon...

 and Charles Wilkes
Charles Wilkes
Charles Wilkes was an American naval officer and explorer. He led the United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842 and commanded the ship in the Trent Affair during the American Civil War...

, who named many of the coastal landmarks.

19th century

In 1852 a Swede named Nicolas Delin constructed a sawmill powered by water on a creek near the head of Commencement Bay, but the small settlement that grew up around it was abandoned during the Indian War of 1855-1856. In 1864, pioneer and postmaster Job Carr, a Civil War veteran and land speculator who hoped to profit from the selection of Commencement Bay as the terminus of the Transcontinental Railroad, built a cabin (a replica of Job Carr's cabin, which also served as Tacoma's first post office, was erected in "Old Town" in 2000 near the original site), and later sold most of his claim to developer Morton M. McCarver (1807–1875), who named his project Tacoma City. The name derived from the indigenous name for the mountain.

Tacoma was incorporated on November 12, 1875. Its hopes to be the "City of Destiny" were stimulated by selection in 1873 as the western terminus of the Northern Pacific Railroad, thanks to lobbying by McCarver, future mayor John Wilson Sprague, and others. The transcontinental link was effected in 1887, but the railroad built its depot on "New Tacoma", two miles (3 km) south of the Carr-McCarver development. The two communities grew together and joined. The population grew from 1,098 in 1880 to 36,006 in 1890. Rudyard Kipling
Rudyard Kipling
Joseph Rudyard Kipling was an English poet, short-story writer, and novelist chiefly remembered for his celebration of British imperialism, tales and poems of British soldiers in India, and his tales for children. Kipling received the 1907 Nobel Prize for Literature...

 visited Tacoma in 1889 and said it was "literally staggering under a boom of the boomiest".

George Francis Train
George Francis Train
George Francis Train was an entrepreneurial businessman who organized the clipper ship line that sailed around Cape Horn to San Francisco; he organized the Union Pacific Railroad and the Credit Mobilier in the United States, and a horse tramway company in England while there during the American...

 was a resident for a few years in the late 19th century. In 1890, he staged a global circumnavigation starting and ending in Tacoma to promote the city. A plaque in downtown Tacoma marks the start/finish line.

In November 1885 white citizens led by then-mayor Jacob Weisbach expelled several hundred Chinese residents
Tacoma riot of 1885
The Tacoma riot of 1885 took place in the present day U.S. state of Washington, which was a territory at the time. It involved mobs expelling Chinese immigrants from the city of Tacoma, Washington...

 peaceably living in the city. As described by the account prepared by the Chinese Reconciliation Project, on the morning of November 3, 1885, "several hundred men, led by the mayor and other city officials, evicted the Chinese from their homes, corralled them at 7th Street and Pacific Avenue, marched them to the railway station at Lakeview and forced them aboard the morning train to Portland, Oregon
Portland, Oregon
Portland is a city located in the Pacific Northwest, near the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers in the U.S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 Census, it had a population of 583,776, making it the 29th most populous city in the United States...

. The next day two Chinese settlements were burned to the ground."

The discovery of gold in the Klondike
Klondike Gold Rush
The Klondike Gold Rush, also called the Yukon Gold Rush, the Alaska Gold Rush and the Last Great Gold Rush, was an attempt by an estimated 100,000 people to travel to the Klondike region the Yukon in north-western Canada between 1897 and 1899 in the hope of successfully prospecting for gold...

 in 1898 led Tacoma's prominence in the region to be eclipsed by the booming development of Seattle.

20th century

During a 30-day power shortage in the winter of 1929/1930, Tacoma was provided with electricity from the engines of the aircraft carrier .

In 1939 Tacoma received national attention when George Weyerhaeuser, nine-year-old son of prominent lumber industry executive J.P. Weyerhaeuser, was kidnapped while walking home from school. FBI
Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Federal Bureau of Investigation is an agency of the United States Department of Justice that serves as both a federal criminal investigative body and an internal intelligence agency . The FBI has investigative jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crime...

 agents from Portland handled the case, in which payment of a ransom of $200,000 secured release of the victim. Four persons were apprehended and convicted. The last to be released was paroled from McNeil Island
McNeil Island Corrections Center
The McNeil Island Corrections Center was a Washington State Department of Corrections prison on McNeil Island and in unincorported Pierce County, Washington, near Steilacoom....

 in 1963. George Weyerhaeuser went on to become chairman of the Board of the Weyerhaeuser Company.

In 1951, an investigation by a state legislative committee revealed widespread corruption in Tacoma's government, which had been organized commission-style since 1910. Voters approved a mayor/city-manager system in 1952.

Tacoma featured prominently in the garage rock
Garage rock
Garage rock is a raw form of rock and roll that was first popular in the United States and Canada from about 1963 to 1967. During the 1960s, it was not recognized as a separate music genre and had no specific name...

 sound of the mid-1960s with bands including The Wailers
The Wailers (rock band)
The Wailers, often credited as The Fabulous Wailers, were an American rock band from Tacoma, Washington. They became popular around the United States Pacific Northwest around the late 1950s and the start of the 1960s, performing saxophone-driven R&B and Chuck Berry rock and roll...

 and The Sonics
The Sonics
The Sonics are an American garage rock band from Tacoma, Washington, originating from the early and mid-1960s. Among The Sonics' contemporaries were The Kingsmen, The Wailers, The Dynamics, The Regents, and Paul Revere & the Raiders...

. The surf rock band The Ventures
The Ventures
The Ventures is an American instrumental rock band formed in 1958 in Tacoma, Washington. Founded by Don Wilson and Bob Bogle, the group in its various incarnations has had an enduring impact on the development of music worldwide. With over 100 million records sold, the group is the best-selling...

 were also from Tacoma.

Tacoma experienced a long decline through the mid-20th century. Harold Moss
Harold Moss
Harold Moss is an American politician, whose political career has taken place in Tacoma, Washington. He was the first African American member of that city's city council, its first African American mayor, and the first African American member of the Pierce County Council...

, later the city's mayor, characterized late 1970s Tacoma as looking "bombed out" like "downtown Beirut" (a reference to the Lebanese Civil War
Lebanese Civil War
The Lebanese Civil War was a multifaceted civil war in Lebanon. The war lasted from 1975 to 1990 and resulted in an estimated 150,000 to 230,000 civilian fatalities. Another one million people were wounded, and today approximately 350,000 people remain displaced. There was also a mass exodus of...

 that occurred at that time.) "Streets were abandoned, storefronts were abandoned… City Hall was the headstone and Union Station the footstone" on the grave of downtown.
This picture began to change somewhere around 1990. Among the projects associated with the downtown renaissance were the federal courthouse in the former Union Station (1991); the Washington State History Museum
Washington State History Museum
The Washington State History Museum is located in downtown Tacoma, Washington. It is owned and operated by the Washington State Historical Society under the official approval of the Washington State Legislature....

 (1996), echoing the architecture of Union Station; the adaptation of a group of century-old brick warehouses into the University of Washington Tacoma campus; the numerous privately financed renovation projects near that UW-Tacoma campus; the Museum of Glass
Museum of Glass
The Museum of Glass is a museum dedicated to the medium of glass art located in Tacoma, Washington. It is not to be confused with the various other Museums of Glass, such as the one in Corning, New York, as the museum focuses on Contemporary and Pacific Northwest glass-art.The museum, the...

 (2002); the Tacoma Art Museum (2003); and the region's first light-rail line (2003).

The first local referendums in the U.S. on computerized voting occurred in Tacoma in 1982 and 1987. On both occasions, voters rejected 3-1 the computer voting systems that local officials sought to purchase. The campaigns, organized by Eleanora Ballasiotes, a conservative Republican, focused on the vulnerabilities of computers to fraud.

In 1998, Tacoma installed a high-speed fiber optic network throughout the community. The municipally owned power company, Tacoma Power, wired the city.

21st century

Tacoma's Hilltop neighborhood struggled with crime in the 1980s and early 1990s. The problems have declined in recent years as neighborhoods have enacted community policing and other policies. Bill Baarsma
Bill Baarsma
Bill Baarsma was a mayor of Tacoma, Washington. He was elected mayor in 2002 and served until 2009. Prior to his election, he taught business and public administration at the University of Puget Sound. He served on the Tacoma City Council from 1992 to 1999. He has also served on two Tacoma charter...

 (Mayor from 2002–2010) is a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition
Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition
Mayors Against Illegal Guns is a coalition of over 600 mayors who support a number of gun control initiatives that the group calls "commonsense reforms" to fight illegal gun trafficking and gun violence in the United States...

, a bi-partisan group with a stated goal of "making the public safer by getting illegal guns off the streets." The coalition is co-chaired by Boston
Boston
Boston is the capital of and largest city in Massachusetts, and is one of the oldest cities in the United States. The largest city in New England, Boston is regarded as the unofficial "Capital of New England" for its economic and cultural impact on the entire New England region. The city proper had...

 Mayor Thomas Menino
Thomas Menino
Thomas Michael "Tom" Menino is the mayor of Boston, Massachusetts, United States and the city's first Italian-American mayor...

 and New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg
Michael Bloomberg
Michael Rubens Bloomberg is the current Mayor of New York City. With a net worth of $19.5 billion in 2011, he is also the 12th-richest person in the United States...

.

In 2004, Tacoma was ranked among the top 30 Most Livable Communities, in an annual survey conducted by the Partners for Livable Communities. In 2009 Tacoma elected its second African-American mayor, Marilyn Strickland
Marilyn Strickland
Marilyn Strickland is an American politician and Mayor of the City of Tacoma in Washington .- Biography :Marylin Strickland was born in Seoul, South Korea where her father was stationed...

