Scottish cuisine
Scottish cuisine is the specific set of cooking traditions and practices associated with Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

. It has distinctive attributes and recipes of its own, but shares much with wider European cuisine
European cuisine
European cuisine, or alternatively Western cuisine, is a generalised term collectively referring to the cuisines of Europe and other Western countries...

 as a result of foreign and local influences both ancient and modern. Traditional Scottish dishes exist alongside international foodstuffs brought about by migration.

Scotland's natural larder of game
Game (food)
Game is any animal hunted for food or not normally domesticated. Game animals are also hunted for sport.The type and range of animals hunted for food varies in different parts of the world. This will be influenced by climate, animal diversity, local taste and locally accepted view about what can or...

, dairy
A dairy is a business enterprise established for the harvesting of animal milk—mostly from cows or goats, but also from buffalo, sheep, horses or camels —for human consumption. A dairy is typically located on a dedicated dairy farm or section of a multi-purpose farm that is concerned...

, fish
Fish (food)
Fish is a food consumed by many species, including humans. The word "fish" refers to both the animal and to the food prepared from it. Fish has been an important source of protein for humans throughout recorded history.-Terminology:...

, fruit
In broad terms, a fruit is a structure of a plant that contains its seeds.The term has different meanings dependent on context. In non-technical usage, such as food preparation, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of certain plants that are sweet and edible in the raw state,...

, and vegetable
The noun vegetable usually means an edible plant or part of a plant other than a sweet fruit or seed. This typically means the leaf, stem, or root of a plant....

s is the integral factor in traditional Scots cooking, with a high reliance on simplicity and a lack of spice
A spice is a dried seed, fruit, root, bark, or vegetative substance used in nutritionally insignificant quantities as a food additive for flavor, color, or as a preservative that kills harmful bacteria or prevents their growth. It may be used to flavour a dish or to hide other flavours...

s from abroad, which were often very expensive. While many inveterate dishes such as Scotch broth
Scotch broth
Scotch broth is a filling soup, originating in Scotland but now obtainable worldwide. The principal ingredients are usually barley, stewing or braising cuts of lamb or mutton , and root vegetables such as carrots, turnips or swedes. Greens, particularly cabbage and leeks, can also be added, usually...

 are considered healthy, many common dishes are rich in fat
Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and generally insoluble in water. Chemically, fats are triglycerides, triesters of glycerol and any of several fatty acids. Fats may be either solid or liquid at room temperature, depending on their structure...

, and may contribute to the high rates of heart disease
Heart disease
Heart disease, cardiac disease or cardiopathy is an umbrella term for a variety of diseases affecting the heart. , it is the leading cause of death in the United States, England, Canada and Wales, accounting for 25.4% of the total deaths in the United States.-Types:-Coronary heart disease:Coronary...

 and obesity
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems...

 in the country. In recent times greater importance has been placed on the consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables, but many Scots, particularly those of low incomes
Poverty is the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money. Absolute poverty or destitution is inability to afford basic human needs, which commonly includes clean and fresh water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter. About 1.7 billion people are estimated to live...

, continue to have poor diets, which contributes to Scotland's relatively high mortality rate
Mortality rate
Mortality rate is a measure of the number of deaths in a population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit time...

 from coronary heart disease
Coronary heart disease
Coronary artery disease is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the coronary arteries that supply the myocardium with oxygen and nutrients. It is sometimes also called coronary heart disease...


Scottish cuisine is enjoying a renaissance. As of 2009, fourteen restaurants with Michelin stars
Michelin Guide
The Michelin Guide is a series of annual guide books published by Michelin for over a dozen countries. The term normally refers to the Michelin Red Guide, the oldest and best-known European hotel and restaurant guide, which awards the Michelin stars...

 served traditional or fusion cuisine
Fusion cuisine
Fusion cuisine combines elements of various culinary traditions while not being categorized per any one particular cuisine style, and can pertain to innovations in many contemporary restaurant cuisines since the 1970s.-Categories and types:...

 made with local ingredients (15 Michelin stars in total). In most towns, Chinese
Chinese cuisine
Chinese cuisine is any of several styles originating in the regions of China, some of which have become highly popular in other parts of the world – from Asia to the Americas, Australia, Western Europe and Southern Africa...

 and Indian
Indian cuisine
Indian cuisine consists of thousands of regional cuisines which date back thousands of years. The dishes of India are characterised by the extensive use of various Indian spices, herbs, vegetables and fruit. Indian cuisine is also known for the widespread practice of vegetarianism in Indian society...

