Telemetry is a technology
Technology is the making, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts, systems or methods of organization in order to solve a problem or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, machinery, and procedures. The word technology comes ;...

 that allows measurements to be made at a distance, usually via radio wave transmission and reception of the information
Information in its most restricted technical sense is a message or collection of messages that consists of an ordered sequence of symbols, or it is the meaning that can be interpreted from such a message or collection of messages. Information can be recorded or transmitted. It can be recorded as...

. The word is derived from Greek
Greek language
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any Indo-European language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...

 roots: tele = remote, and metron = measure. Systems that need external instructions and data to operate require the counterpart of telemetry, telecommand
A telecommand is a command sent to control a remote system or systems not directly connected to the place from which the telecommand is sent. The word is derived from tele = remote , and command = to entrust/order...


Although the term commonly refers to wireless data transfer mechanisms (e.g. using radio
Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space...

, hypersonic or infrared systems), it also encompasses data transferred over other media such as a telephone or computer network, optical link or other wired communications like phase line carriers. Many modern telemetry systems take advantage of the low cost and ubiquity of GSM networks by using SMS
SMS is a form of text messaging communication on phones and mobile phones. The terms SMS or sms may also refer to:- Computer hardware :...

 to receive and transmit telemetry data.


Telemetering information over wire had its origins in the 19th century. One of the first data-transmission circuits was developed in 1845 between the Russian Tsar
Tsardom of Russia
The Tsardom of Russia was the name of the centralized Russian state from Ivan IV's assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 till Peter the Great's foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721.From 1550 to 1700, Russia grew 35,000 km2 a year...

's Winter Palace
Winter Palace
The Winter Palace in Saint Petersburg, Russia, was, from 1732 to 1917, the official residence of the Russian monarchs. Situated between the Palace Embankment and the Palace Square, adjacent to the site of Peter the Great's original Winter Palace, the present and fourth Winter Palace was built and...

 and army headquarters. In 1874, French engineers built a system of weather and snow-depth sensors on Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc
Mont Blanc or Monte Bianco , meaning "White Mountain", is the highest mountain in the Alps, Western Europe and the European Union. It rises above sea level and is ranked 11th in the world in topographic prominence...

 that transmitted real-time information to Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

. In 1901 the American inventor C. Michalke patented the selsyn
A synchro is a type of rotary electrical transformer that is used for measuring the angle of a rotating machine such as an antenna platform. In its general physical construction, it is much like an electric motor...

, a circuit for sending synchronized rotation information over a distance. In 1906, a set of seismic stations were built with telemetering to the Pulkovo Observatory in Russia. In 1912, Commonwealth Edison
Commonwealth Edison
Commonwealth Edison is the largest electric utility in Illinois, serving the Chicago and Northern Illinois area...

 developed a system of telemetry to monitor electrical loads on its power grid. The Panama Canal
Panama Canal
The Panama Canal is a ship canal in Panama that joins the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean and is a key conduit for international maritime trade. Built from 1904 to 1914, the canal has seen annual traffic rise from about 1,000 ships early on to 14,702 vessels measuring a total of 309.6...

 (completed 1913–1914) used extensive telemetry systems to monitor locks and water levels.

Wireless telemetry made early appearances in the radiosonde
A radiosonde is a unit for use in weather balloons that measures various atmospheric parameters and transmits them to a fixed receiver. Radiosondes may operate at a radio frequency of 403 MHz or 1680 MHz and both types may be adjusted slightly higher or lower as required...

, developed concurrently in 1930 by Robert Bureau in France and Pavel Molchanov
Pavel Molchanov
Pavel Alexandrovich Molchanov was a Soviet Russian meteorologist, who invented and launched for the first time radiosonde.He graduated from Petersburg University in 1914, worked in the Main Physical Observatory in Pavlovsk between 1917 and 1939 and then at the institute of civil air fleet in...

 in Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

. Mochanov's system modulated temperature and pressure measurements by converting them to wireless Morse code
Morse code
Morse code is a method of transmitting textual information as a series of on-off tones, lights, or clicks that can be directly understood by a skilled listener or observer without special equipment...