.

Downtown revival

Beginning in the early 1990s, Tacoma has taken steps to revitalize itself and its image, especially downtown.

The University of Washington
University of Washington
University of Washington is a public research university, founded in 1861 in Seattle, Washington, United States. The UW is the largest university in the Northwest and the oldest public university on the West Coast. The university has three campuses, with its largest campus in the University...

 established a branch campus in Tacoma in 1990. The same year, Union Station (Tacoma) was restored.
The Museum of Glass
Museum of Glass
The Museum of Glass is a museum dedicated to the medium of glass art located in Tacoma, Washington. It is not to be confused with the various other Museums of Glass, such as the one in Corning, New York, as the museum focuses on Contemporary and Pacific Northwest glass-art.The museum, the...

 opened in downtown Tacoma in 2002, showing glass art from the region and around the world. It includes a glassblowing studio and is connected to the rest of the Museum District by the Bridge of Glass, which features works by Tacoma native glass artist Dale Chihuly
Dale Chihuly
Dale Chihuly is an American glass sculptor and entrepreneur.-Biography:Chihuly graduated from Woodrow Wilson High School in Tacoma, Washington. He enrolled at the College of the Puget Sound in 1959...

.

Tacoma's downtown Cultural District is the site of the Washington State History Museum
Washington State History Museum
The Washington State History Museum is located in downtown Tacoma, Washington. It is owned and operated by the Washington State Historical Society under the official approval of the Washington State Legislature....

 (1996) and the Tacoma Art Museum
Tacoma Art Museum
In May 2003, Tacoma Art Museum opened a new facility twice the size of its previous home, allowing the museum to expand on its vision and mission. American Institute of Architects AIA Gold Medal winner Antoine Predock designed the building located in the heart of Tacoma’s Cultural District...

 (2003). America's Car Museum
America's Car Museum
The LeMay - America's Car Museum is a museum currently in the city of Tacoma, Washington. A new museum facility is currently under construction adjacent to the Tacoma Dome...

 is currently under construction near the Tacoma Dome
Tacoma Dome
The Tacoma Dome is an indoor arena located in Tacoma, Washington, USA, approximately 30 miles south of Seattle.-History:...

 in Tacoma.
The glass and steel Greater Tacoma Convention and Trade Center
Greater Tacoma Convention and Trade Center
The Greater Tacoma Convention & Trade Center, is located in Tacoma, Washington and is accessible via Interstate 705. The convention center opened on 2004-11-13. It has over of meeting and usable prefunction space which includes a , column free exhibition hall, a ballroom, and eleven breakout...

 opened in November 2004.

Downtown Tacoma has a thriving Theatre District, anchored by the 89-year-old Pantages Theater. The Broadway Center for the Performing Arts
Broadway Center for the Performing Arts
Broadway Center for the Performing Arts is a 501 non-profit organization located in the historic Theater District of downtown Tacoma, Washington. Encompassing the Pantages, Rialto, and Theatre on the Square, the Broadway Center manages the largest complex of theaters between Seattle, Washington...

 manages the Pantages, the Rialto Theater, and the Theatre on the Square. Other attractions include the Grand Cinema and the Temple Theatre.

Geography

Tacoma is at 47°14′29"N 122°27′34"W (47.241371, -122.459389). Its elevation is 381 feet (116.1 m).

According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the city has an area of 62.6 square miles (162.1 km²). 50.1 square miles (129.8 km²) of it is land and 12.5 square miles (32.4 km²) of it (20.01%) is water.

Tacoma straddles the neighboring Commencement Bay with several smaller cities surrounding it. Large areas of Tacoma have excellent views of Mt. Rainier.

The city is near several military installations, including Joint Base Lewis-McChord
Joint Base Lewis-McChord
Joint Base Lewis-McChord is a United States military facility located south-southwest of Tacoma, Washington. The facility is under the jurisdiction of the United States Army Joint Base Garrison, Joint Base Lewis-McChord....

, formerly known separately as Fort Lewis
Fort Lewis
Joint Base Lewis-McChord is a United States military facility located south-southwest of Tacoma, Washington. The facility is under the jurisdiction of the United States Army Joint Base Garrison, Joint Base Lewis-McChord....

 and McChord Air Force Base.

Climate

Surrounding cities

Demographics

As of the census of 2010, there were 198,397 people, 78,541 households, and and 45,716 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,864.9 people per square mile (1,492.3/km²). There were 81,102 housing units at an average density of 1,619.4 per square mile (625.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 64.9% White
White American
White Americans are people of the United States who are considered or consider themselves White. The United States Census Bureau defines White people as those "having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa...

, 11.2% African American
African American
African Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have at least partial ancestry from any of the native populations of Sub-Saharan Africa and are the direct descendants of enslaved Africans within the boundaries of the present United States...

, 8.2% Asian
Asian American
Asian Americans are Americans of Asian descent. The U.S. Census Bureau definition of Asians as "Asian” refers to a person having origins in any of the original peoples of the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including, for example, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan,...

 (2.1% Vietnamese, 1.3% Korean, 1.3% Filipino, 0.4% Chinese, 0.4% Japanese, 0.2% Indian, 2.3% Other), 1.8% Native American
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples in North America within the boundaries of the present-day continental United States, parts of Alaska, and the island state of Hawaii. They are composed of numerous, distinct tribes, states, and ethnic groups, many of which survive as...

, 1.2% Pacific Islander
Pacific Islander American
Pacific Islander Americans, also known as Oceanian Americans, are residents of the United States with original ancestry from Oceania. They represent the smallest racial group counted in the United States census of 2000. They numbered 874,000 people or 0.3 percent of the United States population...

, and 8.1% were from two or more races
Multiracial American
Multiracial Americans, US residents who identify themselves as of "two or more races", were numbered at around 9 million, or 2.9% of the population, in the census of 2010. However there is considerable evidence that the real number is far higher. Prior to the mid-20th century many people hid their...

. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 11.3% of the population (8.1% Mexican, 1.1% Puerto Rican, 0.2% Cuban, 2.0% Other)

There were 76,152 households out of which 30.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.6% were married couples living together, 13.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 39.7% were non-families. 31.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 3.10.

In the city the age distribution of the population shows 25.8% under 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 31.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 11.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34. For every 100 females there were 95.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $37,879, and the median income for a family was $45,567. Males had a median income of $35,820, versus $27,697 for females. The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the city was $19,130. About 11.4% of families and 15.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 20.6% of those under the age of 18 and 10.9% of those 65 and older.

Government

The government of the city of Tacoma operates under a council-manager system. The city council
Tacoma City Council
The Tacoma City Council is the major governing body in the city of Tacoma, Washington. The City Council has one mayor and 8 council members, who are elected for 4 year terms...

 consists of an elected mayor (Marilyn Strickland
Marilyn Strickland
Marilyn Strickland is an American politician and Mayor of the City of Tacoma in Washington .- Biography :Marylin Strickland was born in Seoul, South Korea where her father was stationed...

) and eight elected council members, five from individual city council districts and three others from the city at-large. All serve four-year terms and are elected in odd-numbered years. The council adopts and amends city laws, approves a two-year budget, establishes city policy, appoints citizens to boards and commissions, and performs other actions. The council also meets in "standing committees", which break down the council's work into more defined areas, such as "Environment & Public Works", "Neighborhoods & Housing", and "Public Safety, Human Services & Education". The council meets as a whole most Tuesdays at 5:00 p.m. in the council chambers at 747 Market St. Meetings are open to the public and provide for public input.

Normal day-to-day operations of the city government are administered by the city manager, who is appointed by the city council.

Commerce and industry

Tacoma is the home of several international companies including staffing company True Blue Inc. (formerly Labor Ready
Labor Ready
Labor Ready, based in Tacoma, WA, is the United States' largest provider of temporary workers for manual day labor to the construction industry, other light industry, and small businesses. Its shares are traded on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol TBI...

), lumber company Simpson
Simpson Investment Company
The Simpson Investment Company is a Pacific Northwest based company that specializes in production and manufacture of forest products. Originally founded as a logging company in 1890 by Sol Simpson, the company currently functions as a holding company for its three subsidiaries who deal with...

 and the food companies Roman Meal
Roman Meal
Roman Meal is an American bread company in Tacoma, Washington. Founded there in 1912, the company focuses on whole-grain products, including bread, hot cereal, and snack bars.-History:...

 and Brown and Haley
Brown and Haley
Brown and Haley is a candy maker and distributor located in Tacoma, Washington. They are perhaps best known for their signature product, Almond Roca. They also make a variety of other chocolates, including three flavors of Mountain Bar. They have been in business since 1912....

.

Beginning in the 1930s, Tacoma became known for the "Tacoma 'roma", a distinctive, acrid odor produced by paper
Paper
Paper is a thin material mainly used for writing upon, printing upon, drawing or for packaging. It is produced by pressing together moist fibers, typically cellulose pulp derived from wood, rags or grasses, and drying them into flexible sheets....

 manufacturing on the industrial tide flats. In the late 1990s, Simpson Tacoma Kraft reduced total sulfur emissions by 90%. This largely eliminated the problem; where once the aroma was ever-present, it is now only noticeable occasionally, primarily when the wind is coming from the east.

U.S. Oil and Refining
U.S. Oil and Refining
U.S. Oil & Refining Co. is an oil refinery located in the tideflats of Tacoma, Washington.-History:USOR was organized in 1952 as a privately held corporation, then named Pacific Oil & Refining Co. The president of the company at that time was Dr. Ernest Lyder. The company was formed for purposes of...

 operates an oil refinery
Oil refinery
An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful petroleum products, such as gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, and liquefied petroleum gas...

 on the tide flats in the Port of Tacoma
Port of Tacoma
The Port of Tacoma is an independent seaport located in Tacoma, Washington. The port was created by a vote of Pierce County citizens on November 5, 1918...

