Taipei 101
Taipei 101 formerly known as the Taipei World Financial Center, is a landmark
This is a list of landmarks around the world.Landmarks may be split into two categories - natural phenomena and man-made features, like buildings, bridges, statues, public squares and so forth...

 skyscraper located in Xinyi District, Taipei
Taipei City is the capital of the Republic of China and the central city of the largest metropolitan area of Taiwan. Situated at the northern tip of the island, Taipei is located on the Tamsui River, and is about 25 km southwest of Keelung, its port on the Pacific Ocean...

, Taiwan
Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

. The building ranked officially as the world's tallest from 2004 until the opening of the Burj Khalifa in Dubai
Dubai is a city and emirate in the United Arab Emirates . The emirate is located south of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula and has the largest population with the second-largest land territory by area of all the emirates, after Abu Dhabi...

 in 2010. In July 2011, the building was awarded LEED Platinum certification, the highest award in the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design consists of a suite of rating systems for the design, construction and operation of high performance green buildings, homes and neighborhoods....

 (LEED) rating system and became the tallest and largest green building
Green building
Green building refers to a structure and using process that is environmentally responsible and resource-efficient throughout a building's life-cycle: from siting to design, construction, operation, maintenance, renovation, and demolition...

 in the world. Taipei 101 was designed by C.Y. Lee & partners and constructed primarily by KTRT Joint Venture
KTRT Joint Venture
KTRT Joint Venture, or abbreviated "KTRT JV" or shorter "KTRT", indicates the organization formed among KUMAGAI GUMI, TAIWAN KUMAGAI, RSEA, and TA-YO-WEI...

. The tower has served as an icon of modern Taiwan ever since its opening, and received the 2004 Emporis Skyscraper Award
Emporis Skyscraper Award
The Emporis Skyscraper Award is an award for architectural excellence regarding the design of buildings and their functionality.The award is presented annually by Emporis to the building representing the "Best new skyscraper for design and functionality". To qualify, nominated buildings must have...

. Fireworks
Fireworks are a class of explosive pyrotechnic devices used for aesthetic and entertainment purposes. The most common use of a firework is as part of a fireworks display. A fireworks event is a display of the effects produced by firework devices...

 launched from Taipei 101 feature prominently in international New Year's Eve broadcasts and the structure appears frequently in travel literature and international media.

Taipei 101 comprises 101 floors above ground and 5 floors underground. The building was architecturally
Architecture is both the process and product of planning, designing and construction. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural and political symbols and as works of art...

 created as a symbol of the evolution of technology and Asian tradition (see Symbolism). Its postmodernist
Postmodernism is a philosophical movement evolved in reaction to modernism, the tendency in contemporary culture to accept only objective truth and to be inherently suspicious towards a global cultural narrative or meta-narrative. Postmodernist thought is an intentional departure from the...

 approach to style incorporates traditional design elements and gives them modern treatments. The tower is designed to withstand typhoons and earthquakes. A multi-level shopping mall adjoining the tower houses hundreds of fashionable stores, restaurants and clubs.

Taipei 101 is owned by the Taipei Financial Center Corporation
Taipei Financial Center Corporation
Taipei Financial Center Corporation is a Taiwanese company notable for its ownership of Taipei 101.Ting Hsin International Group is its biggest shareholder, with a 37% stake....

 (TFCC) and managed by the International division of Urban Retail Properties Corporation based in Chicago. The name originally planned for the building, Taipei World Financial Center, until 2003, was derived from the name of the owner. The original name in Chinese was literally, Taipei International Financial Center .


The Taipei 101 tower has 101 stories above ground and five underground. Upon its completion Taipei 101 claimed the official records for:
  • Ground to highest architectural structure (spire
    A spire is a tapering conical or pyramidal structure on the top of a building, particularly a church tower. Etymologically, the word is derived from the Old English word spir, meaning a sprout, shoot, or stalk of grass....

    ): 509.2 metres (1,671 ft). Previously held by the Petronas Towers 452 m (1,483 ft).
  • Ground to roof: 449.2 m (1,474 ft). Formerly held by the Willis Tower 442 m (1,450 ft).
  • Ground to highest occupied floor: 439.2 m (1,441 ft). Formerly held by the Willis Tower 412.4 m (1,353 ft).
  • Fastest ascending elevator
    An elevator is a type of vertical transport equipment that efficiently moves people or goods between floors of a building, vessel or other structures...

     speed: designed to be 1010 meters per minute, which is 16.83 m/s (55.22 ft/s) (60.6 km/h, 37.7 mi/h). Now it has been succeeded by Burj Khalifa's elevator whose speed of ascending is 18 m/s (64 km/h).
  • Largest countdown clock: Displayed on New Year's Eve.
  • Tallest sundial
    A sundial is a device that measures time by the position of the Sun. In common designs such as the horizontal sundial, the sun casts a shadow from its style onto a surface marked with lines indicating the hours of the day. The style is the time-telling edge of the gnomon, often a thin rod or a...

    . (See 'Symbolism' below.)

Taipei 101 was the first building in the world to break the half-kilometer mark in height and the first record-setting skyscraper constructed in the new millennium – 3rd millennium
3rd millennium
In contemporary history, the third millennium is a period of time that commenced on January 1, 2001, and will end on December 31, 3000, of the Gregorian calendar. This is the third period of one thousand years in the Anno Domini...