Take-out or takeout , carry-out , take-away , parcel , or tapau , is food purchased at a...

 restaurants exist along with traditional fish and chip
Fish and chips
Fish and chips is a popular take-away food in the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and Canada...

 shops. Larger towns and cities offer cuisine ranging from Thai and Japanese
Japanese cuisine
Japanese cuisine has developed over the centuries as a result of many political and social changes throughout Japan. The cuisine eventually changed with the advent of the Medieval age which ushered in a shedding of elitism with the age of shogun rule...

 to Mexican
Mexican cuisine
Mexican cuisine, a style of food that originates in Mexico, is known for its varied flavors, colourful decoration and variety of spices and ingredients, most of which are native to the country. The cuisine of Mexico has evolved through thousands of years of blending indigenous cultures, with later...

, Pakistani, Polish
Polish cuisine
Polish cuisine is a style of cooking and food preparation originating from Poland. It has evolved over the centuries due to historical circumstances. Polish national cuisine shares some similarities with other Central European and Eastern European traditions as well as French and Italian...

 and Turkish
Turkish cuisine
Turkish cuisine is largely the heritage of Ottoman cuisine, which can be described as a fusion and refinement of Central Asian, Middle Eastern and Balkan cuisines. Turkish cuisine has in turn influenced those and other neighbouring cuisines, including that of western Europe...



Scotland, with its temperate climate and abundance of indigenous game species, has provided a cornucopia of food for its inhabitants for millennia. The wealth of seafood available on and off the coasts provided the earliest settlers with their sustenance. Agriculture was introduced, with primitive oats
OATS - Open Source Assistive Technology Software - is a source code repository or "forge" for assistive technology software. It was launched in 2006 with the goal to provide a one-stop “shop” for end users, clinicians and open-source developers to promote and develop open source assistive...

 quickly becoming the staple.

In common with many mediæval European neighbours, Scotland was a feudal state for a greater part of the second millennium. This put certain restrictions on what one was allowed to hunt, therefore to eat. In the halls of the great men of the realm, one could expect venison
Venison is the meat of a game animal, especially a deer but also other animals such as antelope, wild boar, etc.-Etymology:The word derives from the Latin vēnor...

, boar
Wild boar, also wild pig, is a species of the pig genus Sus, part of the biological family Suidae. The species includes many subspecies. It is the wild ancestor of the domestic pig, an animal with which it freely hybridises...

, various fowl and songbirds, expensive spices (pepper
Black pepper
Black pepper is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. The fruit, known as a peppercorn when dried, is approximately in diameter, dark red when fully mature, and, like all drupes, contains a single seed...

, cloves, cinnamon
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several trees from the genus Cinnamomum that is used in both sweet and savoury foods...

, etc.), as well as the meats of domesticated species. From the journeyman
A journeyman is someone who completed an apprenticeship and was fully educated in a trade or craft, but not yet a master. To become a master, a journeyman had to submit a master work piece to a guild for evaluation and be admitted to the guild as a master....

 down to the lowest cottar, meat was an expensive commodity, and would be consumed rarely. For the lower echelons of Mediæval Scots, it was the products of their animals rather than the beasts themselves which provided nourishment. This is evident today in traditional Scots fare, with its emphasis on dairy produce. It would appear that the average meal would consist of a pottage
Potage is a category of thick soups, stews, or porridges, in some of which meat and vegetables are boiled together with water until they form into a thick mush.-History:...

 of herbs and roots (and when available some meat or stock for flavouring), with bread and cheese when possible.

Before Sir Walter Raleigh's introduction of the potato to the British Isles, the Scots' main source of carbohydrate
A carbohydrate is an organic compound with the empirical formula ; that is, consists only of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, with a hydrogen:oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 . However, there are exceptions to this. One common example would be deoxyribose, a component of DNA, which has the empirical...

 was bread made from oats or barley
Barley is a major cereal grain, a member of the grass family. It serves as a major animal fodder, as a base malt for beer and certain distilled beverages, and as a component of various health foods...

. Wheat was generally difficult to grow because of the damp climate. Food thrift was evident from the earliest times, with excavated middens displaying little evidence of anything but the toughest bones. All parts of an animal were used.

