Raspberry
Overview
The raspberry or hindberry is the edible fruit
Fruit
In broad terms, a fruit is a structure of a plant that contains its seeds.The term has different meanings dependent on context. In non-technical usage, such as food preparation, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of certain plants that are sweet and edible in the raw state,...

 of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus
Rubus
Rubus is a large genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, subfamily Rosoideae. Raspberries, blackberries, and dewberries are common, widely distributed members of the genus. Most of these plants have woody stems with prickles like roses; spines, bristles, and gland-tipped hairs are...

, most of which are in the subgenus
Subgenus
In biology, a subgenus is a taxonomic rank directly below genus.In zoology, a subgeneric name can be used independently or included in a species name, in parentheses, placed between the generic name and the specific epithet: e.g. the Tiger Cowry of the Indo-Pacific, Cypraea tigris Linnaeus, which...

 Idaeobatus; the name also applies to these plants themselves. Raspberries are perennial, with woody stems
Woody plant
A woody plant is a plant that uses wood as its structural tissue. These are typically perennial plants whose stems and larger roots are reinforced with wood produced adjacent to the vascular tissues. The main stem, larger branches, and roots of these plants are usually covered by a layer of...

.
Examples of raspberry species in Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus include:
  • Rubus crataegifolius
    Rubus crataegifolius
    Rubus crataegifolius is a species of raspberry which grows wild in northeastern China, Japan, Korea, and the Ussuri region of the Russian Far East....

    (Korean raspberry)
  • Rubus gunnianus (Tasmanian alpine raspberry)
  • Rubus idaeus
    Rubus idaeus
    Rubus idaeus is a red-fruited species of Rubus native to Europe and northern Asia and commonly cultivated in other temperate regions. A closely related plant in North America, sometimes regarded as the variety Rubus idaeus var...

    (European red raspberry)
  • Rubus leucodermis
    Rubus leucodermis
    Rubus leucodermis is a species of Rubus native to western North America, from British Columbia, Canada south to California, New Mexico and Mexico...

    (Whitebark or Western raspberry, Blue raspberry, Black raspberry)
  • Rubus occidentalis
    Rubus occidentalis
    Rubus occidentalis is a species of Rubus native to eastern North America. Its common name black raspberry is shared with the closely related western American species Rubus leucodermis...

    (Black raspberry)
  • Rubus parvifolius
    Rubus parvifolius
    Rubus parvifolius, native raspberry, or small-leaf bramble, is a scrambling shrub occurring in heathland and eucalyptus woodland native to eastern Australia....

    (Australian native raspberry)
  • Rubus phoenicolasius
    Rubus phoenicolasius
    Rubus phoenicolasius is a species of raspberry native to northern China, Japan, and Korea. The species was introduced to Europe and North America as an ornamental plant and for its potential in breeding hybrid raspberries...

    (Wine raspberry or Wineberry)
  • Rubus rosifolius
    Rubus rosifolius
    Rubus rosifolius, also known as roseleaf bramble, West Indian raspberry, thimbleberry and ola'a...

    (West Indian raspberry)
  • Rubus strigosus
    Rubus strigosus
    Rubus strigosus, the American Red Raspberry or American Raspberry, is a species of Rubus native to much of North America. It has often been treated as a variety or subspecies of the closely related Eurasian Rubus idaeus , but currently is more commonly treated as a distinct...

    (American red raspberry) (syn.
Encyclopedia
The raspberry or hindberry is the edible fruit
Fruit
In broad terms, a fruit is a structure of a plant that contains its seeds.The term has different meanings dependent on context. In non-technical usage, such as food preparation, fruit normally means the fleshy seed-associated structures of certain plants that are sweet and edible in the raw state,...

 of a multitude of plant species in the genus Rubus
Rubus
Rubus is a large genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, subfamily Rosoideae. Raspberries, blackberries, and dewberries are common, widely distributed members of the genus. Most of these plants have woody stems with prickles like roses; spines, bristles, and gland-tipped hairs are...

, most of which are in the subgenus
Subgenus
In biology, a subgenus is a taxonomic rank directly below genus.In zoology, a subgeneric name can be used independently or included in a species name, in parentheses, placed between the generic name and the specific epithet: e.g. the Tiger Cowry of the Indo-Pacific, Cypraea tigris Linnaeus, which...