The record it claimed for greatest height from ground to pinnacle
A pinnacle is an architectural ornament originally forming the cap or crown of a buttress or small turret, but afterwards used on parapets at the corners of towers and in many other situations. The pinnacle looks like a small spire...

 now rests with the Burj Khalifa in Dubai
Dubai is a city and emirate in the United Arab Emirates . The emirate is located south of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula and has the largest population with the second-largest land territory by area of all the emirates, after Abu Dhabi...

 (UAE): 828 m (2,717 ft). Taipei 101's records for roof height and highest occupied floor briefly passed to the Shanghai World Financial Center
Shanghai World Financial Center
The most distinctive feature in the design of the building is an aperture at the peak. The original design specified a circular aperture, in diameter, to reduce the stresses of wind pressure, as well as serve as a subtext for the design, since "Chinese mythology represents the earth with a square...

 in 2009, which in turn yielded these records as well to the Burj.

Taipei 101 displaced the Petronas Towers in Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur
Kuala Lumpur is the capital and the second largest city in Malaysia by population. The city proper, making up an area of , has a population of 1.4 million as of 2010. Greater Kuala Lumpur, also known as the Klang Valley, is an urban agglomeration of 7.2 million...

, Malaysia, as the tallest building in the world by 57.2 m (188 ft). It also displaced the 85-story, 347.5 m (1,140 ft) Tuntex Sky Tower
Tuntex Sky Tower
Tuntex Sky Tower, or the T & C Tower or 85 SKYTOWER , is an 85-floor skyscraper located in Lingya District, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. The structure is high. An antenna pushes the building height to...

 in Kaohsiung
Kaohsiung is a city located in southwestern Taiwan, facing the Taiwan Strait on the west. Kaohsiung, officially named Kaohsiung City, is divided into thirty-eight districts. The city is one of five special municipalities of the Republic of China...

 as the tallest building in Taiwan and the 51-story, 244.2 m (801 ft) Shin Kong Life Tower
Shin Kong Life Tower
Shin Kong Life Tower is one of the tallest buildings in Taiwan at 51 stories . The rose-coloured skyscraper topped by a pyramid stands in Zhongzheng District, Taipei. Its first twelve floors and two underground floors house a Shin Kong Mitsukoshi Department Store; the remaining floors provide...

 as the tallest building in Taipei.

Various sources, including the building's owners, give the height of Taipei 101 as 508 m (1,667 ft), roof height and top floor height as 448 m (1,470 ft) and 438 m (1,437 ft). This lower figure is derived by measuring from the top of a 1.2 m (4 ft) platform at the base. CTBUH standards, though, include the height of the platform in calculating the overall height, as it represents part of the man-made structure and is above the level of the surrounding pavement.

Structural design

Taipei 101 is designed to withstand the typhoon winds and earthquake tremors common in its area of the Asia-Pacific. Planners aimed for a structure that could withstand gale winds of 60 m/s (60 metres per second (197 ft/s), 216 km/h (134.2 mph)) and the strongest earthquakes likely to occur in a 2,500 year cycle.

Skyscrapers must be flexible in strong winds yet remain rigid enough to prevent large sideways movement (lateral drift). Flexibility prevents structural damage while resistance ensures comfort for the occupants and protection of glass, curtain wall
Curtain wall
A curtain wall is an outer covering of a building in which the outer walls are non-structural, but merely keep out the weather. As the curtain wall is non-structural it can be made of a lightweight material reducing construction costs. When glass is used as the curtain wall, a great advantage is...

s and other features. Most designs achieve the necessary strength by enlarging critical structural elements such as bracing. The extraordinary height of Taipei 101 combined with the demands of its environment called for additional innovations.
The design achieves both strength and flexibility for the tower through the use of high-performance steel construction. Thirty-six columns support Taipei 101, including eight "mega-columns" packed with 10000 psi (68.9 MPa) concrete. Every eight floors, outrigger trusses connect the columns in the building's core to those on the exterior.

These features combine with the solidity of its foundation to make Taipei 101 one of the most stable buildings ever constructed. The foundation is reinforced by 380 piles driven 80 m (262 ft) into the ground, extending as far as 30 m (98 ft) into the bedrock. Each pile is 1.5 m (5 ft) in diameter and can bear a load of 1000–1320 t (1,102.3–1,455.1 ST). The stability of the design became evident during construction when, on March 31, 2002, a 6.8-magnitude earthquake rocked Taipei. The tremor was strong enough to topple two construction cranes from the 56th floor, then the highest. Five people died in the accident, but an inspection showed no structural damage to the building, and construction soon resumed.

Thornton-Tomasetti Engineers along with Evergreen Consulting Engineering designed a 660 tonnes (728 ST) steel pendulum that serves as a tuned mass damper
Tuned mass damper
A tuned mass damper, also known as an active mass damper or harmonic absorber, is a device mounted in structures to reduce the amplitude of mechanical vibrations. Their application can prevent discomfort, damage, or outright structural failure...

, at a cost of NT$132 million (US$4 million). Suspended from the 92nd to the 87th floor, the pendulum sways to offset movements in the building caused by strong gusts. Its sphere, the largest damper sphere in the world, consists of 41 circular steel plates, each with a height of 125 mm (4.92 in) being welded together to form a 5.5 m (18 ft) diameter sphere. Another two tuned mass dampers, each weighing 6 tonnes (7 ST), sit at the tip of the spire. These prevent damage to the structure due to strong wind loads.