The mobile nature of Scots society in the past required food that should not spoil quickly. It was common to carry a small bag of oatmeal that could be transformed into a basic porridge
Porridge is a dish made by boiling oats or other cereal meals in water, milk, or both. It is usually served hot in a bowl or dish...

 or oatcakes using a girdle
A griddle is a cooking device consisting of a broad flat surface that can be heated using a variety of means, and is used in both residential and commercial applications for a variety of cooking operations. Most commonly, the griddle consists of a flat metal plate, but in the non-industrialized...

(griddle). It is thought that Scotland's national dish, haggis
Haggis is a dish containing sheep's 'pluck' , minced with onion, oatmeal, suet, spices, and salt, mixed with stock, and traditionally simmered in the animal's stomach for approximately three hours. Most modern commercial haggis is prepared in a casing rather than an actual stomach.Haggis is a kind...

, originated in a similar way: A small amount of offal
Offal , also called, especially in the United States, variety meats or organ meats, refers to the internal organs and entrails of a butchered animal. The word does not refer to a particular list of edible organs, which varies by culture and region, but includes most internal organs other than...

 or low-quality meat, carried in the most inexpensive bag available, a sheep or pig's stomach. It has also been suggested that this dish was introduced by Norse
Norsemen is used to refer to the group of people as a whole who spoke what is now called the Old Norse language belonging to the North Germanic branch of Indo-European languages, especially Norwegian, Icelandic, Faroese, Swedish and Danish in their earlier forms.The meaning of Norseman was "people...

 invaders who were attempting to preserve their food during the long journey from Scandinavia
Scandinavia is a cultural, historical and ethno-linguistic region in northern Europe that includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, characterized by their common ethno-cultural heritage and language. Modern Norway and Sweden proper are situated on the Scandinavian Peninsula,...


French Influence

During the Late Middle Ages
Late Middle Ages
The Late Middle Ages was the period of European history generally comprising the 14th to the 16th century . The Late Middle Ages followed the High Middle Ages and preceded the onset of the early modern era ....

 and early modern era, French cuisine
French cuisine
French cuisine is a style of food preparation originating from France that has developed from centuries of social change. In the Middle Ages, Guillaume Tirel , a court chef, authored Le Viandier, one of the earliest recipe collections of Medieval France...

 played a role in Scottish cookery due to cultural exchanges brought about by the "Auld Alliance
Auld Alliance
The Auld Alliance was an alliance between the kingdoms of Scotland and France. It played a significant role in the relations between Scotland, France and England from its beginning in 1295 until the 1560 Treaty of Edinburgh. The alliance was renewed by all the French and Scottish monarchs of that...

", especially during the reign of Mary, Queen of Scots. Mary, on her return to Scotland, brought an entourage of French staff who are considered responsible for revolutionising Scots cooking and for some of Scotland's unique food terminology.

French derived cooking terms

"Ashet", Assiette-a large platter.
"Cannel", Cannelle-Cinnamon
"Collop", from Escalope
"Gigot" (icon) Leg of Mutton - Gigot.
"Howtowdie", Hétoudeau-a boiling fowl (Old French).

With the growth of sporting estates and the advent of land enclosure
Enclosure or inclosure is the process which ends traditional rights such as mowing meadows for hay, or grazing livestock on common land. Once enclosed, these uses of the land become restricted to the owner, and it ceases to be common land. In England and Wales the term is also used for the...

 in the 18th century, harvesting Scotland's larder became an industry. The railways further expanded the scope of the market, with Scots grouse at a premium (as today) on English menus shortly after the 12th of August
Glorious Twelfth
The Glorious Twelfth is usually used to refer to 12 August, the start of the shooting season for Red Grouse and to a lesser extent the Ptarmigan in the United Kingdom. This is one of the busiest days in the shooting season, with large amounts of game being shot...


20th and 21st centuries

Scotland, in common with the other parts of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, suffered during the 20th century. Rationing during the two World Wars, as well as large scale industrial agriculture, limited the diversity of food available to the public. Imports from the British Empire
British Empire
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom. It originated with the overseas colonies and trading posts established by England in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. At its height, it was the...

 and beyond did, however, introduce new foods to the Scottish public. But processed foods have become more and more popular, particularly among the youth. The schoolchildren of Glasgow
Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom. The city is situated on the River Clyde in the country's west central lowlands...

, for example, have been reported as consuming a large amount of processed foods.