. The German V-2 rocket used a system of primitive multiplexed radio signals called "Messina" to report four rocket parameters, but it was so unreliable that Wernher von Braun
Wernher von Braun
Wernher Magnus Maximilian, Freiherr von Braun was a German rocket scientist, aerospace engineer, space architect, and one of the leading figures in the development of rocket technology in Nazi Germany during World War II and in the United States after that.A former member of the Nazi party,...

 once claimed it was more useful to watch the rocket through binoculars. In the US and the USSR, the Messina system was quickly replaced with better systems (in both cases, based on pulse-position modulation
Pulse-position modulation
Pulse-position modulation is a form of signal modulation in which M message bits are encoded by transmitting a single pulse in one of 2^M possible time-shifts. This is repeated every T seconds, such that the transmitted bit rate is M/T bits per second...


Early Soviet missile and space telemetry systems which were developed in the late 1940s used either pulse-position modulation (e.g., the Tral telemetry system developed by OKB-MEI) or pulse-duration modulation (e.g., the RTS-5 system developed by NII-885). In the US early work employed similar systems, but were later replaced by pulse-code modulation
Pulse-code modulation
Pulse-code modulation is a method used to digitally represent sampled analog signals. It is the standard form for digital audio in computers and various Blu-ray, Compact Disc and DVD formats, as well as other uses such as digital telephone systems...

 (PCM) (for example, in the Mars probe Mariner 4
Mariner 4
Mariner 4 was the fourth in a series of spacecraft, launched on November 28, 1964, intended for planetary exploration in a flyby mode and performed the first successful flyby of the planet Mars, returning the first pictures of the Martian surface...

). Later Soviet interplanetary probes used redundant radio systems, transmitting telemetry by PCM on a decimeter band and PPM on a centimeter band.


Telemetry has been used by weather balloons for transmitting meteorological data since 1920.

Space science

Telemetry is used by manned or unmanned spacecraft for data transmission. Distances of more than 10 billion kilometres have been covered, e.g. by Voyager 1
Voyager 1
The Voyager 1 spacecraft is a 722-kilogram space probe launched by NASA in 1977, to study the outer Solar System and eventually interstellar space. Operating for as of today , the spacecraft receives routine commands and transmits data back to the Deep Space Network. At a distance of as of...


Motor racing

Telemetry is a key factor in modern motor racing, allowing race engineers to interpret data collected during a test or race and use it to properly tune the car for optimum performance. Systems used in series such as Formula One
Formula One
Formula One, also known as Formula 1 or F1 and referred to officially as the FIA Formula One World Championship, is the highest class of single seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile . The "formula" designation in the name refers to a set of rules with which...

 have become advanced to the point where the potential lap time of the car can be calculated, and this time is what the driver is expected to meet. Examples of measurements on a race car include accelerations (G forces) in 3 axes, temperature readings, wheel speed and suspension displacement. In Formula One, driver input is also recorded so the team can assess driver performance and (in case of an accident) the FIA
Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile
The Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile is a non-profit association established as the Association Internationale des Automobile Clubs Reconnus on 20 June 1904 to represent the interests of motoring organisations and motor car users...

 can determine or rule out driver error as a possible cause.

Later developments include two-way telemetry which allows engineers to update calibrations on the car in real time (even while it is out on the track). In Formula One, two-way telemetry surfaced in the early 1990s and consisted of a message display on the dashboard which the team could update. Its development continued until May 2001, when it was first allowed on the cars. By 2002, teams were able to change engine mapping and deactivate engine sensors from the pit while the car was on the track. For the 2003 season, the FIA banned two-way telemetry from Formula One; however, the technology may be used in other types of racing or on road cars.

Telemetry has also been applied in yacht racing
Yacht racing
Yacht racing is the sport of competitive yachting.While sailing groups organize the most active and popular competitive yachting, other boating events are also held world-wide: speed motorboat racing; competitive canoeing, kayaking, and rowing; model yachting; and navigational contests Yacht racing...

on Oracle Racing's USA 76
USA 76 (America's Cup Class)
USA 76 is one of the International America's Cup Class racing yachts used by Oracle Racing in its preparations to win the challenger series and the right to challenge for the 2007 America's Cup held in Valencia, Spain. It was launched on July 4, 2002....



Most activities related to healthy crops and good yields depend on timely availability of weather and soil data. Therefore, wireless weather stations play a major role in disease prevention and precision irrigation. These stations transmit parameters necessary for decision-making to a base station: air temperature and relative humidity
Relative humidity
Relative humidity is a term used to describe the amount of water vapor in a mixture of air and water vapor. It is defined as the partial pressure of water vapor in the air-water mixture, given as a percentage of the saturated vapor pressure under those conditions...