Structural Facade

Taipei 101's characteristic blue-green glass curtain walls are double paned and glazed, offer heat and UV protection sufficient to block external heat by 50 percent, and can sustain impacts of 7 tonnes (8 ST). The facade system of glass and aluminum panels installed into an inclined moment-resisting lattices contributes to overall lateral rigidity by tying back to the mega-columns with one-story high trusses and at every eighth floor. This facade system is therefore able to withstand up to 95mm of seismic lateral displacements without damage.

The original corners of the façade was tested at RWDI
Wind Engineering Firm Established in 1972, Rowan Williams Davies & Irwin Inc. is a specialty consulting engineering firm. The RWDI group of companies has over 275 employees with offices in Canada, USA, United Kingdom, India and the Middle East....

 in Guelph
Guelph is a city in Ontario, Canada.Guelph may also refer to:* Guelph , consisting of the City of Guelph, Ontario* Guelph , as the above* University of Guelph, in the same city...

, Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

, Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 and revealed an alarming vortex that formed during a 3s 105mph wind at a height of 10 meters (a 100-year-storm) simulation. This was equivalent to the lateral tower sway rate causing large crosswind
A crosswind is any wind that has a perpendicular component to the line or direction of travel. In aviation, a crosswind is the component of wind that is blowing across the runway making landings and take-offs more difficult than if the wind were blowing straight down the runway...

 oscillations. A double chamfered step design was found to dramatically reduce this crosswind
A crosswind is any wind that has a perpendicular component to the line or direction of travel. In aviation, a crosswind is the component of wind that is blowing across the runway making landings and take-offs more difficult than if the wind were blowing straight down the runway...

Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value or between two or more different states. Familiar examples include a swinging pendulum and AC power. The term vibration is sometimes used more narrowly to mean a mechanical oscillation but sometimes...

 resulting in Taipei 101’s unique “double stairstep” corner façade. Architect C.Y. Lee also used extensive façade elements to represent the symbolic idendity he persued. These façade elements included the green tinted glass for the indigenous slender bamboo look, eight upper outwards inclined tiers of pagoda each with eight floors, A Ruyi
Ruyi is a curved decorative object that is a ceremonial sceptre in Chinese Buddhism or a talisman symbolizing power and good fortune in Chinese folklore. A traditional ruyi has a long S-shaped handle and a head fashioned like a fist, cloud, or lingzhi mushroom. Ruyi are constructed from diverse...

 and a money box symbol between the two façade sections among others.

Taipei 101's own roof and facade recycled water system meets 20–30 percent of the building's water needs. Upgrades are currently under way to make Taipei 101 "the world's tallest green building" by LEED standards by summer 2011.


Taipei 101 participates in the symbolism of a world center where earth and sky meet and the four compass directions join.

The height of 101 floors commemorates the renewal of time: the new century that arrived as the tower was built (100+1) and all the new years that follow (January 1 = 1-01). It symbolizes high ideals by going one better on 100, a traditional number of perfection. The number also evokes the binary numeral system
Binary numeral system
The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, represents numeric values using two symbols, 0 and 1. More specifically, the usual base-2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2...

 used in digital technology.

The main tower features a series of eight segments of eight floors each. In Chinese-speaking cultures the number eight is associated with abundance, prosperity and good fortune. In cultures that observe a seven-day week the number eight symbolizes a renewal of time (7+1). In cultures where seven is the lucky number, 8 represents 1 better than 'lucky seven'. In digital technology the number eight is associated with the byte
The byte is a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications that most commonly consists of eight bits. Historically, a byte was the number of bits used to encode a single character of text in a computer and for this reason it is the basic addressable element in many computer...

, being 8 bits. A bit is the basic (minimal) unit of information.

The repeated segments simultaneously recall the rhythms of an Asian pagoda
A pagoda is the general term in the English language for a tiered tower with multiple eaves common in Nepal, India, China, Japan, Korea, Vietnam and other parts of Asia. Some pagodas are used as Taoist houses of worship. Most pagodas were built to have a religious function, most commonly Buddhist,...

 (a tower linking earth and sky, also evoked in the Petronas Towers), a stalk of bamboo
Bamboo is a group of perennial evergreens in the true grass family Poaceae, subfamily Bambusoideae, tribe Bambuseae. Giant bamboos are the largest members of the grass family....

 (an icon of learning and growth), and a stack of ancient Chinese ingots or money boxes (a symbol of abundance). The four discs mounted on each face of the building where the pedestal meets the tower represent coins. The emblem placed over entrances shows three gold coins of ancient design with central holes shaped to imply the Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals or Hindu numerals or Hindu-Arabic numerals or Indo-Arabic numerals are the ten digits . They are descended from the Hindu-Arabic numeral system developed by Indian mathematicians, in which a sequence of digits such as "975" is read as a numeral...


Curled ruyi figures appear throughout the structure as a design motif. The ruyi is an ancient symbol associated with heavenly clouds
Heaven, the Heavens or Seven Heavens, is a common religious cosmological or metaphysical term for the physical or transcendent place from which heavenly beings originate, are enthroned or inhabit...

. It connotes healing, protection and fulfillment. It appears in celebrations of the attainment of new career heights. Each ruyi ornament on the exterior of the Taipei 101 tower stands at least 8 m (26 ft) tall. The sweeping curved roof of the adjoining mall culminates in a colossal ruyi that shades pedestrians. Though the shape of each ruyi at Taipei 101 is traditional, its metallic interpretation is plainly modern.