During the 19th and 20th centuries there was large scale immigration to Scotland from Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, and later from the Middle East
Middle East
The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

, Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

 and India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

. These cultures have influenced Scots cooking dramatically. The Italians reintroduced the standard of fresh produce, and the later comers introduced spice. With the enlargement of the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 in the early years of the 21st century, there has been an increase in the population of Eastern European descent, from Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 in particular. A number of speciality restaurants and delicatessens catering for the various new immigrants have opened in the larger towns and cities.


Cullen Skink
Cullen Skink
Cullen Skink is a thick Scottish soup made of smoked Finnan haddie, potatoes and onions. Lacking the traditional ingredient, any other undyed smoked haddock will suffice....

Baud bree
Cock-a-leekie soup
Cock-a-leekie soup
Cock-a-leekie soup is a Scottish soup dish of leeks and chicken stock. The original recipe added prunes during cooking, and traditionalists still garnish with a julienne of prunes....

Game soup
Hairst Bree (or Hotch potch)
Partan bree
Partan bree
Partan Bree is a seafood speciality from north-eastern Scotland, where much of the country's fishing fleet is based. Its name derives from its ingredients in a mixture of Gaelic and Scots respectively, partan being the Gaelic for crab and bree a Doric term for soup Partan Bree is a seafood...

Scotch broth
Scotch broth
Scotch broth is a filling soup, originating in Scotland but now obtainable worldwide. The principal ingredients are usually barley, stewing or braising cuts of lamb or mutton , and root vegetables such as carrots, turnips or swedes. Greens, particularly cabbage and leeks, can also be added, usually...

Fish and Seafood

Arbroath smokies
Cabbie claw
Cabbie claw
Cabbie claw or Cabelew is a traditional dish from the North-East of Scotland and Orkney. It is traditionally made using Speldings, young fish of the Gadidae family, such as Cod, Haddock or Whiting. The name is a derivative of cabillaud, the French name for Cod.Other ingredients include parsley,...

Ceann Cropaig
Crappit heid
Crappit heid
Crappit Heid is a traditional Scots fish course. In Gaelic it is known as ceann-cropaigIts origins can be traced to the fishing communities of the North, Hebrides and North-Eastern Scotland in the eighteenth century...

Cullen skink
Cullen Skink
Cullen Skink is a thick Scottish soup made of smoked Finnan haddie, potatoes and onions. Lacking the traditional ingredient, any other undyed smoked haddock will suffice....

Eyemouth pales
Finnan haddie
Finnan Haddie
Finnan haddie is smoked haddock. Its origin is Findon near Aberdeen, Scotland. It has been a popular dish in Aberdeenshire since at least the 1640s.Finnan haddie is often served poached in milk for breakfast....

A kipper is a whole herring, a small, oily fish, that has been split from tail to head, gutted, salted or pickled, and cold smoked.In the United Kingdom, in Japan, and in some North American regions they are often eaten for breakfast...

Kedgeree is a dish consisting of cooked, flaked fish , boiled rice, parsley, hard-boiled eggs, curry powder, butter or cream and occasionally sultanas.Kedgeree is thought to have originated with an Indian rice-and-bean or rice-and-lentil dish Khichri, traced back to 1340 or...

Rollmops are pickled herring fillets, rolled into a cylindrical shape around slices of onion, pickled gherkin, or green olive with pimento. Rollmops can be served held together with one or two small wooden skewers....

Smoked salmon
Smoked salmon
Smoked salmon is a preparation of salmon, typically a fillet that has been cured and then hot or cold smoked. Due to its moderately high price, smoked salmon is considered a delicacy.-Presentation:...

Tatties and Herring
Herring is an oily fish of the genus Clupea, found in the shallow, temperate waters of the North Pacific and the North Atlantic oceans, including the Baltic Sea. Three species of Clupea are recognized. The main taxa, the Atlantic herring and the Pacific herring may each be divided into subspecies...

Meat, Poultry and Game

Ayrshire bacon
Black pudding, Red pudding
Red pudding
Red pudding is a meat dish served mainly at chip shops in parts of Scotland as an alternative to fish . The ingredients consist of bacon, beef, port, pork rind, suet, rusks, spices, salt, beef stock, beef fat and colouring....

 and White pudding
White pudding
White pudding or oatmeal pudding is a meat dish popular in Scotland, Ireland, Northumberland, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland. White pudding is very similar to black pudding, but does not include blood. Consequently, it consists of pork meat and fat, suet, bread, and oatmeal formed into the shape of...