. Built in Tacoma in 1952, it currently refines 39,000 barrels of petroleum per day.

The Tacoma Mall
Tacoma Mall
The Tacoma Mall is the largest shopping center in Tacoma, Washington. It is owned by Simon Property Group. Anchor tenants include JC Penney, Sears, Macy's, and Nordstrom.-References:-External links:*...

 is the largest shopping center in Tacoma. It is owned by Simon Property Group
Simon Property Group
Simon Property Group, Inc. is an American commercial real estate company, ranked #1 in the United States as the largest real estate investment trust. Simon is a fully integrated real estate company which operates from five retail real estate platforms: regional malls, Premium Outlet Centers, The...

. Anchor tenants include JC Penney, Sears
Sears, Roebuck and Company
Sears, officially named Sears, Roebuck and Co., is an American chain of department stores which was founded by Richard Warren Sears and Alvah Curtis Roebuck in the late 19th century...

, Macy's
Macy's
Macy's is a U.S. chain of mid-to-high range department stores. In addition to its flagship Herald Square location in New York City, the company operates over 800 stores in the United States...

, and Nordstrom
Nordstrom
Nordstrom, Inc. is an upscale department store chain in the United States, founded by John W. Nordstrom and Carl F. Wallin. Initially a shoe retailer, the company today also sells clothing, accessories, handbags, jewelry, cosmetics, fragrances, and in some locations, home furnishings...

.

An economic setback for the city occurred in September 2009 when Russell Investments, which has been located in downtown Tacoma since its inception in 1936, announced it was moving its headquarters to Seattle along with several hundred white collar jobs.

Urban form and transportation

Tacoma's system of transportation is based primarily on the automobile
Automobile
An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor...

. The majority of the city has a system of gridded streets oriented in relation to A Street (one block east of Pacific Avenue) and 6th Avenue or Division Avenue, both beginning in downtown Tacoma
Downtown, Tacoma, Washington
Downtown Tacoma is located primarily between Pacific Avenue and St. Helens, in the inner Northeast section of Tacoma. The center of downtown is the intersection of 9th and Broadway. The city holiday tree is located here as well.- Downturn :...

. Within the city, and with a few exceptions, east-to-west streets are numbered and north-to-south streets are given a name or a letter. Some east-to-west streets are also given names, such as S. Center St. and N. Westgate Blvd. Streets are generally labeled "North", "South", "East", or "North East" according to their relationship with 6th Avenue or Division Avenue (west of 'Division Ave' '6th Avenue' is the lowest-numbered street, making it the dividing street between "North" and "South"), 'A' Street (which is the dividing line between "East" and "South"), or 1st Street NE (which is the dividing line between "East" and "North East"). This can lead to confusion, as most named streets intersect streets of the same number in both north and south Tacoma. For example, the intersection of South 11th Street and South Union Avenue is just ten blocks south of North 11th Street and North Union Avenue.

To the east of the Thea Foss waterway and 'A' Street, streets are similarly divided into "East" and "Northeast", with 1st Street NE being in-line with the Pierce-King county line. "North East" covers a small wedge of Tacoma and unincorporated Pierce County (around Browns Point and Dash Point) lying on the hill across the tideflats from downtown. Tacoma does have some major roads which do not seem to follow any naming rules. These roads include Schuster Pkwy, Pacific Ave, Puyallup Ave, Tacoma Mall Blvd, Marine View Dr (SR 509), and Northshore Pkwy. Tacoma also has some major roads which appear to change names in different areas (most notable are Tyler St/Stevens St, Oakes St/Pine St/Cedar St/Alder St, and S. 72nd St/S. 74th St). These major arterials
Arterial road
An arterial road, or arterial thoroughfare, is a high-capacity urban road. The primary function of an arterial road is to deliver traffic from collector roads to freeways, and between urban centres at the highest level of service possible. As such, many arteries are limited-access roads, or feature...

 actually shift over to align with other roads, which causes them to have the name changed.

This numeric system extends to the furthest reaches of unincorporated Pierce County (with roads outside of the city carrying "East", "West", "North West", and "South West", except on the Key Peninsula
Key Peninsula
The Key Peninsula is a finger of land in Puget Sound, Washington, United States . It is approximately long and extends south from the Kitsap Peninsula. It is part of Pierce County, Washington. Some of its towns include:...

, which retains the north-south streets but chooses the Pierce-Kitsap county line as the zero point for east-west streets. Key Peninsula's roads also carry a "KP N" or KP S" designation at the end of the street name.

In portions of the city dating back to the Tacoma Streetcar Period (1888–1938), denser mixed use business districts exist alongside single family homes. Twelve such districts have active, city-recognized business associations and hold "small town"-style parades and other festivals. The Proctor, Old Town, Dome, 6th Avenue
Sixth Avenue (Tacoma)
Sixth Avenue is a major avenue in Tacoma, Washington, which throughout a large portion of the city provides the division between the north and south numbered streets....

, Stadium and Lincoln Business Districts are some of the more prominent and popular of these and coordinate their efforts to redevelop urban villages through the Cross District Association of Tacoma. In newer portions of the city to the west and south, residential culs-de-sac
Cul-de-sac
A cul-de-sac is a word of French origin referring to a dead end, close, no through road or court meaning dead-end street with only one inlet/outlet...

, four-lane collector roads and indoor shopping centers are more commonplace.

Tacoma highways

Seven highways end in or pass through Tacoma: I-5, I-705, SR 7, SR 16, SR 163
Washington State Route 163
State Route 163 is a state highway in the U.S. state of Washington, running from SR 16 in Tacoma to the Point Defiance Park ferry terminal. It continues as the Point Defiance-Tahlequah ferry route and ends at the Tahlequah terminal.-History:...

, SR 167, and SR 509.

The dominant intercity transportation link between Tacoma and other parts of the Puget Sound is Interstate 5, which links Tacoma with Seattle to the north and Portland, Oregon
Portland, Oregon
Portland is a city located in the Pacific Northwest, near the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers in the U.S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 Census, it had a population of 583,776, making it the 29th most populous city in the United States...

, to the south. State Route 16 runs along a concrete viaduct through Tacoma's Nalley Valley, connecting Interstate 5 with Central and West Tacoma, the Tacoma Narrows Bridge
Tacoma Narrows Bridge
The Tacoma Narrows Bridge is a pair of twin suspension bridges in the U.S. state of Washington, which carry State Route 16 across the Tacoma Narrows strait of Puget Sound between Tacoma and the Kitsap Peninsula...

, and the Kitsap Peninsula
Kitsap Peninsula
The Kitsap Peninsula is an arm of land that is part of the larger Olympic Peninsula in Washington state that lies west of Seattle across Puget Sound. Hood Canal separates Kitsap Peninsula from the rest of the Olympic Peninsula...

. Seattle-Tacoma International Airport
Seattle-Tacoma International Airport
The Seattle–Tacoma International Airport , also known as Sea–Tac Airport or Sea–Tac , is an American airport located in SeaTac, Washington, at the intersections of State Routes 99 and 509 and 518, about west of Interstate 5...

 lies 22 miles (35.4 km) north, in the city of SeaTac
SeaTac, Washington
SeaTac is an American city in southern King County, Washington, and an outlying suburb of Seattle, Washington. Incorporated in February 1990, the City of SeaTac is ten square miles in area and has a population of 26,909 according to the 2010 census...

.

Local and regional transportation

Public transportation in Tacoma includes buses, commuter rail, light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

, and ferries. Public bus service is provided by Pierce Transit
Pierce Transit
Pierce Transit, in full the Pierce County Public Transportation Benefit Area Corporation, is the public transit authority of Pierce County, Washington. Based in Lakewood, Washington, it was founded in 1979...

, which serves Tacoma and Pierce County
Pierce County, Washington
right|thumb|[[Tacoma, Washington|Tacoma]] - Seat of Pierce CountyPierce County is the second most populous county in the U.S. state of Washington. Formed out of Thurston County on December 22, 1852, by the legislature of Oregon Territory...

. Pierce Transit operates a total of 43 bus routes (5 of which through Sound Transit), using mostly buses powered by compressed natural gas
Compressed natural gas
Compressed natural gas is a fossil fuel substitute for gasoline , diesel, or propane/LPG. Although its combustion does produce greenhouse gases, it is a more environmentally clean alternative to those fuels, and it is much safer than other fuels in the event of a spill...

. Bus service operates at 30-60 minute frequencies daily, while three heavily-ridden "trunk" routes are mostly served every 20 minutes on weekdays and every half hour to an hour on weekends as of October 2nd, 2011

Sound Transit
Sound Transit
Sound Transit has been the popular name of Washington state's Central Puget Sound Regional Transit Authority since September 19, 1999. It was formed in 1996 by the Snohomish, King, and Pierce County Councils...

, the regional transit authority, provides weekday Sounder Commuter Rail
Sounder Commuter Rail
Sounder commuter rail is a regional rail service operated by BNSF on behalf of Sound Transit. Service operates Monday through Friday during peak hours from Seattle, Washington, north to Everett and south to Tacoma. As of 2011, schedules serve the traditional peak commutes, with most trains running...

 service and daily express bus service to and from Seattle. Sound Transit has also established Tacoma Link light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

, a 1.6-mile (2.5 km) free
Zero-fare public transport
Free public transport, also often called free public transit or zero-fare public transport, is a single or network of transport services funded in full by means other than collecting a full fare from passengers. It may be funded by national, regional or local government through taxation or by...

 electric streetcar line linking Tacoma Dome
Tacoma Dome
The Tacoma Dome is an indoor arena located in Tacoma, Washington, USA, approximately 30 miles south of Seattle.-History:...