At night the bright yellow gleam from its pinnacle casts Taipei 101 in the role of a candle or torch
A torch is a fire source, usually a rod-shaped piece of wood with a rag soaked in pitch and/or some other flammable material wrapped around one end. Torches were often supported in sconces by brackets high up on walls, to throw light over corridors in stone structures such as castles or crypts...

 upholding the ideals of liberty and welcome. From 6:00 to 10:00 each evening the tower's lights display one of seven colours in the spectrum
A spectrum is a condition that is not limited to a specific set of values but can vary infinitely within a continuum. The word saw its first scientific use within the field of optics to describe the rainbow of colors in visible light when separated using a prism; it has since been applied by...

. The colours coincide with the days of the week:

Day Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sunday
Color Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Indigo Violet

The cycle through the spectrum connects the tower with the rich symbolism of rainbows
Rainbows in mythology
The rainbow, a natural phenomenon noted for its beauty and inexplicability, has been a favorite component of mythology throughout history. The Norse saw it as Bifrost; Judeo-Christian traditions signs it as a covenant with God not to destroy the world by means of floodwater. Finding a mythology...

 as bridges linking earth to sky and earth's peoples to one another.

Millennium Park adjoins Taipei 101 on the east and connects the landmark further with the symbolism of time. The design of the circular park allows it to double as the face of a sundial
A sundial is a device that measures time by the position of the Sun. In common designs such as the horizontal sundial, the sun casts a shadow from its style onto a surface marked with lines indicating the hours of the day. The style is the time-telling edge of the gnomon, often a thin rod or a...

. The tower itself casts the shadow to indicate afternoon hours for the building's occupants. The park's design is echoed in a clock
A clock is an instrument used to indicate, keep, and co-ordinate time. The word clock is derived ultimately from the Celtic words clagan and clocca meaning "bell". A silent instrument missing such a mechanism has traditionally been known as a timepiece...

 that stands at its entrance. The clock runs on energy
Wind power
Wind power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form of energy, such as using wind turbines to make electricity, windmills for mechanical power, windpumps for water pumping or drainage, or sails to propel ships....

 drawn from the building's wind shear
Wind shear
Wind shear, sometimes referred to as windshear or wind gradient, is a difference in wind speed and direction over a relatively short distance in the atmosphere...


Taipei 101, like many of its neighbours, shows the influence of feng shui
Feng shui
Feng shui ' is a Chinese system of geomancy believed to use the laws of both Heaven and Earth to help one improve life by receiving positive qi. The original designation for the discipline is Kan Yu ....

 philosophy. An example appears in the form of a large granite fountain at the intersection of Songlian Road and Xinyi Road near the tower's east entrance. A ball at the fountain's top spins toward the tower. As a work of public art, the fountain offers a contrast to the tower in texture even as its design echoes the tower's rhythms. Yet the fountain also serves a practical function in feng shui philosophy. A T intersection near the entrance of a building represents a potential drain of positive energy, or ch'i
In traditional Chinese culture, qì is an active principle forming part of any living thing. Qi is frequently translated as life energy, lifeforce, or energy flow. Qi is the central underlying principle in traditional Chinese medicine and martial arts...

, from a structure and its occupants. Flowing water placed at such spots remedy the situation by generating a positive inward flow of ch'i. The fountain applies a traditional solution to a traditional challenge yet its design remains modern.

Taipei 101 merges ancient motifs and ideas with modern techniques and materials. As a landmark it renews the symbolism of all tall towers as cosmic centers
Axis mundi
The axis mundi , in religion or mythology, is the world center and/or the connection between heaven and Earth. As the celestial pole and geographic pole, it expresses a point of connection between sky and earth where the four compass directions meet...

. Its interplaying symbols speak of optimism, abundance, and the ever-renewing cycles of time.


Taipei 101 is the first record-setting skyscraper to be constructed in the 21st century. Appropriately it exhibits a number of technologically advanced features as it provides a center for business and recreation.

The original 2004 fiber-optic and satellite Internet
Satellite Internet access
Satellite Internet access is Internet access provided through satellites. The service can be provided to users world-wide through low Earth orbit satellites. Geostationary satellites can offer higher data speeds, but their signals can not reach some polar regions of the world...

 connections permitted transfer speeds up to a gigabyte
The gigabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information storage. The prefix giga means 109 in the International System of Units , therefore 1 gigabyte is...

 per second.

The double-deck elevator
Double-deck elevator
Double-deck elevators are designed with two elevator cars that are attached, one on top of the other. This allows passengers on two consecutive floors to be able to use the elevator simultaneously, significantly increasing the passenger capacity of an elevator shaft...

s built by the Japanese Toshiba
is a multinational electronics and electrical equipment corporation headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. It is a diversified manufacturer and marketer of electrical products, spanning information & communications equipment and systems, Internet-based solutions and services, electronic components and...

 Elevator and Building Systems Corporation (TELC) set a new record in 2004 with top ascending speeds of 16.83 m (55.22 ft) per second (60.6 km/h, 37.7 mi/h). This speed is 34.7 percent faster than the previous record holders of the Yokohama Landmark Tower
Yokohama Landmark Tower
The is the tallest building and 3rd tallest structure in Japan, standing high. It is located in the Minato Mirai 21 district of Yokohama city, right next to Yokohama Museum of Art. Work on the building was finished in 1993. It has the highest observation deck in Japan.The building contains a...

 elevator, Yokohama
is the capital city of Kanagawa Prefecture and the second largest city in Japan by population after Tokyo and most populous municipality of Japan. It lies on Tokyo Bay, south of Tokyo, in the Kantō region of the main island of Honshu...