Boiled Gigot of Mutton or Lamb
Forfar Bridie
A bridie or Forfar bridie is a Scottish type of meat pastry, originally made in the town of Forfar, Scotland.- Content :A bridie is a savoury pie similar to a pasty, but the pastry is not as hard and no potato is used, making it much lighter in texture...

Chicken tikka masala
Chicken Tikka Masala
Chicken tikka masala is a curry dish of roasted chicken chunks in a spicy sauce. The sauce is usually creamy, spiced and orange-coloured...

Collops are slices of meat. The derivation of the term is uncertain. It appears to be related to the Swedish word kalops, rather than to the French word escalope.In Elizabethan times, "collops" came to refer specifically to slices of bacon...

Haggis is a dish containing sheep's 'pluck' , minced with onion, oatmeal, suet, spices, and salt, mixed with stock, and traditionally simmered in the animal's stomach for approximately three hours. Most modern commercial haggis is prepared in a casing rather than an actual stomach.Haggis is a kind...

Howtowdie with Drappit eggs
Kilmeny Kail
Mince and tatties
Mince and tatties
Mince and tatties is a popular Scottish dish, consisting of minced beef and mashed potato.-Preparation:Traditionally, the meat came from cheaper cuts of beef, such as chuck and blade or neck and clod, as opposed to the finer cuts used for steaks or roasting joints...

Mutton ham
Pottit heid (head cheese)
Potted hough
Roast Aberdeen Angus
Angus cattle
Angus cattle are a breed of cattle much used in beef production. They were developed from cattle native to the counties of Aberdeenshire and Angus in Scotland, and are known as Aberdeen Angus in most parts of the world....

Beef is the culinary name for meat from bovines, especially domestic cattle. Beef can be harvested from cows, bulls, heifers or steers. It is one of the principal meats used in the cuisine of the Middle East , Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Europe and the United States, and is also important in...

Roast Haunch of Venison
Red Deer
The red deer is one of the largest deer species. Depending on taxonomy, the red deer inhabits most of Europe, the Caucasus Mountains region, Asia Minor, parts of western Asia, and central Asia. It also inhabits the Atlas Mountains region between Morocco and Tunisia in northwestern Africa, being...

Roast Grouse
Grouse are a group of birds from the order Galliformes. They are sometimes considered a family Tetraonidae, though the American Ornithologists' Union and many others include grouse as a subfamily Tetraoninae in the family Phasianidae...

Roast Woodcock
The woodcocks are a group of seven or eight very similar living species of wading birds in the genus Scolopax. Only two woodcocks are widespread, the others being localized island endemics. Most are found in the Northern Hemisphere but a few range into Wallacea...

A snipe is any of about 25 wading bird species in three genera in the family Scolopacidae. They are characterized by a very long, slender bill and crypsis plumage. The Gallinago snipes have a nearly worldwide distribution, the Lymnocryptes Jack Snipe is restricted to Asia and Europe and the...

Solan goose
Northern Gannet
The Northern Gannet is a seabird and is the largest member of the gannet family, Sulidae.- Description :Young birds are dark brown in their first year, and gradually acquire more white in subsequent seasons until they reach maturity after five years.Adults are long, weigh and have a wingspan...

Scotch pie
Scotch pie
A Scotch pie is a small, double-crust meat pie filled with minced mutton or other meat. It may also be known as a shell pie or a mince pie to differentiate it from other varieties of savoury pie, such as the steak pie, steak-and-kidney pie, steak-and-tattie pie, and so forth...

Square sausage
thumb|right|StoviesStovies is a traditional Scottish dish. Recipes and ingredients vary widely between regions, and even families, but the dish contains potatoes, usually onions and often leftover roast beef, corned beef, mince or other meat.The potatoes are cooked by stewing with fat and stock;...


Clapshot is a traditional Scottish dish that originated in Orkney and may be served with haggis, oatcakes, mince, sausages or cold meat. It is created by the combined mashing of potatoes and swede turnips with the addition of chives, butter or dripping, salt and pepper; onions in some versions....

Curly Kail
Kale is very high in beta carotene, vitamin K, vitamin C, lutein, zeaxanthin, and reasonably rich in calcium. Kale, as with broccoli and other brassicas, contains sulforaphane , a chemical with potent anti-cancer properties. Boiling decreases the level of sulforaphane; however, steaming,...

Neeps and tatties (swede turnip
The rutabaga, swede , turnip or yellow turnip is a root vegetable that originated as a cross between the cabbage and the turnip; see Triangle of U...