 Station with the University of Washington, Tacoma
University of Washington, Tacoma
The University of Washington Tacoma is a four-year undergraduate, graduate, and post-graduate campus in downtown Tacoma, Washington. Students can choose majors in business, education, nursing, computer science, information technology, criminal justice, social work, environmental science, urban...

, Tacoma's Museum District, and the Theater District. Expansion of the city's rail transit system (either in the form of electric streetcars or light rail) is under consideration by the city of Tacoma and Pierce Transit, and is supported by a local grassroots organization, Tacoma Streetcar
Tacoma Streetcar
Tacoma Streetcar was a growing popular movement in Tacoma to bring back electric trolley/streetcar service which helped grow the historic core of the City of Tacoma and nearby neighborhoods. The move was spearheaded by local booster, Morgan Alexander....

.

The Washington State Ferries
Washington State Ferries
Washington State Ferries is a passenger and automobile ferry service owned and operated by the Washington State Department of Transportation that serves communities on Puget Sound and in the San Juan Islands. It is the most used ferry system in the world and the largest passenger and automobile...

 system, which has a dock at Point Defiance
Point Defiance Park
Point Defiance Park in Tacoma, Washington is one of the largest urban parks in the United States. The park includes Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium, the Rose Garden, Rhododendron Garden, the Camp 6 Logging Museum, beaches, trails, a boardwalk, a boathouse, a Washington State Ferries ferry dock for...

, provides ferry access
Point Defiance-Tahlequah Ferry
The Point Defiance-Tahlequah ferry is a ferry route across Puget Sound between the Point Defiance ferry terminal in Tacoma and Tahlequah, Washington, on the southern tip of Vashon Island. Since 1951 the only ferries employed on the route have belonged to the Washington state ferry system,...

 to Tahlequah
Tahlequah, Washington
Tahlequah is an unincorporated community on the southern end of Vashon Island in Puget Sound, Washington state. It is best known for being the north end of the short Point Defiance-Tahlequah ferry route.-References:...

 at the southern tip of Vashon Island
Vashon Island
Vashon is a census-designated place in King County, Washington, United States. It covers an island alternately called Vashon Island or Vashon-Maury Island, the largest island in Puget Sound south of Admiralty Inlet. The population was 10,624 at the 2010 census. At , it is about 60 percent larger...

, typically on the ferry MV Rhododendron.

Intercity transportation

Greyhound
Greyhound Lines
Greyhound Lines, Inc., based in Dallas, Texas, is an intercity common carrier of passengers by bus serving over 3,700 destinations in the United States, Canada and Mexico, operating under the well-known logo of a leaping greyhound. It was founded in Hibbing, Minnesota, USA, in 1914 and...

 intercity bus service is accessible via Tacoma Dome Station.

Amtrak
Amtrak
The National Railroad Passenger Corporation, doing business as Amtrak , is a government-owned corporation that was organized on May 1, 1971, to provide intercity passenger train service in the United States. "Amtrak" is a portmanteau of the words "America" and "track". It is headquartered at Union...

, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Tacoma from a station on Puyallup Avenue, one block east of the Tacoma Dome Station. Amtrak train 11, the southbound Coast Starlight
Coast Starlight
The Coast Starlight is a passenger train operated by Amtrak on the West Coast of the United States. It runs from King Street Station in Seattle, Washington, to Union Station in Los Angeles, California. The train's name was formed as a merging of two of Southern Pacific's train names, the Coast...

, is scheduled to depart Tacoma at 10:31 a.m. with service to Olympia-Lacey
Olympia, Washington
Olympia is the capital city of the U.S. state of Washington and the county seat of Thurston County. It was incorporated on January 28, 1859. The population was 46,478 at the 2010 census...

, Portland
Portland, Oregon
Portland is a city located in the Pacific Northwest, near the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers in the U.S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 Census, it had a population of 583,776, making it the 29th most populous city in the United States...

, Sacramento
Sacramento, California
Sacramento is the capital city of the U.S. state of California and the county seat of Sacramento County. It is located at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in the northern portion of California's expansive Central Valley. With a population of 466,488 at the 2010 census,...

, Emeryville, California
Emeryville, California
Emeryville is a small city located in Alameda County, California, in the United States. It is located in a corridor between the cities of Berkeley and Oakland, extending to the shore of San Francisco Bay. Its proximity to San Francisco, the Bay Bridge, the University of California, Berkeley, and...

 (with bus connection to San Francisco), and Los Angeles. Amtrak train 14, the northbound Coast Starlight, is scheduled to depart Tacoma at 7:11 p.m. daily with service to Seattle. Amtrak Cascades
Amtrak Cascades
The Amtrak Cascades is a passenger train route operated by Amtrak in partnership with the states of Washington and Oregon in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and the province of British Columbia in Canada...

 trains, operating as far north as Vancouver, BC and as far south as Eugene, Oregon
Eugene, Oregon
Eugene is the second largest city in the U.S. state of Oregon and the seat of Lane County. It is located at the south end of the Willamette Valley, at the confluence of the McKenzie and Willamette rivers, about east of the Oregon Coast.As of the 2010 U.S...

, serve Tacoma several times daily in both directions.

Public utilities

Tacoma's relationship with public utilities extends back to 1893. At that time the city was undergoing a boom in population, causing it to exceed the available amount of fresh water supplied by Charles B. Wright's Tacoma Light & Water Company. In response to both this demand and a growing desire to have local public control over the utility system, the city council put up a public vote to acquire and expand the private utility. The measure passed on July 1, 1893, with 3,195 in favor of acquiring the utility system and 1,956 voting against. Since then, Tacoma Public Utilities
Tacoma Public Utilities
Tacoma Public Utilities is the public utility service for Tacoma, Washington. It was formed in 1893, and is made up of Tacoma Power, Tacoma Water, Tacoma Rail, and the Click! Network television cable service. Tacoma Public Utilities is the largest department in Tacoma City government, employing...

 (TPU) has grown from a small water and light utility to be the largest department in the city's government, employing about 1,200 people.

Tacoma Power
Tacoma Power
Tacoma Power is a public utility providing electrical power to Tacoma, Washington and the surrounding areas. Tacoma Power serves the cities of Tacoma, Fircrest, University Place, and Fife, and also provides service to parts of Steilacoom, Lakewood and unincorporated Pierce County...

, a division of TPU, provides residents of Tacoma and several bordering municipalities with electrical power generated by eight hydroelectric dams located on the Skokomish River
Skokomish River
The Skokomish River is a river in Mason County, Washington, United States. It is the largest river flowing into Hood Canal, an arm of Puget Sound. From its source at the confluence of the North and South Forks the main stem Skokomish River is approximately long. The longer South Fork Skokomish...

 and elsewhere. Environmentalists, fishermen, and the Skokomish Indian Tribe have criticized TPU's operation of Cushman Dam on the North Fork of the Skokomish River; the tribe's $6 billion claim was denied by the U.S. Supreme court in January 2006. The capacity of Tacoma's hydroelectric system as of 2004 was 713,000 kilowatts, or about 50% of the demand made up by TPU's customers (the rest is purchased from other utilities). According to TPU, hydroelectricity provides about 87% of Tacoma's power; coal 3%; natural gas 1%; nuclear 9%; and biomass and wind at less than 1%. Tacoma Power also operates the Click! Network
Click! Network
Click! Network is a broadband cable system owned by Tacoma Power, a part of Tacoma Public Utilities in Tacoma, Washington. It provides cable television and Internet connectivity for residents and businesses in Tacoma, University Place, Fircrest, Lakewood and Fife.Back in the late 1990s there was...

, a municipally-owned cable television
Cable television
Cable television is a system of providing television programs to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted to televisions through coaxial cables or digital light pulses through fixed optical fibers located on the subscriber's property, much like the over-the-air method used in traditional...

 and internet service. The residential cost per kilowatt hour of electricity is just over 6 cents.

Tacoma Water provides customers in its service area with water from the Green River
Green River (Washington)
The Green River is a long river in the state of Washington in the United States, arising on the western slopes of the Cascade Mountains south of I-90....

 Watershed. As of 2004, Tacoma Water provided water services to 93,903 customers. The average annual cost for residential supply was $257.84.

Tacoma Rail
Tacoma Rail
Tacoma Rail is a shortline railroad. It is operated as a public utility and owned by the city of Tacoma, Washington as part of the municipally-owned Tacoma Public Utilities service. It provides rail services for freight switching...

, initially a municipally owned street railway line running to the tideflats, was converted to a common-carrier rail switching utility. Tacoma Rail is self-supporting and employs over 90 people.

In addition to municipal garbage collection, Tacoma offers commingled recycling
Recycling
Recycling is processing used materials into new products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution and water pollution by reducing the need for "conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse...

 services for paper, cardboard, plastics, and metals.

Parks

Parks and recreation services in and around Tacoma are governed by Metro Parks Tacoma, a municipal corporation
Municipal corporation
A municipal corporation is the legal term for a local governing body, including cities, counties, towns, townships, charter townships, villages, and boroughs. Municipal incorporation occurs when such municipalities become self-governing entities under the laws of the state or province in which...

 established as a separate entity from the city government in 1907. Metro Parks maintains over fifty parks and open spaces in Tacoma.

Point Defiance Park
Point Defiance Park
Point Defiance Park in Tacoma, Washington is one of the largest urban parks in the United States. The park includes Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium, the Rose Garden, Rhododendron Garden, the Camp 6 Logging Museum, beaches, trails, a boardwalk, a boathouse, a Washington State Ferries ferry dock for...