, Japan, which reaches speeds of 12.5 m (41 ft) per second (45.0 km/h, 28.0 mi/h). Taipei 101's elevators sweep visitors from the fifth floor to the 89th-floor observatory in only 37 seconds. Each elevator features an aerodynamic body, full pressurization
Pressurization is the application of pressure in a given situation or environment; and more specifically refers to the process by which atmospheric pressure is maintained in an isolated or semi-isolated atmospheric environment .-See also:* Cabin pressurization* Compressed air* Decompression* Gas...

, state-of-the art emergency braking systems, and the world's first triple-stage anti-overshooting system. The cost for each elevator is NT$80 million (US$2.4 million).

A 660-metric-ton (728 short ton) tuned mass damper
Tuned mass damper
A tuned mass damper, also known as an active mass damper or harmonic absorber, is a device mounted in structures to reduce the amplitude of mechanical vibrations. Their application can prevent discomfort, damage, or outright structural failure...

 stabilizes the tower against movements caused by high winds. The damper can reduce up to 40% of the tower's movements (see "Construction").

The observatories are located in the 91st and 89th floors. (See "Observatories" below.)

Two restaurants have opened on the 85th floor: Diamond Tony's, which offers European-style seafood and steak, and Shin Yeh 101 (欣葉), which offers Taiwanese-style cuisine. Occupying all of the 86th floor is Japanese restaurant XEX.

The multi-story retail mall adjoining the tower is home to hundreds of fashionable stores, restaurants, clubs and other attractions. The mall's interior is modern in design even as it makes use of traditional elements. The curled ruyi symbol is a recurring motif inside the mall. Many features of the interior also observe feng shui
Feng shui
Feng shui ' is a Chinese system of geomancy believed to use the laws of both Heaven and Earth to help one improve life by receiving positive qi. The original designation for the discipline is Kan Yu ....



Taipei 101 features an Indoor Observatory
Observation deck
__FORCETOC__ An observation deck, observation platform or viewing platform is an elevated sightseeing platform usually situated upon a tall architectural structure such as a skyscraper or observation tower...

 (89th floor) and an Outdoor Observatory (91st floor). Both offer 360-degree views and attract visitors from around the world.

The Indoor Observatory stands 383.4 m (1,258 ft) above ground, offering a comfortable environment, large windows with UV protection, recorded voice tours in eight languages, and informative displays and special exhibits. Here one may view the skyscraper's main damper, which is the world's largest and heaviest visible damper, and buy food, drinks and gift items.

Two more flights of stairs take visitors up to the Outdoor Observatory. The Outdoor Observatory, at 391.8 m (1,285 ft) above ground, is the second-highest observation deck ever provided in a skyscraper and the highest such platform in Taiwan.

The Indoor Observatory is open twelve hours a day (10:00 am–10:00 pm) throughout the week as well as on special occasions; the Outdoor Observatory is open during the same hours as weather permits. Tickets may be purchased on site in the shopping mall (5th floor) or in advance through the Observatory's web site. Tickets cost NT$400 (US$13) and allow access to the 88th through 91st floors via high-speed elevator.


Many works of art appear in and around Taipei 101. These include:
  • Rebecca Horn
    Rebecca Horn
    Rebecca Horn is a German installation artist and film director most famous for her body modifications such as Einhorn , a body-suit with a very large horn projecting vertically from the headpiece, and Pencil Mask, a mesh harness for the head with many pencils projecting out...

     (Germany). Dialogue between Yin and Yang. 2002. Steel, iron.
  • Robert Indiana
    Robert Indiana
    Robert Indiana is an American artist associated with the Pop Art movement.-Life and work:Robert Indiana was born Robert Clark in New Castle, Indiana. His family relocated to Indianapolis, where he graduated from Arsenal Technical High School...

     (USA). Love and 1-0. 2002. Aluminum.
  • Ariel Moscovici
    Ariel Moscovici
    Ariel Moscovici is a sculptor born in Romania and based in France. His drawings and sculptures have appeared in France at Salons de Mai, Grands et Jeunes d'aujourd'hui, Salon des Réalités Nouvelles, 33rd Salon de la Jeune Sculpture, 3Oth Salon de Montrouge, and Figuration...

     (France). Between Earth and Sky. 2002. Rose de la claret granite.
  • Chung Pu (Taiwan). Global Circle. 2002. Black granite, white marble.
  • Jill Watson (Britain). City Composition. 2002. Bronze.

The Indoor Observatory hosts a regular series of exhibitions. The artists represented have included Wu Ching (gold sculpture), Ping-huang Chang (traditional painting) and Po-lin Chi (aerial photography).


A number of enterprises maintain offices in Taipei 101. A few that have been featured in public announcements include these:
  • ABN AMRO Bank
    ABN AMRO Bank N.V. is a Dutch state-owned bank with headquarters in Amsterdam. It was re-established, in its current form, in 2009 following the acquisition and break up of ABN AMRO Group by a banking consortium consisting of Royal Bank of Scotland Group, Santander and Fortis...

    , 1/F
  • Anthony's Group Holding Company Ltd, 37/F
  • Bayer Taiwan
    Bayer AG is a chemical and pharmaceutical company founded in Barmen , Germany in 1863. It is headquartered in Leverkusen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and well known for its original brand of aspirin.-History:...