 Idaeobatus; the name also applies to these plants themselves. Raspberries are perennial, with woody stems
Woody plant
A woody plant is a plant that uses wood as its structural tissue. These are typically perennial plants whose stems and larger roots are reinforced with wood produced adjacent to the vascular tissues. The main stem, larger branches, and roots of these plants are usually covered by a layer of...

.

Species

Examples of raspberry species in Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus include:
  • Rubus crataegifolius
    Rubus crataegifolius
    Rubus crataegifolius is a species of raspberry which grows wild in northeastern China, Japan, Korea, and the Ussuri region of the Russian Far East....

    (Korean raspberry)
  • Rubus gunnianus (Tasmanian alpine raspberry)
  • Rubus idaeus
    Rubus idaeus
    Rubus idaeus is a red-fruited species of Rubus native to Europe and northern Asia and commonly cultivated in other temperate regions. A closely related plant in North America, sometimes regarded as the variety Rubus idaeus var...

    (European red raspberry)
  • Rubus leucodermis
    Rubus leucodermis
    Rubus leucodermis is a species of Rubus native to western North America, from British Columbia, Canada south to California, New Mexico and Mexico...

    (Whitebark or Western raspberry, Blue raspberry, Black raspberry)
  • Rubus occidentalis
    Rubus occidentalis
    Rubus occidentalis is a species of Rubus native to eastern North America. Its common name black raspberry is shared with the closely related western American species Rubus leucodermis...

    (Black raspberry)
  • Rubus parvifolius
    Rubus parvifolius
    Rubus parvifolius, native raspberry, or small-leaf bramble, is a scrambling shrub occurring in heathland and eucalyptus woodland native to eastern Australia....

    (Australian native raspberry)
  • Rubus phoenicolasius
    Rubus phoenicolasius
    Rubus phoenicolasius is a species of raspberry native to northern China, Japan, and Korea. The species was introduced to Europe and North America as an ornamental plant and for its potential in breeding hybrid raspberries...

    (Wine raspberry or Wineberry)
  • Rubus rosifolius
    Rubus rosifolius
    Rubus rosifolius, also known as roseleaf bramble, West Indian raspberry, thimbleberry and ola'a...

    (West Indian raspberry)
  • Rubus strigosus
    Rubus strigosus
    Rubus strigosus, the American Red Raspberry or American Raspberry, is a species of Rubus native to much of North America. It has often been treated as a variety or subspecies of the closely related Eurasian Rubus idaeus , but currently is more commonly treated as a distinct...

    (American red raspberry) (syn. R. idaeus var. strigosus)
  • Rubus ellipticus
    Rubus ellipticus
    Rubus ellipticus commonly known as Yellow Himalayan raspberry is a thorny fruiting shrub that originates from South Asia.-Invasive species - 100 worst:...

    (Yellow Himalayan Raspberry)


Several species of Rubus are also called raspberries that are classified in other subgenera, including:
  • Rubus arcticus (Arctic raspberry, subgenus Cyclactis)
  • Rubus deliciosus
    Rubus deliciosus
    Rubus deliciosus is a deciduous shrub native to the United States, in the Rocky Mountains in Colorado, New Mexico, western Oklahoma , and Wyoming.-Distribution:...

    (Boulder raspberry, subgenus Anoplobatus)
  • Rubus nivalis
    Rubus nivalis
    Rubus nivalis, commonly known as snow raspberry, is a species of flowering plant in the rose family. It is native to western North America from British Columbia to far northern California, where it grows in mountain forests.-External links:***...

    (Snow raspberry, subgenus Chamaebatus)
  • Rubus odoratus
    Rubus odoratus
    Rubus odoratus is a species of Rubus, native to eastern North America, from Nova Scotia west to Ontario, and south to Georgia and Alabama....

    (Flowering raspberry, subgenus Anoplobatus)
  • Rubus sieboldii
    Rubus sieboldii
    Rubus sieboldii, the Molucca Raspberry, is a flowering plant in the genus Rubus. The species are native to Australia, and mid-western Asia, in the Himalaya Mountains and foothills...