, precipitation
Precipitation (meteorology)
In meteorology, precipitation In meteorology, precipitation In meteorology, precipitation (also known as one of the classes of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity. The main forms of precipitation...

 and leaf wetness
Leaf wetness
Leaf wetness is an meteorological parameter that describes the amount of dew and precipitation left on surfaces. It is used for monitoring leaf moisture for agricultural purposes, such as fungus and disease control, for control of irrigation systems, and for detection of fog and dew conditions, and...

 (for disease prediction models), solar radiation and wind speed (to calculate evapotranspiration
Evapotranspiration is a term used to describe the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration from the Earth's land surface to atmosphere. Evaporation accounts for the movement of water to the air from sources such as the soil, canopy interception, and waterbodies...

), water deficit stress (WDS) leaf sensors and soil moisture (crucial to irrigation decisions).

Because local micro-climates can vary significantly, such data needs to come from within the crop. Monitoring stations usually transmit data back by terrestrial radio
Radio is the transmission of signals through free space by modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible light. Electromagnetic radiation travels by means of oscillating electromagnetic fields that pass through the air and the vacuum of space...

, although occasionally satellite
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an object which has been placed into orbit by human endeavour. Such objects are sometimes called artificial satellites to distinguish them from natural satellites such as the Moon....

 systems are used. Solar power is often employed to make the station independent of the power grid.

Water management

Telemetry is important in water management, including water quality
Water quality
Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water. It is a measure of the condition of water relative to the requirements of one or more biotic species and or to any human need or purpose. It is most frequently used by reference to a set of standards against which...

 and stream gauging
Stream gauge
A stream gauge, stream gage or gauging station is a location used by hydrologists or environmental scientists to monitor and test terrestrial bodies of water. Hydrometric measurements of water surface elevation and/or volumetric discharge are generally taken and observations of biota may also be...

 functions. Major applications include AMR (automatic meter reading
Automatic meter reading
Automatic meter reading, or AMR, is the technology of automatically collecting consumption, diagnostic, and status data from water meter or energy metering devices and transferring that data to a central database for billing, troubleshooting, and analyzing.This technology mainly saves utility...

), groundwater
Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations. A unit of rock or an unconsolidated deposit is called an aquifer when it can yield a usable quantity of water. The depth at which soil pore spaces or fractures and voids in rock...

 monitoring, leak detection in distribution pipelines and equipment surveillance. Having data available in almost real time allows quick reactions to events in the field.

Defense, space and resource exploration

Telemetry is used in complex systems such as missiles, RPVs, spacecraft
A spacecraft or spaceship is a craft or machine designed for spaceflight. Spacecraft are used for a variety of purposes, including communications, earth observation, meteorology, navigation, planetary exploration and transportation of humans and cargo....

, oil rig
Oil platform
An oil platform, also referred to as an offshore platform or, somewhat incorrectly, oil rig, is a lаrge structure with facilities to drill wells, to extract and process oil and natural gas, and to temporarily store product until it can be brought to shore for refining and marketing...

s and chemical plant
Chemical plant
A chemical plant is an industrial process plant that manufactures chemicals, usually on a large scale. The general objective of a chemical plant is to create new material wealth via the chemical or biological transformation and or separation of materials. Chemical plants use special equipment,...

s since it allows the automatic monitoring, alerting, and record-keeping necessary for efficient and safe operation. Space agencies such as NASA
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the nation's civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research...

, the European Space Agency
European Space Agency
The European Space Agency , established in 1975, is an intergovernmental organisation dedicated to the exploration of space, currently with 18 member states...

 (ESA) and other agencies use telemetry and/or telecommand systems to collect data from spacecraft and satellites.

Telemetry is vital in the development of missiles, satellites and aircraft because the system might be destroyed during or after the test. Engineers need critical system parameters to analyze (and improve) the performance of the system. In the absence of telemetry, this data would often be unavailable.


In rocketry, telemetry equipment forms an integral part of the rocket range assets used to monitor the progress of a rocket launch
Rocket launch
A rocket launch is the takeoff phase of the flight of a rocket. Launches for orbital spaceflights, or launches into interplanetary space, are usually from a fixed location on the ground, but may also be from a floating platform such as the San Marco platform, or the Sea Launch launch...

. Problems include the extreme environment (temperature, acceleration and vibration), the energy supply
Energy supply
Energy supply is the delivery of fuels or transformed fuels to point of consumption. It potentially encompasses the extraction, transmission, generation, distribution and storage of fuels...