    , 53/F – 54/F
  • The Boston Consulting Group, 61/F
  • Cosmos Bank
    COSMOS Bank
    The Cosmos Co-operative Bank Ltd. , established in 1906, is one of the oldest Urban Co-operative Bank in India, celebrated its centenary on 18 January 2005. It is one of the first co-operative banks in the country to go live with the core banking solution across the entire network of its 119...

    , 5th Floor
  • DBS Bank Ltd
    DBS Bank
    DBS Bank Ltd is a bank incorporated in Singapore. It was previously known as The Development Bank of Singapore Limited, before the present name was adopted in July 2003 to reflect its changing role as a regional bank....

    , 28/F, Unit B
  • Emirates Advocates Taiwan (Emirates Trade Commission)
  • The Executive Centre, 37/F
  • Fulland Securities Consultant Company Ltd (a Hantec Group subsidiary), 24/F
  • GoldBank of Taiwan
  • Google Taiwan
    Google Inc. is an American multinational public corporation invested in Internet search, cloud computing, and advertising technologies. Google hosts and develops a number of Internet-based services and products, and generates profit primarily from advertising through its AdWords program...

    , 73/F
  • HVB Bank
    UniCredit Bank Aktiengesellschaft is the sixth-largest private German financial institution, with a strong presence in Bavaria. The company is based in Munich, and together with Deutsche Bank, Dresdner Bank, Commerzbank and Deutsche Postbank, it belongs to the Cash Group...

  • ING Antai
    ING Group
    The ING Group is a global financial institution offering retail banking, direct banking, commercial banking, investment banking, asset management, and insurance services. ING is the Dutch member of the Inter-Alpha Group of Banks, a cooperative consortium of 11 prominent European banks...

     (affiliate of Internationale Nederlanden Groep N.V., or ING)
  • ING SCE (affiliate of Internationale Nederlanden Groep N.V., or ING)
  • Jones Lang LaSalle
    Jones Lang LaSalle
    Jones Lang LaSalle, Inc. is a multinational financial and professional services company specializing in real estate. Global headquarters are located in Chicago, with an operational remit covering the Americas regional market...

  • KPMG
    KPMG is one of the largest professional services networks in the world and one of the Big Four auditors, along with Deloitte, Ernst & Young and PwC. Its global headquarters is located in Amstelveen, Netherlands....

  • L'Oréal
    The L'Oréal Group is the world's largest cosmetics and beauty company. With its registered office in Paris and head office in the Paris suburb of Clichy, Hauts-de-Seine, France, it has developed activities in the field of cosmetics...

  • McKinsey & Company Taiwan
    McKinsey & Company
    McKinsey & Company, Inc. is a global management consulting firm that focuses on solving issues of concern to senior management. McKinsey serves as an adviser to many businesses, governments, and institutions...

  • Morris, Manning & Martin, LLP
  • PeopleSearch Taiwan
  • People's King Taiwan Taipei Teipei 101
  • SABIC Asia Pacific Pte Ltd
    SABIC is a diversified manufacturing company, active in chemicals and intermediates, industrial polymers, fertilizers and metals. It is the largest public company in Saudi Arabia as listed in Tadawul, but the Saudi government still owns 70% of its shares...

  • Starbucks Coffee
  • Taiwan Ratings Corporation
  • Taiwan Stock Exchange Corporation (TSEC)
  • Winterthur Life Taiwan
    Winterthur Group
    AXA Winterthur is a multinational insurance company. The original company named Winterthur was founded in Winterthur, Switzerland, in 1875. Until June 2006, Winterthur was a Credit Suisse subsidiary. Now, Paris-based AXA Insurance has entered into a definitive agreement to purchase Winterthur...

Restaurants in the tower include XEX, Diamond Tony's and Shin Yeh 101 (欣葉). Hundreds of international dining establishments and retail outlets also operate in the adjoining mall.


Planning for Taipei 101 began in 1997 during Chen Shui-bian
Chen Shui-bian
Chen Shui-bian is a former Taiwanese politician who was the 10th and 11th-term President of the Republic of China from 2000 to 2008. Chen, whose Democratic Progressive Party has traditionally been supportive of Taiwan independence, ended more than fifty years of Kuomintang rule in Taiwan...

's term as Taipei mayor. Talks between merchants and city government officials initially centered on a proposal for a 66-story tower to serve as an anchor for new development in Taipei's 101 business district. Planners were considering taking the new structure to a more ambitious height only after an expat suggested it, along with many of the other features used in the design of the building. It wasn't until the summer of 2001 that the city granted a license for the construction of a 101-story tower on the site. In the meantime, construction proceeded and the first tower column was erected in the summer of 2000.

Taipei 101's roof was completed three years later on July 1, 2003. Ma Ying-jeou
Ma Ying-jeou
Ma Ying-jeou is the 12th term and current President of the Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan, and the Chairman of the Kuomintang Party, also known as the Chinese Nationalist Party. He formerly served as Justice Minister from 1993 to 1996, Mayor of Taipei from 1998 to 2006, and Chairman...

, in his first term as Taipei mayor, fastened a golden bolt to signify the achievement.