    (Molucca raspberry, subgenus Malachobatus)

Major kinds of cultivated raspberries

Raspberries are an important commercial fruit crop, widely grown in all temperate regions of the world.

Many of the most important modern commercial red raspberry cultivar
Cultivar
A cultivar'Cultivar has two meanings as explained under Formal definition. When used in reference to a taxon, the word does not apply to an individual plant but to all those plants sharing the unique characteristics that define the cultivar. is a plant or group of plants selected for desirable...

s derive from hybrids between R. idaeus and R. strigosus. Some botanists consider the Eurasian and American red raspberries to all belong to a single, circumboreal species, Rubus idaeus, with the European plants then classified as either R. idaeus subsp. idaeus or R. idaeus var. idaeus, and the native North American red raspberries classified as either R. idaeus subsp. strigosus, or R. idaeus var. strigosus. Recent breeding has resulted in cultivars that are thornless and more strongly upright, not needing staking.

The black raspberry, Rubus occidentalis
Rubus occidentalis
Rubus occidentalis is a species of Rubus native to eastern North America. Its common name black raspberry is shared with the closely related western American species Rubus leucodermis...

,
is also occasionally cultivated in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, providing both fresh and frozen fruit as well as jams, preserves, and other products, all with that species' distinctive, richer flavour.

Purple raspberries have been produced by horticultural hybridization of red and black raspberries, and have also been found in the wild in a few places (for example, in Vermont
Vermont
Vermont is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The state ranks 43rd in land area, , and 45th in total area. Its population according to the 2010 census, 630,337, is the second smallest in the country, larger only than Wyoming. It is the only New England...

) where the American red and the black raspberries both grow naturally. The botanical name Rubus × neglectus applies to these naturally occurring plants as well as horticulturally produced plants having the same parentage. Commercial production of purple-fruited raspberries is rare.

Both the red and the black raspberry species have albino-like pale-yellow natural or horticultural variants resulting from presence of recessive gene
Gene
A gene is a molecular unit of heredity of a living organism. It is a name given to some stretches of DNA and RNA that code for a type of protein or for an RNA chain that has a function in the organism. Living beings depend on genes, as they specify all proteins and functional RNA chains...

s that impede production of anthocyanin
Anthocyanin
Anthocyanins are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that may appear red, purple, or blue according to pH...

 pigments. Fruits from such plants are called golden raspberries or yellow raspberries; despite their similar appearance, they retain the distinctive flavour of their respective species (red or black). Most pale-fruited raspberries commercially sold in the eastern United States are derivatives of red raspberries. Yellow-fruited variants of the black raspberry are sometimes grown in home gardens.

Red raspberries have also been crossed with various species in other subgenera of the genus Rubus, resulting in a number of hybrids, the first of which was the loganberry
Loganberry
The loganberry is an hexaploid hybrid produced from crossing an octaploid blackberry and a diploid red raspberry. The plant and the fruit resemble the blackberry more than the raspberry, but the fruit colour is a dark red, rather than black...

. Later notable hybrids include boysenberry
Boysenberry
A boysenberry is a cross between a European Raspberry , a Common Blackberry , and a Loganberry ....

 (a multi-generation hybrid), and Tayberry
Tayberry
Tayberry is a cultivated shrub in the genus Rubus of the family Rosaceae patented in 1979 as a cross between a blackberry and a red raspberry, and named after the river Tay in Scotland. The fruit is sweeter, much larger, and more aromatic than that of the loganberry, itself a blackberry and red...

. Hybridization between the familiar cultivated red raspberries and a few Asiatic species of Rubus
Rubus
Rubus is a large genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, subfamily Rosoideae. Raspberries, blackberries, and dewberries are common, widely distributed members of the genus. Most of these plants have woody stems with prickles like roses; spines, bristles, and gland-tipped hairs are...

has also been achieved.

Fruits

Raspberries are grown for the fresh fruit market and for commercial processing into individually quick frozen (IQF) fruit, purée
Purée
Purée and mash are general terms for cooked food, usually vegetables or legumes, that have been ground, pressed, blended, and/or sieved to the consistency of a soft creamy paste or thick liquid. Purées of specific foods are often known by specific names, e.g., mashed potatoes or apple sauce...