) and potatoes)
Rumbledethumps is a traditional dish from the Scottish Borders. The main ingredients are potato, cabbage and onion. Similar to Irish colcannon, and English bubble and squeak, it is either served as an accompaniment to a main dish or as a main dish itself....

Tattie scone
Tattie scone
A tattie scone is a regional variant of the savoury griddle scone which is especially popular in Scotland and The Isle of Man. Many variations of recipe exist. They generally include liberal quantities of boiled potatoes and salt....

 (potato scone)


The raspberry or hindberry is the edible fruit of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus, most of which are in the subgenus Idaeobatus; the name also applies to these plants themselves...

Tayberry is a cultivated shrub in the genus Rubus of the family Rosaceae patented in 1979 as a cross between a blackberry and a red raspberry, and named after the river Tay in Scotland. The fruit is sweeter, much larger, and more aromatic than that of the loganberry, itself a blackberry and red...

Dairy and Cheese

Bishop Kennedy
Crowdie is a Scottish cream cheese, or the term less often refers to a type of brose .The cheese is often eaten with oatcakes, and recommended before a ceilidh as it is said to alleviate the effects of whisky-drinking. The texture is soft and crumbly, the taste slightly sour...

Dunlop cheese
Dunlop cheese
Dunlop is a mild cheese or 'sweet-milk cheese' from Dunlop in East Ayrshire, Scotland. It resembles a soft Cheddar cheese in texture. It fell out of popularity some time after the end of the Second World War, however it has now appreciated for its value in various recipes and for eating on its own...

Lanark Blue
Lanark Blue
Lanark Blue is a sheep milk cheese produced in Lanarkshire, Scotland.Produced at Ogcastle near to the village of Carnwath by Humphrey Errington since 1985, it is a rich blue-veined artisan cheese...

Caboc is a Scottish cream cheese, made with double cream or cream-enriched milk. This rennet-free cheese is formed into a log shape and rolled in toasted pinhead oatmeal, to be served with oatcakes or dry toast. The texture is smooth, slightly thicker and grainier than clotted cream, while the...

Dunsyre Blue

Puddings and Desserts

Burnt Cream
Apple Frushie
Blaeberry pie
Carrageen Moss
Clootie Dumpling
A clootie or cloot in Scots is a strip or piece of cloth, a rag or item of clothing; it can also refer to fabric used in the patching of clothes or the making of proddy rugs . The saying "Ne'er cast a cloot til Mey's oot" conveys a warning not to shed any clothes before the summer has fully...

Cranachan is a traditional Scottish dessert. In more modern times it is usually made from a mixture of whipped cream, whisky, honey , and fresh raspberries with toasted oatmeal soaked overnight, in a little whisky. Atholl brose is a drink using similar ingredients but does not contain raspberries...

Hatted Kit
Marmalade pudding
Tipsy Laird

Cakes, Breads and Confectioneries

Abernethy biscuit
Abernethy biscuit
The Abernethy biscuit was invented by Dr John Abernethy, a Scottish doctor, as a digestive improver and hence aid to health.Dr Abernethy believed that most diseases were due to disorders in digestion. In creating his biscuit, Dr Abernethy was following in the footsteps of other medical...

Bannock (food)
Bannock is a variety of flat quick bread. The word can also be applied to any large, round article baked or cooked from grain. When a round bannock is cut into wedges, the wedges are often called scones. But in Scotland, the words bannock and scone are often used interchangeably.-Scottish:"Bannock"...

Berwick cockle
Berwick cockle
A Berwick cockle is a Scots style sweet coloured white with red stripes originally associated with Berwick-upon-Tweed, England. They are presumably named in reference to their cockle-like shape, the moulding process giving a flattened shape with an equatorial rib. They are sold loose by weight in...

Black bun
Black bun
Black bun is a type of fruit cake completely covered with pastry. It is Scottish in origin, originally eaten on Twelfth Night but now enjoyed at Hogmanay....

Buttery (bread)
A buttery, also known as a rowie, rollie,Aberdeen roll or Cookie is a savoury Scottish bread roll ....

Caramel shortbread
Caramel Shortbread
Caramel shortbread, also known as Caramel shortcake, Caramel squares, Caramel slice, Millionaires' shortbread, Millionaires slice, is a biscuit confectionery item believed to be of Scottish origin because of the use of shortbread. It traditionally consists of three layers; a shortbread biscuit...