, antenna
Antenna (radio)
An antenna is an electrical device which converts electric currents into radio waves, and vice versa. It is usually used with a radio transmitter or radio receiver...

 alignment and (at long distances, e.g. in spaceflight
Spaceflight is the act of travelling into or through outer space. Spaceflight can occur with spacecraft which may, or may not, have humans on board. Examples of human spaceflight include the Russian Soyuz program, the U.S. Space shuttle program, as well as the ongoing International Space Station...

) signal travel time
Travel time
Travel time may refer to* Travel, movement of people between locations* Travel journal, record made by a voyager* Propagation speed, term in physics to measure things such as the speed of light or radio waves...


Flight testing

Flight test programs typically monitor data collected from on-board flight test instrumentation
Flight test instrumentation
Flight test instrumentation is monitoring and recording equipment fitted to aircraft during flight test. It is mainly used on experimental aircraft, prototype aircraft and development aircraft - both military and civil, and can monitor various parameters from the temperatures of specific...

 over a PCM/RF
-Science and technology:* Radiative forcing, a measure of the change in balance of the energy absorbed and emitted by the Earth's atmosphere* "Rate of flow", as in Volumetric flow rate* Radio frequency...

 link. This data is analyzed in real time for safety reasons and to provide feedback to the test pilot. Challenges to telemetering this data include fading
In wireless communications, fading is deviation of the attenuation that a carrier-modulated telecommunication signal experiences over certain propagation media. The fading may vary with time, geographical position and/or radio frequency, and is often modelled as a random process. A fading channel...

, multipath propagation and the Doppler effect
Doppler effect
The Doppler effect , named after Austrian physicist Christian Doppler who proposed it in 1842 in Prague, is the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to the source of the wave. It is commonly heard when a vehicle sounding a siren or horn approaches, passes, and recedes from...

. The bandwidth of the telemetry link is often insufficient to transfer all data acquired; therefore, a limited set is sent to earth for real-time processing while an on-board recorder ensures the full data set is available for post-flight analysis.

Military intelligence

Telemetry was an important source of intelligence for the US and UK when Soviet missiles were tested; for this purpose, the US operated a listening post in Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

. Eventually, the Russians discovered the US intelligence-gathering network and encrypted their missile-test telemetry signals. Telemetry was also a source for the Soviets, who operated listening ships in Cardigan Bay
Cardigan Bay
Cardigan Bay is a large inlet of the Irish Sea, indenting the west coast of Wales between Bardsey Island, Gwynedd in the north, and Strumble Head, Pembrokeshire at its southern end. It is the largest bay in Wales....

 to eavesdrop on UK missile tests performed in the area.

Energy monitoring

In factories, buildings and houses, energy consumption of systems such as HVAC
HVAC refers to technology of indoor or automotive environmental comfort. HVAC system design is a major subdiscipline of mechanical engineering, based on the principles of thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, and heat transfer...

 are monitored at multiple locations; related parameters (e.g. temperature) are sent via wireless telemetry to a central location. The information is collected and processed, enabling the most efficient use of energy. Such systems also facilitate predictive maintenance
Predictive maintenance
Predictive maintenance techniques help determine the condition of in-service equipment in order to predict when maintenance should be performed...


Resource distribution

Many resources need to be distributed over wide areas. Telemetry is useful in these cases, since it allows the system to channel resources where they are needed; examples of this are tank farms in gasoline refineries and chemical plants.


Telemetry also is used for patients (biotelemetry
Biotelemetry involves the application of telemetry in the medical field to remotely monitor various vital signs of ambulatory patients.-Application:...

) who are at risk of abnormal heart
The heart is a myogenic muscular organ found in all animals with a circulatory system , that is responsible for pumping blood throughout the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions...

 activity, generally in a coronary care unit
Coronary care unit
A coronary care unit is a hospital ward specialized in the care of patients with heart attacks, unstable angina, Cardiac dysrhythmia and various other cardiac conditions that require continuous monitoring and treatment.-Characteristics:...

. Such patients are outfitted with measuring, recording and transmitting devices. A data log can be useful in diagnosis
Cardiology diagnostic tests and procedures
The diagnostic tests in cardiology are methods of identifying heart conditions associated with healthy vs. unhealthy, pathologic, heart function.-History:...

 of the patient's condition by doctor
A physician is a health care provider who practices the profession of medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury and other physical and mental impairments...

s. An alerting function can alert nurses if the patient is suffering from an acute (or dangerous) condition.