, one of the largest urban parks in the country (at 700 acres), is located in Tacoma. Scenic Five Mile Drive allows access to many of the park's attractions, such as Owen Beach, Camp Six, Fort Nisqually
Fort Nisqually
Fort Nisqually was an important fur trading and farming post of the Hudson's Bay Company in the Puget Sound area of what is now DuPont, Washington and was part of the Hudson's Bay Company's Columbia Department. Today it is a living history museum located in Tacoma, Washington, USA, within the...

, and the Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium
Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium
The Point Defiance Zoo & Aquarium is a combined zoo and aquarium located in Tacoma, Washington, US, owned by Metro Parks Tacoma. Situated on in Tacoma's Point Defiance Park, the zoo and aquarium are home to over 9,000 specimens representing 367 animal species...

. There are many historic structures within the park, including the Pagoda, which was originally built as a streetcar waiting room. It was restored in 1988, and now serves as a rental facility for weddings and private parties.

Ruston Way is a waterfront area along Commencement Bay north of downtown Tacoma that hosts several public parks connected by a multi-use trail and interspersed with restaurants and other businesses. Public parks along Ruston Way include Jack Hyde Park, Old Town Dock, Hamilton Park, Dickman Mill Park, Les Davis Pier, Marine Park and Cummings Park. The trail is popular with walkers, runners, cyclists and other recreationalists. There are several beaches along Ruston Way with public access, some of which are also popular for scuba diving.

Another large park in Tacoma is Wapato Park, which has a lake and walking trails that circle the lake. Wapato is located in the south end of Tacoma, at Sheridan and 72nd St.

Titlow Beach
Titlow Beach
Titlow Beach is in Tacoma, Washington, USA. It is located along Puget Sound near the Tacoma Narrows Bridge. It has a beach, pool, community center, two restaurants, a view of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge, a small boardwalk, and is a popular scuba diving area....

, located at the end of 6th Avenue, is a popular scuba diving
Scuba diving
Scuba diving is a form of underwater diving in which a diver uses a scuba set to breathe underwater....

 area.
Wright Park, located near downtown, is a large, English-style park designed in the late 19th century by E.O. Schwagerl and Ebenezer Rhys Roberts. It contains Wright Park Arboretum
Wright Park Arboretum
- See also :* List of botanical gardens in the United States* List of Registered Historic Places in Pierce County, Washington...

 and the W. W. Seymour Botanical Conservatory. This beautiful historic park is also the home of local festivals such as Ethnic Fest, Out in the Park, Tacoma's Gay Pride festival and the Tacoma Hempfest.

Jefferson Park in North Tacoma is the location of a new sprayground; an area designed to be a safe and unique play area where water is sprayed from structures or ground sprays and then drained away before it can accumulate.

Frost Park in downtown Tacoma is often utilized for sidewalk chalk contests.

In response to the Tacoma area's growing dog population, Dog park
Dog park
A dog park is a facility set aside for dogs to exercise and play off-leash in a controlled environment under the supervision of their owners...

s have become a natural addition to the city. Rogers off-leash Dog Park is a metro public park established in 1949 Tacoma. The park's homepage

Architecture

Tacoma includes several landmarks and was home to some prolific architects including Everett Phipps Babcock
Everett Phipps Babcock
Everett Phipps Babcock was an architect who worked in the U.S. states of Washington and California.Babcock worked with Ambrose J. Russell in Tacoma, Washington on "distinguished residences in various styles". The firm completed the Washington Governor's Mansion in Olympia, Washington. Their work...

, Frederick Heath
Frederick Heath (architect)
Frederick Heath was an American architect responsible for numerous projects in Tacoma, Washington. He worked out of his own office and as a senior partner at architectural firms. He was involved with Spaulding, Russell & Heath , and Heath & Gove...

, Ambrose J. Russell
Ambrose J. Russell
Ambrose J. Russell was an architect in Tacoma, Washington. He was Scottish and was born in the East Indies. He was trained in Paris at the Ecole des Beaux Arts where he was a classmate of Bernard Maybeck....

, and Silas E. Nelsen
Silas E. Nelsen
Silas E. Nelsen was an American architect. He worked for the Tacoma, Washington firm of Heath, Gove, and Bell for five years until 1917 when he started his own firm. He designed at least 15 churches, 150 residences, and some of the buildings on the University of Puget Sound campus, as well as...

.

Two suspension bridges currently span a narrow section of the Salish Sea
Salish Sea
The name Salish Sea was coined only in the late 20th century, and was officially recognized by the United States in 2009 and by Canada in 2010, to describe the coastal waterways surrounding southern Vancouver Island and Puget Sound between Canada and the United States of America...

 called the Tacoma Narrows. The Tacoma Narrows Bridges link Tacoma to Gig Harbor and the Olympic Peninsula
Olympic Peninsula
The Olympic Peninsula is the large arm of land in western Washington state of the USA, that lies across Puget Sound from Seattle. It is bounded on the west by the Pacific Ocean, the north by the Strait of Juan de Fuca, and the east by Puget Sound. Cape Alava, the westernmost point in the contiguous...

. The failure of the first Tacoma Narrows Bridge
Tacoma Narrows Bridge
The Tacoma Narrows Bridge is a pair of twin suspension bridges in the U.S. state of Washington, which carry State Route 16 across the Tacoma Narrows strait of Puget Sound between Tacoma and the Kitsap Peninsula...

, which was the third longest suspension bridge in the world, is a famous case study in architecture textbooks.

Historic landmarks

See also National Register of Historic Places listings in Pierce County, Washington#Tacoma.
Engine House No. 9
Engine House No. 9 (Tacoma, Washington)
Engine House No. 9 in Tacoma, Washington is a fire station built in 1907. The building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. Currently, the building houses a pub which brews its own beer....

 is a fire station
Fire station
A fire station is a structure or other area set aside for storage of firefighting apparatus , personal protective equipment, fire hose, fire extinguishers, and other fire extinguishing equipment...

 built in 1907. The building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States government's official list of districts, sites, buildings, structures, and objects deemed worthy of preservation...

 in 1975. Currently, the building houses a pub which brews
Microbrewery
A microbrewery or craft brewer is a brewery which produces a limited amount of beer, and is associated by consumers with innovation and uniqueness....

 its own beer.

Stadium High School
Stadium High School
Stadium High School is a 100-year-old high school in Tacoma, Washington and a historic landmark. It is part of Tacoma Public Schools, or Tacoma School District No. 10 and is located in the Stadium District, near downtown Tacoma. The original building burned to a shell while it was still a partially...

 and the Stadium Bowl
Stadium Bowl
The Stadium Bowl, originally known as Tacoma Stadium, is a 15,000-seat stadium located in Tacoma, Washington. The stadium plays host to the American football teams for both Woodrow Wilson High School and Stadium High School. The stadium is located next to Stadium High School with views of...

, part of the Tacoma School District. The school provided a setting for the movie 10 Things I Hate About You
10 Things I Hate about You
10 Things I Hate About You is a 1999 American teen romantic comedy film. It is directed by Gil Junger and stars Heath Ledger, Julia Stiles, Joseph Gordon-Levitt, Larisa Oleynik, David Krumholtz, and Larry Miller...

starring Heath Ledger
Heath Ledger
Heath Andrew Ledger was an Australian television and film actor. After performing roles in Australian television and film during the 1990s, Ledger moved to the United States in 1998 to develop his film career...

.

Fireboat No. 1 was built in 1929 for the Port of Tacoma by the Coastline Shipbuilding Company. After 54 years of service in waterfront
Dock (maritime)
A dock is a human-made structure or group of structures involved in the handling of boats or ships, usually on or close to a shore.However, the exact meaning varies among different variants of the English language...

 fire protection, harbor
Harbor
A harbor or harbour , or haven, is a place where ships, boats, and barges can seek shelter from stormy weather, or else are stored for future use. Harbors can be natural or artificial...

 security patrols, search and rescue
Search and rescue
Search and rescue is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger.The general field of search and rescue includes many specialty sub-fields, mostly based upon terrain considerations...

 missions, and water pollution
Water pollution
Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies . Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds....

 control, Fireboat No. 1 was put up on a permanent dry berth at a public beach near Tacoma's Old Town neighborhood. She is one of only five fireboats designated as a National Historic Landmark
National Historic Landmark
A National Historic Landmark is a building, site, structure, object, or district, that is officially recognized by the United States government for its historical significance...

. Visitors are able to walk around her exterior, but her interior is closed to the public.

William Ross Rust House
William Ross Rust House
The William Ross Rust House is a house in Tacoma, Washington built in 1905 for William Ross Rust, then President of the Tacoma Smelter and Refining Company. The house was designed by Ambrose J. Russell, who worked for Russell & Babcock with Everett Phipps Babcock, and was built by Charles Miller...

 - Colonial / Classic Revival (1905) - Ambrose J. Russell (Architect), Charles Miller (Contractor)

Murray Morgan Bridge
Murray Morgan Bridge
The Murray Morgan Bridge, also known as the 11th Street bridge or City Waterway bridge, is a lift bridge in Tacoma, Washington. It was built in 1913 to replace an 1894 swing-span bridge. The bridge connects downtown with the tideflats, it spans the Thea Foss Waterway, originally known as the City...

 - 1911 steel lift bridge across the Thea Foss Waterway
Thea Foss Waterway
The Thea Foss Waterway is a waterway running roughly north-south immediately east of downtown Tacoma, Washington. It is an inlet of Commencement Bay.Tacoma was the site of an early sawmill in 1853.The deepwater port began to boom in the 1870s, sailing...