The formal opening of the tower took place on New Year's Eve 2004. President Chen Shui-bian, Taipei Mayor Ma Ying-jeou and Legislative Speaker Wang Jin-pyng
Wang Jin-pyng
Wang Jin-pyng , Taiwan, Empire of Japan), Taiwanese politician, is the President of the Legislative Yuan. As one of the leading figures of the Kuomintang, Wang is considered to be soft-spoken and a conciliatory figure.-Early life:...

 cut the ribbon. Open-air concerts featured a number of popular performers, including singers A-Mei
A-Mei , also known by her birth name Chang Hui-mei , is an aboriginal Taiwanese pop singer and occasional songwriter. She is also known by her aboriginal name Gulilai Amit . She was born in the rugged mountains of eastern Taiwan and is the third youngest of nine siblings. A-mei made her debut in...

 and Sun Yan Zi. Visitors rode the elevators to the Observatory for the first time. A few hours later the first fireworks show at Taipei 101 heralded the arrival of a new year.[29] [30]


Important dates in the planning and construction of Taipei 101 include the following:
Date Event
October 20, 1997 Development and operation rights agreement signed with Taipei City government.
January 13, 1998 Ground-breaking ceremony.
June 7, 2000 First tower column erected.
April 13?, 2001 Design change to 509.2 m height approved by Taipei City government.
June 13, 2001 Taipei 101 Mall topped out.
August 10, 2001 Construction license awarded for 101 stories.
May 13, 2003 Taipei 101 Mall obtains occupancy permit.
July 1, 2003 Taipei 101 Tower roof completed.
October 17, 2003 Pinnacle placed.
November 14, 2003 Taipei 101 Mall opens.
April 15, 2004 Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat
Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat
The Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat is an international body in the field of tall buildings and sustainable urban design...

 (CTBUH) certifies Taipei 101 as world's tallest building.
November 12, 2004 Tower obtains occupancy permit.
December 31, 2004 Tower opens to the public.
January 1, 2005 First New Year fireworks show begins at midnight.


Taipei 101 is the site of innumerable special events. Art exhibits, as noted above, regularly take place in the Observatory. A few noteworthy dates since the tower's opening include these.
  • December 25, 2004 – French rock
    Rock climbing
    Rock climbing also lightly called 'The Gravity Game', is a sport in which participants climb up, down or across natural rock formations or artificial rock walls. The goal is to reach the summit of a formation or the endpoint of a pre-defined route without falling...

     and urban climber
    In architecture, construction, engineering, real estate development and technology the word building may refer to one of the following:...

     Alain Robert
    Alain Robert
    Alain Robert , is a French rock and urban climber, from Digoin, Saône-et-Loire, Bourgogne, France...

     makes an authorized climb to the top of the pinnacle in four hours.
  • February 28, 2005 – Former President of the United States Bill Clinton
    Bill Clinton
    William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001. Inaugurated at age 46, he was the third-youngest president. He took office at the end of the Cold War, and was the first president of the baby boomer generation...

     visits and signs copies of his autobiography.
  • April 19, 2005 – Tower displays the formula E=mc2 in lights to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the publication of Einstein's
    Albert Einstein
    Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of general relativity, effecting a revolution in physics. For this achievement, Einstein is often regarded as the father of modern physics and one of the most prolific intellects in human history...

     theory of relativity
    Theory of relativity
    The theory of relativity, or simply relativity, encompasses two theories of Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity. However, the word relativity is sometimes used in reference to Galilean invariance....

    . The display, the largest of 65,000 such displays in 47 countries, is part of the international celebration Physics
    Physics is a natural science that involves the study of matter and its motion through spacetime, along with related concepts such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the universe behaves.Physics is one of the oldest academic...

     Enlightens the World.
  • November 20, 2005 – First annual Taipei 101 Run Up features a race up the 2,046 steps from floors 1 to 91. Proceeds benefit Taiwan's Olympic teams. Men's race is won by Paul Crake of Australia (10 minutes, 29 seconds) and women's race by Andrea Mayr of Austria (12 minutes, 38 seconds).
  • October 20, 2006 – Tower displays a pink ribbon in lights to promote breast cancer awareness. The ten-day campaign is sponsored by Taipei 101's ownership and Estée Lauder
    Estée Lauder Companies
    Estée Lauder Companies, Inc. is a manufacturer and marketer of prestige skincare, makeup, fragrance and hair care products. The company has its headquarters in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.-History:...

  • December 12, 2007 – Austrian base jumper
    BASE jumping
    BASE jumping, also sometimes written as B.A.S.E jumping, is an activity that employs an initially packed parachute to jump from fixed objects...

     Felix Baumgartner
    Felix Baumgartner
    Felix Baumgartner is a skydiver and a BASE jumper. He is renowned for the particularly dangerous nature of the stunts he has performed during his career...

     survives an unauthorized parachute jump from Taipei 101's 91st floor.
  • June 15, 2008 – Taipei 101 Run Up features 2,500 participants. Men's race is won by Thomas Dold of Germany (10 minutes, 53 seconds); 2007 champion Marco De Gasperi of Italy finishes second and Chen Fu-tsai of Taiwan
    Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

     finishes third. Women's race is won by Lee Hsiao-yu of Taiwan
    Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

     (14 minutes, 53 seconds).