Systems are available in medical-surgical nursing
Medical-surgical nursing
Medical-surgical nursing is a nursing specialty area concerned with the care of adult patients in a broad range of settings. The Academy of Medical-Surgical Nurses is a specialty nursing organization dedicated to nurturing medical-surgical nurses as they advance their careers...

 for monitoring to rule out a heart condition, or to monitor a response to antiarrhythmic medications such as digoxin
Digoxin INN , also known as digitalis, is a purified cardiac glycoside and extracted from the foxglove plant, Digitalis lanata. Its corresponding aglycone is digoxigenin, and its acetyl derivative is acetyldigoxin...


Fishery and wildlife research and management

Telemetry is used to study wildlife, and has been useful for monitoring threatened species at the individual level. Animals under study can be outfitted with instrumentation tags, which include sensors that measure temperature, diving depth and duration (for marine animals), speed and location (using GPS or Argos
The Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite was launched on 23 Feb 1999 from SLC-2W, Vandenberg AFB, CA, atop a Boeing Delta II . Construction of the spacecraft bus and integration of the satellite's nine payloads was accomplished by Boeing at their Seal Beach, CA facility...

 packages). Telemetry tags can give researchers information about animal behavior, functions, and their environment. This information is then either stored (with archival tags) or the tags can send (or transmit) their information to a satellite or handheld receiving device.

Telemetry is used in hydro-acoustic assessments for fish (which had previously employed mobile surveys from boats to evaluate fish biomass and spatial distributions). Fixed-location techniques use stationary transducers to monitor passing fish. While the first serious attempts to quantify fish biomass were conducted in the 1960s, major advances in equipment and techniques took place at hydropower dams during the 1980s. Some evaluations monitored fish passage 24 hours a day for over a year, producing estimates of fish entrainment rates, fish sizes, and spatial and temporal distributions.

During the 1970s the dual-beam technique was invented, permitting direct estimation of fish size in situ via its target strength. The first portable split-beam, hydro-acoustic system was developed by HTI in 1991; it provided more-accurate, less-variable estimates of fish strength than the dual-beam method. It also permitted tracking of fish in 3D, giving each fish’s swimming path and absolute direction of movement. This feature proved important in evaluations of entrained fish in water diversions and for studies of migratory fish in rivers. During the last 35 years, tens of thousands of mobile and fixed-location hydro-acoustic evaluations have been conducted worldwide.


At a 2005 workshop in Las Vegas
Las Vegas metropolitan area
The Las Vegas Valley is the heart of the Las Vegas-Paradise, NV MSA also known as the Las Vegas–Paradise–Henderson MSA which includes all of Clark County, Nevada, and is a metropolitan area in the southern part of the U.S. state of Nevada. The Valley is defined by the Las Vegas Valley landform, a ...

, a seminar noted the introduction of telemetry equipment which would allow vending machine
Vending machine
A vending machine is a machine which dispenses items such as snacks, beverages, alcohol, cigarettes, lottery tickets, consumer products and even gold and gems to customers automatically, after the customer inserts currency or credit into the machine....

s to communicate sales and inventory data to a route truck or to a headquarters. This data could be used for a variety of purposes, such as eliminating the need for drivers to make a first trip to see which items needed to be restocked before delivering the inventory.

Retailers also use RFID tags to track inventory and prevent shoplifting. Most of these tags passively respond to RFID readers (e.g. at the cashier), but active RFID tags are available which periodically transmit location information to a base station.

Law enforcement

Telemetry hardware is useful for tracking persons and property in law enforcement. An ankle collar worn by convicts on probation can warn authorities if a person violates the terms of his or her parole
Parole may have different meanings depending on the field and judiciary system. All of the meanings originated from the French parole . Following its use in late-resurrected Anglo-French chivalric practice, the term became associated with the release of prisoners based on prisoners giving their...

, such as by straying from authorized boundaries or visiting an unauthorized location. Telemetry has also enabled bait car
Bait car
A bait car, also called a decoy car, is a vehicle used by law enforcement agencies to capture car thieves. The vehicles are modified, with features including GPS tracking and audio/video surveillance technology, and can be remotely monitored and controlled...

s, where law enforcement can rig a car with cameras and tracking equipment and leave it somewhere they expect it to be stolen. When stolen the telemetry equipment reports the location of the vehicle, enabling law enforcement to deactivate the engine and lock the doors when it is stopped by responding officers.

Energy providers

In some countries, telemetry is used to measure the amount of electrical energy consumed. The electricity meter communicates with a concentrator
In telecommunication, the term concentrator has the following meanings:# In data transmission, a functional unit that permits a common path to handle more data sources than there are channels currently available within the path...