; it is currently closed to all automobile traffic due to its deteriorating condition, but may be rebuilt in the future. It is still open to pedestrians and bicyclists.

Other notable buildings include the National Realty Building, Lincoln High School (Tacoma, Washington), Rhodes House (Tacoma)
Rhodes House (Tacoma)
The Rhodes House or Henry A. and Birdella Rhodes House is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Henry Rhodes had Ambrose J. Russell and Frederick Heath design and build the house in 1901....

, Pythian Temple (Tacoma, Washington)
Pythian Temple (Tacoma, Washington)
The Pythian Temple, built in 1906 for Commencement Lodge Number 7 of the Knights of Pythias, is an historic building located on Broadway in the Theater District of Tacoma, Washington...

, Perkins Building
Perkins Building
The Perkins Building is a historic building in Tacoma, Washington. The 8-story building housed the offices of the Tacoma Ledger/Daily News. It was the tallest reinforced concrete building in the Northwest and the first building on West Coast to have a basement parking garage...

, Tacoma Dome
Tacoma Dome
The Tacoma Dome is an indoor arena located in Tacoma, Washington, USA, approximately 30 miles south of Seattle.-History:...

, Rhodesleigh
Rhodesleigh
Rhodesleigh, also known as the Rhodes Mansion, is a historic residence in Lakewood, Washington. Architects involved in its design included Ambrose J. Russell and Frederick Heath....

, and Engine House No. 9 (Tacoma, Washington)
Engine House No. 9 (Tacoma, Washington)
Engine House No. 9 in Tacoma, Washington is a fire station built in 1907. The building was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. Currently, the building houses a pub which brews its own beer....

. The famous Luzon Building
Luzon Building
The Luzon Building was a historic six-story building in downtown Tacoma, Washington designed by Chicago architects Daniel Burnham and John Root. The Luzon was built in 1890 as the Pacific National Bank, which had a first floor entrance on Pacific Avenue and a second floor entrance on Commerce...

 and Nihon Go Gakko (Tacoma)
Nihon Go Gakko (Tacoma)
The , in what was then Tacoma, Washington's Japantown, was one of 24 Japanese language schools that existed in Washington prior to World War II.-History:The building was built in 1922 to replace a smaller building and accommodate a larger enrollment...

 school house have been demolished. University of Puget Sound
University of Puget Sound
The University of Puget Sound is a private liberal arts college located in the North End of Tacoma, Washington, in the United States...

, Cushman Dam No. 1
Cushman Dam No. 1
Cushman Dam No. 1 is a hydroelectric dam on the North Fork of the Skokomish River in Mason County, Washington forming Lake Cushman. It was built by Tacoma City Light in 1924-1926. Tacoma's demand for electricity grew rapidly after World War I...

, Cushman Dam No. 2
Cushman Dam No. 2
Cushman Dam No. 2 is a hydroelectric dam on the North Fork of the Skokomish River in Mason County, Washington, United States, forming Lake Kokanee. Built in 1930, its three 27,000 kilowatt generators provide 233 million kilowatt-hours annually to the Tacoma Power system. Along with Cushman Dam No...

, Rialto Theater (Tacoma, Washington)
Rialto Theater (Tacoma, Washington)
The Rialto Theatre in Tacoma, Washington was designed by Roland Borhek. For more information regarding the Rialto Theater, visit the Broadway Center for the Performing Arts.It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1992....

, the MV Kalakala, and Tacoma Union Station are also noteworthy.

Education

Tacoma's main public school district is Tacoma Public Schools
Tacoma Public Schools
Tacoma Public Schools is the main school district for Tacoma, Washington, USA.-District facts:-2004-2005 Budget:-School board:*Kurt Miller, President, Term expires: November, 2009*Connie Rickman, Vice President, Term expires: November, 2009...

. The district contains 36 elementary schools, eleven middle schools, five high schools, one alternative high school, a Science and Math Institute (SAMI), and one school of the arts (SOTA).

Henry Foss High School
Henry Foss High School
Henry Foss High School is a high school in Tacoma, Washington. It opened in 1973. It is a part of the Tacoma Public School District. The school is named after Henry Foss, a civic leader and tugboat tycoon in Tacoma.-History:...

 operates an International Baccalaureate program. Sheridan Elementary School operated three foreign language immersion programs (Spanish, French, and Japanese). Mount Tahoma High School
Mount Tahoma High School
Mount Tahoma High School is a high school in Tacoma, Washington. It opened in 1961 and is a part of the Tacoma Public School District. The school's mascot is the legendary Thunderbird.-History:...

 opened a brand new building in South Tacoma in the fall of 2004. Stadium High School
Stadium High School
Stadium High School is a 100-year-old high school in Tacoma, Washington and a historic landmark. It is part of Tacoma Public Schools, or Tacoma School District No. 10 and is located in the Stadium District, near downtown Tacoma. The original building burned to a shell while it was still a partially...

 and Wilson High School were remodeled/refurbished and reopened in September 2006. Tacoma School of the Arts, opened in 2001, is an arts-focused arts school that serves as a national model for educational innovation. SOTA is a public school, part of the Tacoma Public Schools
Tacoma Public Schools
Tacoma Public Schools is the main school district for Tacoma, Washington, USA.-District facts:-2004-2005 Budget:-School board:*Kurt Miller, President, Term expires: November, 2009*Connie Rickman, Vice President, Term expires: November, 2009...

 and is one of the first school in the nation to implement standards based instruction, as well as influence the design of many schools in the nation. SOTA is located in multiple venues around Downtown Tacoma and uses Community Museums and Universities for instructional space. Lincoln High School
Lincoln High School (Tacoma)
Lincoln High School is a 94 year old high school located in the south central sector of Tacoma, at the corner of 37th St. and South G adjacent to Lincoln Park . The school was founded in 1913 and built according to an architectural design by Frederick Heath. It has since been named as a historical...

 reopened in the fall of 2007 after a $75 million renovation and expansion.
The area also has numerous private schools, including the Annie Wright School
Annie Wright School
Annie Wright School is a preschool-12th grade independent school of about 450 students. It is a co-ed day program through grade 8, and an all-girls day and boarding school in grades 9-12. The upper school offers the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme...

, Bellarmine Preparatory School and Seabury School
Seabury School
Seabury School is an independent school for gifted children in Tacoma, Washington.Founded in 1989, Seabury is the only independent school in the South Puget Sound with a program specifically designed for intellectually advanced children...

.

Tacoma's institutions of higher learning include the University of Puget Sound
University of Puget Sound
The University of Puget Sound is a private liberal arts college located in the North End of Tacoma, Washington, in the United States...

, Tacoma Community College
Tacoma Community College
Tacoma Community College is a community college located in Tacoma, Washington, with satellite operations in Gig Harbor and the Tacoma Mall. It serves the city of Tacoma and the Pierce County portion of the Kitsap Peninsula....

, City University of Seattle-Tacoma, Bates Technical College
Bates Technical College
Bates Technical College, located in Tacoma, Washington, is the state’s largest public technical college. Accredited by the Northwest Commission on Colleges and Universities, it offers two-year Associate of Technology degrees, academic certificates, and industry certifications, and maintains...

, The Evergreen State College
The Evergreen State College
The Evergreen State College is an accredited public liberal arts college and a member of the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges. It is located in Olympia, Washington, USA. Founded in 1967, Evergreen was formed to be an experimental and non-traditional college...

 Tacoma Campus, Northwest Baptist Seminary, and University of Washington Tacoma. Pacific Lutheran University
Pacific Lutheran University
Pacific Lutheran University is located in Parkland, a suburb of Tacoma, Washington. In September 2009, PLU had a student population of 3,582 and approximately 280 full-time faculty...

 is located in Parkland
Parkland, Washington
Parkland is a census-designated place in Pierce County, Washington, United States. The population was 24,053 at the 2000 census and grew to 35,803 as of the 2010 census...

, just south of the city; nearby Lakewood
Lakewood, Washington
Lakewood is a city in Pierce County, Washington, United States. The population was 58,163 at the 2010 census.-History:Lakewood was officially incorporated on February 28, 1996. Historical names include Lakewood Center and Lakes District...

 is the home of Clover Park Technical College
Clover Park Technical College
Clover Park Technical College is located in Lakewood, Washington, in the United States, south of Seattle. It has an enrollment of 3,500 full-time and 18,000 part-time students...

 and Pierce College
Pierce College
Pierce College is a community college district operating in and serving Pierce County in the U.S. state of Washington. The district consists of two main colleges, Pierce College Fort Steilacoom in Lakewood and Pierce College Puyallup in Puyallup, and auxiliary campuses at Fort Lewis, McChord Air...

.

Cultural attractions

The Museum of Glass
Museum of Glass
The Museum of Glass is a museum dedicated to the medium of glass art located in Tacoma, Washington. It is not to be confused with the various other Museums of Glass, such as the one in Corning, New York, as the museum focuses on Contemporary and Pacific Northwest glass-art.The museum, the...

 boasts an iconic structure standing near the Thea Foss Waterway; the steel cone of the hot shop is one of the most recognizable structures in the city.

Tacoma Art Museum
Tacoma Art Museum
In May 2003, Tacoma Art Museum opened a new facility twice the size of its previous home, allowing the museum to expand on its vision and mission. American Institute of Architects AIA Gold Medal winner Antoine Predock designed the building located in the heart of Tacoma’s Cultural District...

 was founded in 1935 and reopened in 2003 in a new building on Pacific Avenue in Tacoma - now one of three organizations forming the "museum district" (others are Museum of Glass and Washington State History Museum
Washington State History Museum
The Washington State History Museum is located in downtown Tacoma, Washington. It is owned and operated by the Washington State Historical Society under the official approval of the Washington State Legislature....