New Year's Eve fireworks displays

For the first three years (2004–2006), the annual fireworks show at Taipei 101 was preceded by the sequential display of numerals in lights on each section to count down the last eight seconds to midnight. Since 2007 the building has been completely darkened, then fireworks begin to launch sequentially from the lower to upper sections.
  • 2003–2004: Building still under construction. Spinning lights on the Outdoor Observatory (floor 91) provided a display of sound and lights, but no fireworks were launched.
  • 2004–2005: Grand opening of Taipei 101 celebrated with the first fireworks display. The show lasted 35 seconds. Rockets were launched from section balconies. Festivities included all-day performances by popular entertainers and ceremonial visits by national dignitaries.
  • 2005–2006: Show extended to 128 seconds. Sony
    , commonly referred to as Sony, is a Japanese multinational conglomerate corporation headquartered in Minato, Tokyo, Japan and the world's fifth largest media conglomerate measured by revenues....

     sponsored the show, which concluded with a display of the brand name in lights.
  • 2006–2007: Show extended to 188 seconds; 9,000 rockets were launched. This was Sony's last time sponsoring the event because the Burj Dubai overtook 101's height.
  • 2007–2008: Show same length but featuring 12,000 rockets. Civic and private sponsors ended the show with a display, in lights, of a heart over the word 'Taiwan.'
  • 2008–2009: A conspicuously more modest show than those which preceded it. The theme was "Love Taiwan
    Taiwan , also known, especially in the past, as Formosa , is the largest island of the same-named island group of East Asia in the western Pacific Ocean and located off the southeastern coast of mainland China. The island forms over 99% of the current territory of the Republic of China following...

     With Your Heart In 2009". The show ended with the four sides of the building displaying lights in four colours (red, blue, green and yellow) to represent happiness, vision, sustainability and passion.
  • 2009–2010: The display regained some of the dazzle of 2005–2008 shows but remained more brief in duration. The theme was "Taiwan Up."
  • 2010–2011: Show extended to 288 seconds, and designed by Cai Guo-Qiang
    Cai Guo-Qiang
    Cai Guo-Qiang is a Chinese contemporary artist and curator.-Biography:Cai Guo-Qiang was born in 1957 in Quanzhou, Fujian Province, China. He was trained in stage design at the Shanghai Theater Academy from 1981 to 1985. Cai's work is scholarly and often politically charged...

    , the artist also responsible for Beijing Olympics and World Expo Shanghai's fireworks. The theme was "100 ROC" (100th anniversary of the Republic of China
    Republic of China
    The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

    ). One concept was for fireworks to spiral up and down the building as a dragon, but technical difficulties caused some disappointment with what was anticipated. It also took 30 seconds for the host to realize the fireworks were over.


The Taipei Financial Center Corporation
Taipei Financial Center Corporation
Taipei Financial Center Corporation is a Taiwanese company notable for its ownership of Taipei 101.Ting Hsin International Group is its biggest shareholder, with a 37% stake....

 (TFCC) announced plans on 2009 November 2 to make Taipei 101 "the world's tallest green building" by summer of 2011 as measured by LEED standards. The structure is already designed to be energy-efficient, with double-pane windows blocking external heat by 50% and recycled water meeting 20–30% of the building's needs. (LEED) certification would entail inspections and upgrades in wiring, water and lighting equipment at a cost of NT$60 million (US$1.8 million). Estimates show the savings resulting from the modifications would pay for the cost of making them within three years. The company applied for a platinum-degree certification with LEED in early 2011. On July 28, 2011, Taipei 101 received LEED
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design
Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design consists of a suite of rating systems for the design, construction and operation of high performance green buildings, homes and neighborhoods....

 Platinum Certification under "Existing Buildings: Operations and Maintenance". Although the project cost NT$60 million (US$2.08 million), it is expected to save US$1.2 million in energy costs each year. In 2012, the shopping center at the base is expected to be remodeled.

Floor Directory

The 101st floor is home to a private VIP club named Summit 101, according to the observatory brochure. No information about this club has ever been made public.

The 101st floor is also divided into three levels: 101F (lower), 101MF (mezzanine) and 101RF (roof). It is not known what is actually on these levels, or whether the VIP club actually exists, except that 101RF provides access to the 60-metre tall spire, which has 24 levels (numbered R1 through R24) that can only be accessed via ladder.

The 92nd through 100th floors are officially designated as communication floors, although it's unknown if there are any radio or TV stations currently broadcasting from the top of Taipei 101. The 91st floor observatory is the highest floor that is open to the public , but unlike the leased/private floors from 7~90F, there is no sign of even a visible access point to the topmost floors on Level 91. The top 10 floors have never been mentioned anywhere outside of the observatory brochure.

4 is considered an unlucky number in chinese culture, so what would have been Level 44 has been replaced by Level 43, with 42A replacing the actual 43 to compensate for the skipped floor number.

There is a freight elevator that facilitates access to every level from B5 to 91, with a button for every floor.

A tenant directory is posted in the first floor lobby (from the Xinyi entrance.) As of January 1, 2011, the highest occupied office floor (excluding the observatory and restaurants) is 75. The building appears to be at least 70% occupied at this point.
92nd – 101st floor Communication Floors
91st floor Observation Deck
88th – 89th floor Observatory
85th – 86th floor Observatory Restaurant
59th – 84th floor High Zone Office Floor
59th – 60th floor Elevator Transfer Floors
35th – 58th floor Mid Zone Office Floor
36th floor Taipei 101 Conference Center
35th – 36th floor Elevator Transfer Floors
35th floor Amenities Floor
9th – 34th floor Low Zone Office Center
G – 1 (Basement – 6th floor) Bedrooms
1st – 2nd floor Grand Lobby
B2 – B5 (2nd Basement – 5th Basement floor) Basement Car Parking

See also

External links

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