, and the latter sends the information through GPRS or GSM to the energy provider's server.
Telemetry is also used for the remote monitoring of substations and their equipment. For data transmission, phase line carrier systems operating on frequencies between 30 and 400 kHz are sometimes used.


In falconry
Falconry is "the taking of wild quarry in its natural state and habitat by means of a trained raptor". There are two traditional terms used to describe a person involved in falconry: a falconer flies a falcon; an austringer flies a hawk or an eagle...

, "telemetry" means a small radio transmitter carried by a falcon to allow the bird's owner to track it when it is out of sight.


Telemetry is used in testing where close observation is needed, but human presence in the vicinity of the test would be dangerous.
Examples include munitions-storage facilities, radioactive sites and volcanoes. It is necessary to measure in places a human cannot access (for example, in space or deep in the some ocean.

International standards

As in other telecommunications fields, international standards exist for telemetry equipment and software. CCSDS and IRIG
The Inter Range Instrumentation Group is the standards body of the Range Commanders Council . They publish a number of standards through the RCC Secretariat at White Sands Missile Range ....

 are such standards.

See also

  • Portable telemetry
    Portable telemetry
    The portable system for telemetry applications is a solution which gathers in a portable computer full functionalities and performances. Based on Data acquisition software, Portable Telemetry is an essential tool for the test engineer to run tests on site....

  • Telematics
    Telematics typically is any integrated use of telecommunications and informatics, also known as ICT...

  • Telecommand
    A telecommand is a command sent to control a remote system or systems not directly connected to the place from which the telecommand is sent. The word is derived from tele = remote , and command = to entrust/order...

  • Data acquisition
    Data acquisition
    Data acquisition is the process of sampling signals that measure real world physical conditions and converting the resulting samples into digital numeric values that can be manipulated by a computer. Data acquisition systems typically convert analog waveforms into digital values for processing...

  • Automatic data processing
    Automatic data processing
    In telecommunication, the term automatic data processing has the following meanings:#An interacting assembly of procedures, processes, methods, personnel, and equipment to perform automatically a series of data processing operations on data...

  • iox acquisition software
    Iox acquisition software
    iox is a data acquisition software developed by emka TECHNOLOGIES SA, based in Paris, France, especially adapted to safety pharmacology and toxicology studies in small and large animals including rodents, dogs, and non-human primates.-Background:...

  • Instrumentation
    Instrumentation is defined as the art and science of measurement and control of process variables within a production, or manufacturing area....

  • Leaf Sensor
    Leaf sensor
    A leaf sensor is a phytometric device that measures water loss or the water deficit stress in plants by real-time monitoring the moisture level in plant leaves. The first leaf sensor was developed by LeafSens, an Israeli company who were granted a US patent for a mechanical leaf thickness...

  • Machine to Machine
    Machine to Machine
    Machine-to-Machine refers to technologies that allow both wireless and wired systems to communicate with other devices of the same ability...

  • MQ Telemetry Transport
    MQ Telemetry Transport
    Message Queue Telemetry Transport is an open message protocol that enables the transfer of telemetry-style data in the form of messages from pervasive devices, along high latency or constrained networks, to a server or small message broker. Pervasive devices may range from sensors and actuators,...

    , MQTT
  • Reconnaissance satellite, tapping of communications routing or switching centers (e.g. Echelon
    Echelon may refer to:* A level or rank in an organization, profession, or society.* Echelon formation, a military hierarchical formation, also used to describe the migratory patterns of birds...

  • Remote monitoring and control
    Remote monitoring and control
    Remote monitoring and control refers to a field of industrial automation that is entering a new era with the development of wireless sensing devices. Initially limited to SCADA technology, remote monitoring and control refers to the measurement of disparate devices from a network operations center...

  • Remote sensing
    Remote sensing
    Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon, without making physical contact with the object. In modern usage, the term generally refers to the use of aerial sensor technologies to detect and classify objects on Earth by means of propagated signals Remote sensing...

  • RTU
    A remote terminal unit is a microprocessor-controlled electronic device that interfaces objects in the physical world to a distributed control system or SCADA by transmitting telemetry data to the system and/or altering the state of connected objects based on control messages received from the...

    SCADA generally refers to industrial control systems : computer systems that monitor and control industrial, infrastructure, or facility-based processes, as described below:...

  • Wireless sensor network
    Wireless sensor network
    A wireless sensor network consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or pollutants and to cooperatively pass their data through the network to a main location. The more modern...

External links

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