). It is considered a model for mid-sized regional museums.

The Broadway Center for the Performing Arts
Broadway Center for the Performing Arts
Broadway Center for the Performing Arts is a 501 non-profit organization located in the historic Theater District of downtown Tacoma, Washington. Encompassing the Pantages, Rialto, and Theatre on the Square, the Broadway Center manages the largest complex of theaters between Seattle, Washington...

 is the home to three theaters, two of which are on the National Historic Register. Performing within the three theaters are several performing arts organizations, including the Tacoma Opera, Tacoma Symphony Orchestra, Northwest Sinfionetta, Tacoma City Ballet, Tacoma Concert Band, Tacoma Philharmonic, Tacoma Youth Symphony, Theatre Northwest, and Puget Sound Revels, one of ten Revels
Revels
Revels is a contemporary series of American seasonal stage performances, initially given at Christmas time as the Christmas Revels at Town Hall in New York City in 1957, which involve singing, dancing, recitals, theatrics , and usually some audience participation, all appropriate to the season...

 organizations nationwide.

Shakespeare in the Parking Lot celebrated their 10th anniversary in 2009. Their motto is "taking the fear out of Shakespeare".www.SITPL.org. They offer both educational opportunities and inspired theater in and around Tacoma.

Tacoma hosts part of the annual four-part Daffodil Parade
The Daffodil Festival
The Daffodil Festival is a regional festival and parade held in Pierce County, Washington every April. It consists of a flower parade and a year-long pageant to select a festival queen from one of the area high schools.-History:...

, which takes place every April in Tacoma, Puyallup
Puyallup, Washington
Puyallup, Washington is a city in Pierce County, Washington about five miles east of Tacoma. The population was 37,022 at the 2010 Census. Named after the Puyallup Tribe of Native Americans, Puyallup means "the generous people."-History:...

, Sumner
Sumner, Washington
Sumner is a city in northern Pierce County, Washington, United States. The population was 9,451 at the 2010 census. Nearby cities include Puyallup to the west, Auburn to the north, and Enumclaw to the east.-History:...

, and Orting
Orting, Washington
Orting is a city in Pierce County, Washington, United States. The population as of the 2010 census is 6,746, according to the City of Orting.- History :...

.

The downtown Tacoma farmers' market
Farmers' market
A farmers' market consists of individual vendors—mostly farmers—who set up booths, tables or stands, outdoors or indoors, to sell produce, meat products, fruits and sometimes prepared foods and beverages...

 runs every Thursday, from May through September, in the Theatre District. There are also seasonal farmers markets in the Proctor District, along Sixth Avenue, and in South Tacoma.

Fort Nisqually
Fort Nisqually
Fort Nisqually was an important fur trading and farming post of the Hudson's Bay Company in the Puget Sound area of what is now DuPont, Washington and was part of the Hudson's Bay Company's Columbia Department. Today it is a living history museum located in Tacoma, Washington, USA, within the...

 is a prominent local attraction featuring historical reenactments.

The Tacoma Police Department is the site of a public memorial for officers, dominated by the sculptures "Memories in Blue" and "For All They Gave", by James Kelsey
James Kelsey (Sculptor)
James Edward Kelsey is an American Abstract Expressionist sculptor best known for creating large stainless steel abstract curvilinear sculptures.-Biography:...

.

Mass media

The city's major daily newspaper is The News Tribune, a subsidiary of McClatchy Newspapers since 1986. Its circulation is about 128,000 (144,000 on Sundays), making it the third-largest newspaper in the state of Washington. A daily newspaper has been in circulation in Tacoma since 1883. Between 1907 and 1918, three dailies were published: The Tacoma Ledger, The News, and The Tacoma Tribune.

Tacoma receives Seattle area TV and radio stations.

Local papers include the Tacoma Weekly
Tacoma Weekly
Tacoma Weekly is a weekly community newspaper published by Pierce County Community Newspaper Group . The paper started in 1987 as the Tacoma Monthly and in 1994 became the Tacoma Weekly....

, the Tacoma Daily Index and the South Sound alternative newsweekly Weekly Volcano
Weekly Volcano
Weekly Volcano is a weekly entertainment newspaper in the South Puget Sound, based in Tacoma, Washington. The Weekly Volcano reports on film, theater, food, art and music in the South Sound as well as providing comprehensive arts and music calendars...

.

Sports


Club
Sport
Founded
League
Venue

Tacoma Rainiers
Tacoma Rainiers
The Tacoma Rainiers are a minor league baseball team that plays in the Pacific Coast League , and are the Triple-A affiliate of the Seattle Mariners...


Baseball
Baseball
Baseball is a bat-and-ball sport played between two teams of nine players each. The aim is to score runs by hitting a thrown ball with a bat and touching a series of four bases arranged at the corners of a ninety-foot diamond...


1960
Pacific Coast League
Pacific Coast League
The Pacific Coast League is a minor-league baseball league operating in the Western, Midwestern and Southeastern United States. Along with the International League and the Mexican League, it is one of three leagues playing at the Triple-A level, which is one step below Major League Baseball.The...


Cheney Stadium
Cheney Stadium
Cheney Stadium, in Tacoma, Washington, is the home field for the Tacoma Rainiers minor-league baseball team of the Triple-A Pacific Coast League. The stadium opened in 1960, and has a capacity of 9,600...



Tacoma Tide
Basketball
Basketball
Basketball is a team sport in which two teams of five players try to score points by throwing or "shooting" a ball through the top of a basketball hoop while following a set of rules...


2005
International Basketball League
International Basketball League (2005-)
The International Basketball League is a professional men's spring basketball league featuring teams from the West Coast, Rocky Mountains, Western Canada, and the Midwest. In 2010 the Albany Legends became the first team in the Northeastern United States...


Stadium High School
Stadium High School
Stadium High School is a 100-year-old high school in Tacoma, Washington and a historic landmark. It is part of Tacoma Public Schools, or Tacoma School District No. 10 and is located in the Stadium District, near downtown Tacoma. The original building burned to a shell while it was still a partially...



Tacoma Tide
Soccer
2006
USL Premier Development League
USL Premier Development League
The USL Premier Development League is the amateur league of the United Soccer Leagues in the United States, Canada, and Bermuda, forming part of the American Soccer Pyramid...


Curtis Senior High School
Curtis Senior High School
For the school of the same name in Staten Island, see Curtis High School.Curtis Senior High School is a public high school located in University Place, Washington....



Tacoma Stars
Tacoma Stars
The Tacoma Stars were a franchise in the original Major Indoor Soccer League. The team existed from 1983 - 1992 and is notable for two reasons. First, the team holds the record for the largest crowd to witness an indoor soccer game with 21,728 people packing the Tacoma Dome to see Tacoma fall to...


Indoor Soccer
Indoor soccer
Indoor soccer or arena soccer, or six-a-side football in the United Kingdom, is a game derived from association football adapted for play in an indoor arena such as a turf-covered hockey arena or skating rink. The most important difference in play is that the indoor field is surrounded by a wall...


2010
Professional Arena Soccer League
Professional Arena Soccer League
The Professional Arena Soccer League is an North American indoor soccer league recognized by FIFRA ....


Tacoma Soccer Center



The city has struggled to keep a minor league hockey
Ice hockey
Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

 franchise. The Tacoma Rockets
Tacoma Rockets
The Tacoma Rockets were a junior ice hockey team in the Western Hockey League from 1991 to 1995. They played at the Tacoma Dome in Tacoma, Washington. The Rockets were granted as an expansion franchise, but low attendance forced the team to move to Kelowna, British Columbia after only four seasons,...

 of the WHL
Western Hockey League
The Western Hockey League is a major junior ice hockey league based in Western Canada and the Northwestern United States. The WHL is one of three leagues that constitute the Canadian Hockey League as the highest level of junior hockey in Canada...

 were lost to relocation and moved to Kelowna, British Columbia. The Tacoma Sabercats
Tacoma Sabercats
The Tacoma Sabercats were an American professional minor league ice hockey team based in Tacoma, Washington. The team began play in the West Coast Hockey League as of the 1997-98 season....

 of the former West Coast Hockey League
West Coast Hockey League
The West Coast Hockey League was a professional minor ice hockey league active in the western United States from 1995 to 2003. The number of teams ranged from six to nine. The teams were located in Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Nevada and Washington...

 closed due to financial woes. The Tacoma Dome
Tacoma Dome
The Tacoma Dome is an indoor arena located in Tacoma, Washington, USA, approximately 30 miles south of Seattle.-History:...

 still hosts traveling sports and other events, such as pro wrestling, figure skating tours, and the Harlem Globetrotters
Harlem Globetrotters
The Harlem Globetrotters are an exhibition basketball team that combines athleticism, theater and comedy. The executive offices for the team are currently in downtown Phoenix, Arizona; the team is owned by Shamrock Holdings, which oversees the various investments of the Roy E. Disney family.Over...

. At one point, the Tacoma Dome was home to a professional indoor soccer
Indoor soccer
Indoor soccer or arena soccer, or six-a-side football in the United Kingdom, is a game derived from association football adapted for play in an indoor arena such as a turf-covered hockey arena or skating rink. The most important difference in play is that the indoor field is surrounded by a wall...

 team, the Tacoma Stars. For the 1994-1995 season, the Seattle SuperSonics
Seattle SuperSonics
The Seattle SuperSonics were an American professional basketball team based in Seattle, Washington that played in the Pacific and Northwest Divisions of the National Basketball Association from 1967 until 2008. Following the 2007–08 season, the team relocated to Oklahoma City, and now plays as...

 played in the Tacoma Dome while the Seattle Center Coliseum
KeyArena
KeyArena at Seattle Center , is a multipurpose arena, in Seattle, Washington. It is located north of downtown in the entertainment complex known as Seattle Center, the site of the 1962 World's Fair, the Century 21 Exposition...

 was renovated (and renamed KeyArena
KeyArena
KeyArena at Seattle Center , is a multipurpose arena, in Seattle, Washington. It is located north of downtown in the entertainment complex known as Seattle Center, the site of the 1962 World's Fair, the Century 21 Exposition...