Dundee cake
Dundee Cake
Dundee Cake is a famous traditional Scottish fruit cake with a rich flavour.The cake is often made with currants, sultanas and almonds; sometimes, fruit peel may be added to it. The cake originated in nineteenth century Scotland, and was originally made as a mass produced cake by the marmalade...

Edinburgh rock
Edinburgh Rock
Edinburgh rock or Edinburgh Castle rock is a traditional Scottish confection, and is quite distinct from conventional rock. It consists of sugar, water, cream of tartar, colourings and flavourings...

Fatty Cutties
Festy cock
Granny sookers
Hawick balls
Jethart Snails
Lucky tattie
Lucky tattie
The lucky tattie is a type of traditional sweet made in Scotland. They are one of Scotland's oldest known sweets. The lucky tattie is flavoured with cassia, and steamed and covered with cinnamon powder.They contained a small toy; hence the reason for 'lucky'....

Moffat toffee
Moffat Toffee
Moffat toffee is not a traditional toffee but a boiled sweet made in the Scottish town of Moffat.The confection is notable for its tangy but sweet centre which gives the sweet its unusual flavour....

An oatcake is a type of cracker or pancake, made from oatmeal, and sometimes flour as well. Oatcakes are cooked on a griddle or baked in an oven.- Scottish oatcakes :...

Pan drops
Pan loaf
Pan loaf
A pan loaf is a style of bread loaf baked in a pan or tin. It is the most common style available in the United Kingdom, though the term itself is predominantly Scottish so as to differentiate it from the Scottish plain loaf. It was once more expensive than the then more common plain loaf...

Petticoat tails
Shortbread is a type of unleavened biscuit which is traditionally made from one part white sugar, two parts butter, and three parts oatmeal flour. The use of plain white flour is common today, and other ingredients like ground rice or cornflour are sometimes added to alter the texture...

Plain loaf
Plain loaf
A plain loaf, slices of which are known in Scots as plain breid , is a traditional style of loaf made chiefly in Scotland. It has a dark, well-fired crust on the top and bottom of the bread. There is no crust on the sides due to the unbaked loaves being stuck together in batches, baked together...

Puff Candy
Sponge toffee
Sponge toffee is a sugary confection with a light, rigid, sponge-like texture.The main ingredients are typically brown sugar, corn syrup and baking soda, sometimes with an acid such as vinegar. The baking soda and acid react to form carbon dioxide which is trapped in the highly viscous mixture...

Scots Crumpets
A crumpet is a savoury griddle cake made from flour and yeast. It is eaten mainly in the United Kingdom and other nations of the Commonwealth. Crumpets are somewhat similar in appearance, not in flavor, to North American pancakes, where both have pores caused by expanding air bubbles.- Etymology...

Selkirk Bannock, variations include Yetholm Bannock
Shortbread is a type of unleavened biscuit which is traditionally made from one part white sugar, two parts butter, and three parts oatmeal flour. The use of plain white flour is common today, and other ingredients like ground rice or cornflour are sometimes added to alter the texture...

Soor ploom
Soor ploom
A Soor ploom is a sharp flavoured, round, green boiled sweet originally associated with Galashiels, Scotland. They are sold loose by weight in paper bags, traditionally in "quarters" — a quarter of a pound....

Scots tablet
Tablet , butter tablet, butter fudge, cream tablet or Swiss Milk tablet is a medium-hard, sugary confection from Scotland. A variation including golden syrup is known as Russian fudge...


Dundee Marmalade
Rowan jelly
Spiced plums


90 shilling ale
80 shilling ale
70 shilling ale
India Pale ale
India Pale Ale
India Pale Ale or IPA is a style of beer within the broader category of pale ale. It was first brewed in England in the 19th century.The first known use of the expression "India pale ale" comes from an advertisement in the Liverpool Mercury newspaper published January 30, 1835...

Atholl Brose
Drambuie is a sweet, golden colored 80-proof liqueur made from malt whisky, honey, herbs, and spices.Produced in Broxburn, West Lothian, Scotland, it is served straight, on the rocks, or added to mixed drinks such as the Rusty Nail....

Ginger wine
Ginger wine
Ginger Wine is a fortified wine made from a fermented blend of ground ginger and raisins that was first produced in England.-History:The first documented appearance of Ginger Wine occurred with the foundation of 'The Finsbury Distilling Company' based in the City of London in 1740...