). The Tacoma Dome also hosted the 1988 and 1989 Women's NCAA Final Four. Tacoma is home to the all-female flat track roller derby
Roller derby
Roller derby is a contact sport played by two teams of five members roller skating in the same direction around a track. Game play consists of a series of short matchups in which both teams designate a scoring player who scores points by lapping members of the opposing team...

 league Dockyard Derby Dames, which fields an away team.

Noteworthy Tacomans

Tacoma has been the home to many athletes, artists, and performers. See People from Tacoma.

Neighborhoods

  • Central Tacoma
    • Hilltop
      Hilltop Neighborhood, Tacoma, Washington
      The Hilltop Neighborhood is a historically diverse neighborhood in the Tacoma, Washington . Hilltop's approximate boundaries are 6th Avenue in the north, 25th Street in the south, Yakima Avenue in the east, and Sprague Avenue in the west...

       (shared with Downtown)
    • Delong Park
    • The Wedge
    • McCarver (shared with New Tacoma/Downtown)
    • Bryant
    • College Heights
  • New Tacoma
    • Downtown Tacoma
      Downtown, Tacoma, Washington
      Downtown Tacoma is located primarily between Pacific Avenue and St. Helens, in the inner Northeast section of Tacoma. The center of downtown is the intersection of 9th and Broadway. The city holiday tree is located here as well.- Downturn :...

      • St. Helens Neighborhood
      • Theater District
      • Central Business District
      • Warehouse/Brewery District
      • Foss Waterway
      • The McCarver Neighborhood (shared with Central Tacoma/Hilltop)
      • Stadium District
        Stadium District, Tacoma, Washington
        The Stadium District is a neighborhood of the north end of Tacoma, Washington, USA. It is named after Stadium High School, a historic landmark.The district is located between the affluent North Slope residential neighborhood and the Hilltop neighborhood...

         (shared with North Tacoma)
      • Dome District
  • Nalley Valley
  • Port of Tacoma
    Port of Tacoma
    The Port of Tacoma is an independent seaport located in Tacoma, Washington. The port was created by a vote of Pierce County citizens on November 5, 1918...

  • East Tacoma
    • McKinley Hill
    • Salishan
      Salishan, Tacoma, Washington
      Salishan is a diverse and mixed-income neighborhood of Tacoma, Washington that was originally created as World War II housing project but, starting in 2002, has been demolished and rebuilt into a new neighborhood of homes, apartments, services, and parks on new infrastructure. It is located on...

    • Hillsdale
    • Swan Creek
    • Strawberry Hill
  • North Tacoma
    North Tacoma, Tacoma, Washington
    North Tacoma is a neighborhood in Tacoma, Washington, in the United States.The North End of Tacoma has informal and formal boundaries. Informally, the generally accepted boundaries of the North End are 6th Avenue and Division Avenue to the south and Puget Sound to the north, west, and east...

    • North Slope
      North Slope, Tacoma, Washington
      The North Slope is a neighborhood of the north end of Tacoma, Washington, located south of Yakima Hill.Although there is no truly defined boundary for the North Slope, and it often bleeds over into Yakima Hill under some definitions, the area typically is considered to border North I Street on the...

    • Old Tacoma
      Old Tacoma, Tacoma, Washington
      Old Tacoma is a neighborhood of the north end of Tacoma, Washington, more commonly known as Old Town.Old Town owes its name to the fact that it was the location of the earliest settlement by persons of European descent. In 1865, Job Carr built a cabin near the shore in anticipation of future land...

    • Proctor District
      Proctor District, Tacoma, Washington
      The Proctor District is a business district in the north end of Tacoma, Washington. Primarily a center for locals to shop, the District has cultivated a small town "urban village" character.-Businesses:...

    • Prospect Hill
      Prospect Hill, Tacoma, Washington
      Prospect Hill is a neighborhood of the north end neighborhood of Tacoma, Washington. Although Prospect Hill is considered to be the official planning name of the area, it has also gone by many other names. Locals commonly refer to it as Little Germany because of its narrow roads; it resembles a...

    • Ruston
      Ruston, Washington
      Ruston is a town in Pierce County, Washington, United States. The population was 749 at the 2010 census.Although it is nearly indistinguishable from the adjacent city of Tacoma, the predominantly residential area still retains its status as a separate municipality long after it ceased to be a...

       (separately incorporated)
    • Ruston Way
    • Skyline
      Skyline, Tacoma, Washington
      Skyline is a neighborhood located in the north end of Tacoma, Washington, United States. The area is sometimes referred to as "Narrows View," because of its view of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge. The boundaries of Skyline are poorly defined, but it is generally accepted that the center of the area is...

    • Stadium District
      Stadium District, Tacoma, Washington
      The Stadium District is a neighborhood of the north end of Tacoma, Washington, USA. It is named after Stadium High School, a historic landmark.The district is located between the affluent North Slope residential neighborhood and the Hilltop neighborhood...

       (shared with Downtown)
    • Westgate (shared with West Tacoma)
    • Yakima Hill
      Yakima Hill, Tacoma, Washington
      Yakima Hill is a neighborhood in the North End of Tacoma, Washington. Commonly confused with the adjacent North Slope, Yakima Hill is a distinct area...

  • Northeast Tacoma
    Northeast Tacoma, Tacoma, Washington
    Northeast Tacoma AKA The "NET" is a neighborhood in Tacoma, Washington.The generally accepted borders of Northeast Tacoma are the Port of Tacoma to the southwest, the unincorporated Fife Heights area to the southeast, the end of incorporated Tacoma at the Browns Point border to the northwest, and...

    • Browns Point
      Browns Point, Washington
      Browns Point is a point of land in Pierce County, Washington, United States, bordered by Tacoma on the east and Puget Sound on all other sides. The Tacoma neighborhood immediately adjacent to Browns Point is also referred to locally as "Browns Point" .Originally named Point Harris, after Alvin...

       (unincorporated)
    • Crescent Heights
  • South End
    • Fern Hill
      Fern Hill, Tacoma, Washington
      Fern Hill, a neighborhood located in the southern part of Tacoma, Washington, is generally defined as extending north to S. 72nd St, south to the city boundaries at 96th St, west to S. Sheridan Ave, and east to Pacific Avenue....

    • Lincoln International District
      Lincoln International District, Tacoma, Washington
      The Lincoln International Business District is a neighborhood in Tacoma, WA, near historic Lincoln High School. Centered on S. 38th St and Yakima, the Lincoln International District is home to the majority of Tacoma's Vietnamese businesses and community centers. This district is home to Vietnamese...

    • Wapato
    • Stewart Heights
    • Larchmont
  • South Tacoma
    • Edison
    • South Park
    • Manitou
    • Oakland/Madrona
    • Tacoma Mall
  • West Tacoma
    • Highlands
    • Narrows
    • Titlow
    • Salmon Beach
    • Westgate (shared with North Tacoma)

Popular culture

In FX
FX
- Entertainment :* FX , an international cable/satellite television network * F/X, a movie set in the world of special effects* F/X: The Series, a television program based on the movie...

 series Sons of Anarchy
Sons of Anarchy
Sons of Anarchy is an American television drama series created by Kurt Sutter about the lives of a close-knit outlaw motorcycle club operating in Charming, a fictional town in Northern California...

, the motorcycle club has a chapter based in the city. The Tacoma chapter is never shown on camera, but several of its members have appeared as guest stars.

Sister cities

Ålesund
Ålesund
is a town and municipality in Møre og Romsdal county, Norway. It is part of the traditional district of Sunnmøre, and the center of the Ålesund Region. It is a sea port, and is noted for its unique concentration of Art Nouveau architecture....

 (Norway) Cienfuegos
Cienfuegos
Cienfuegos is a city on the southern coast of Cuba, capital of Cienfuegos Province. It is located about from Havana, and has a population of 150,000. The city is dubbed La Perla del Sur...

 (Cuba) Davao
Davao
Davao refers to several closely related places in Mindanao in the Philippines. The term is used most often to refer to the city.*Davao Region, an administrative region*Davao del Norte province*Davao del Sur province*Davao Oriental province...

 (Philippines) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
Fuzhou is the capital and one of the largest cities in Fujian Province, People's Republic of China. Along with the many counties of Ningde, those of Fuzhou are considered to constitute the Mindong linguistic and cultural area....

 (People's Republic of China) George (South Africa) Gunsan
Gunsan
Gunsan is a city in North Jeolla Province, South Korea. It is located on the south bank of the Geum River just upstream from its exit into the Yellow Sea. Gunsan is served by frequent railway service on the Gunsan Line from Iksan. It is also connected to the Seohaean Expressway.Kunsan Air Base...

 (South Korea) Kiryat Motzkin (Israel) Kitakyushu (Japan) Taichung City (Republic of China / Taiwan)) Vladivostok
Vladivostok
The city is located in the southern extremity of Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula, which is about 30 km long and approximately 12 km wide.The highest point is Mount Kholodilnik, the height of which is 257 m...

 (Russia) El Jadida
El Jadida
El Jadida is a port city on the Atlantic coast of Morocco, in the province of El Jadida. It has a population of 144,440...

(Morocco)

External links

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