Het pint
Heather ale
Scotch ale and beer
Scotch mist- a cocktail containing mainly whisky
Scotch whisky
Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland.Scotch whisky is divided into five distinct categories: Single Malt Scotch Whisky, Single Grain Scotch Whisky, Blended Malt Scotch Whisky , Blended Grain Scotch Whisky, and Blended Scotch Whisky.All Scotch whisky must be aged in oak barrels for at least three...

Scotch whisky
Scotch whisky is whisky made in Scotland.Scotch whisky is divided into five distinct categories: Single Malt Scotch Whisky, Single Grain Scotch Whisky, Blended Malt Scotch Whisky , Blended Grain Scotch Whisky, and Blended Scotch Whisky.All Scotch whisky must be aged in oak barrels for at least three...

Fast food

Scotland's reputation for coronary and related diet-based diseases is a result of the wide consumption of fast food
Fast food
Fast food is the term given to food that can be prepared and served very quickly. While any meal with low preparation time can be considered to be fast food, typically the term refers to food sold in a restaurant or store with preheated or precooked ingredients, and served to the customer in a...

 since the latter part of the twentieth century. Fish and chip shops remain extremely popular, and indeed the battered and fried haggis
Haggis is a dish containing sheep's 'pluck' , minced with onion, oatmeal, suet, spices, and salt, mixed with stock, and traditionally simmered in the animal's stomach for approximately three hours. Most modern commercial haggis is prepared in a casing rather than an actual stomach.Haggis is a kind...

 supper remains a favourite. These have been joined in more recent years by outlets selling pizza
Pizza is an oven-baked, flat, disc-shaped bread typically topped with a tomato sauce, cheese and various toppings.Originating in Italy, from the Neapolitan cuisine, the dish has become popular in many parts of the world. An establishment that makes and sells pizzas is called a "pizzeria"...

s, kebabs, pakora
Pakora is a fried snack found across South Asia. Pakoras are created by taking one or two ingredients such as onion, eggplant, potato, spinach, plantain, cauliflower, tomato, chilli, or occasionally bread or chicken and dipping them in a batter of gram flour and then deep-frying them...

s and other convenience foodstuffs. The west coast in particular is notorious for the amount of deep-fried food consumed, and for being the home of such dishes as the deep-fried pizza
Deep-fried pizza
Deep-fried pizza is a dish available in many chip shops in Scotland. It originated in the late 1970s and typically consists of the cheapest of cash and carry pizzas, though a choice of "toppings" is often available, usually plain , mushroom or onion. Served as a "Pizza Supper" or single in whole...

 and deep fried Mars bar. Deep fried döner kebab
Döner kebab
Doner kebab is a dish made of roasted meat cooked on a vertical spit. It is also known regionally as gyro , shawarma, and al pastor . It consists of shaved lamb, goat, chicken, turkey, beef, or mixed meats roasted on a spit. Less common alternatives include fish and sausage...

s have also become notorious in Glasgow
Glasgow is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom. The city is situated on the River Clyde in the country's west central lowlands...

. An extreme example of this style of food is the Munchy box
Munchy box
A munchy box or munchie box is an inexpensive fast food product sold from take away restaurants primarily in Scotland. It consists of a variable assortment of different fast foods served in a large pizza box.-Ingredients and nutrition:...


In addition to independent fast-food outlets, in the sixties American-style burger bars and other restaurants such as Wimpy were introduced, and in the eighties, McDonald's
McDonald's Corporation is the world's largest chain of hamburger fast food restaurants, serving around 64 million customers daily in 119 countries. Headquartered in the United States, the company began in 1940 as a barbecue restaurant operated by the eponymous Richard and Maurice McDonald; in 1948...

, Burger King
Burger King
Burger King, often abbreviated as BK, is a global chain of hamburger fast food restaurants headquartered in unincorporated Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States. The company began in 1953 as Insta-Burger King, a Jacksonville, Florida-based restaurant chain...

, Pizza Hut
Pizza Hut
Pizza Hut is an American restaurant chain and international franchise that offers different styles of pizza along with side dishes including pasta, buffalo wings, breadsticks, and garlic bread....

 and Kentucky Fried Chicken appeared in Scotland.

External links

  • Food Stories — Explore a century of revolutionary change in UK food culture on the British Library's Food Stories website
  • Scottish Food Glossary — A glossary of food and cooking terms specific to Scottish cuisine.
  • Scottish Food — Scottish Food & Drink
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