, juice, or as dried fruit
Dried fruit
Dried fruit is fruit where the majority of the original water content has been removed either naturally, through sun drying, or through the use of specialized dryers or dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradition of use dating back to the fourth millennium BC in Mesopotamia, and is prized...

 used in a variety of grocery products. Traditionally, raspberries were a mid-summer crop, but with new technology, cultivars, and transportation, they can now be obtained year-round. Raspberries need ample sun and water for optimal development. Raspberries thrive in well-drained soil with a pH of between 6 and 7 with ample organic matter to assist in retaining water. While moisture is essential, wet and heavy soils or excess irrigation can bring on Phytophthora
Phytophthora
Phytophthora is a genus of plant-damaging Oomycetes , whose member species are capable of causing enormous economic losses on crops worldwide, as well as environmental damage in natural ecosystems. The genus was first described by Heinrich Anton de Bary in 1875...

root rot which is one of the most serious pest problems facing red raspberry. As a cultivated plant in moist temperate regions, it is easy to grow and has a tendency to spread unless pruned. Escaped raspberries frequently appear as garden weeds, spread by seeds found in bird droppings.

An individual raspberry weighs about 4 g, on average and is made up of around 100 drupelets, each of which consists of a juicy pulp and a single central seed. Raspberry bushes can yield several hundred berries a year. Unlike blackberries
Blackberry
The blackberry is an edible fruit produced by any of several species in the Rubus genus of the Rosaceae family. The fruit is not a true berry; botanically it is termed an aggregate fruit, composed of small drupelets. The plants typically have biennial canes and perennial roots. Blackberries and...

 and dewberries
Dewberry
The dewberries are a group of species in the genus Rubus, section Rubus, closely related to the blackberries. They are small trailing brambles with berries reminiscent of the raspberry, but are usually purple to black instead of red.Dewberries are common throughout most of the Northern Hemisphere,...

, a raspberry has a hollow core once it is removed from the receptacle.

Raspberry nutrients and health benefits

Raspberries contain significant amounts of polyphenol antioxidant
Polyphenol antioxidant
A polyphenol antioxidant is a type of antioxidant containing a polyphenolic substructure. Numbering over 4,000 distinct species, many of these compounds have antioxidant activity in vitro but are unlikely to have antioxidant roles in vivo...

s such as anthocyanin
Anthocyanin
Anthocyanins are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that may appear red, purple, or blue according to pH...

 pigment
Pigment
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. This physical process differs from fluorescence, phosphorescence, and other forms of luminescence, in which a material emits light.Many materials selectively absorb...

s linked to potential health protection against several human diseases. The aggregate fruit structure contributes to its nutritional value, as it increases the proportion of dietary fibre, placing it among plant foods with the highest fibre contents known, up to 20% fibre per total weight. Raspberries are a rich source of vitamin C
Vitamin C
Vitamin C or L-ascorbic acid or L-ascorbate is an essential nutrient for humans and certain other animal species. In living organisms ascorbate acts as an antioxidant by protecting the body against oxidative stress...

, with 30 mg per serving of 1 cup (about 50% daily value), manganese
Manganese
Manganese is a chemical element, designated by the symbol Mn. It has the atomic number 25. It is found as a free element in nature , and in many minerals...

 (about 60% daily value) and dietary fibre (30% daily value). Contents of B vitamins 1-3, folic acid
Folic acid
Folic acid and folate , as well as pteroyl-L-glutamic acid, pteroyl-L-glutamate, and pteroylmonoglutamic acid are forms of the water-soluble vitamin B9...

, magnesium
Magnesium
Magnesium is a chemical element with the symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and common oxidation number +2. It is an alkaline earth metal and the eighth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and ninth in the known universe as a whole...

, copper
Copper
Copper is a chemical element with the symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. Pure copper is soft and malleable; an exposed surface has a reddish-orange tarnish...

 and iron
Iron
Iron is a chemical element with the symbol Fe and atomic number 26. It is a metal in the first transition series. It is the most common element forming the planet Earth as a whole, forming much of Earth's outer and inner core. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth's crust...

 are considerable in raspberries.

Raspberries rank near the top of all fruits for antioxidant
Antioxidant
An antioxidant is a molecule capable of inhibiting the oxidation of other molecules. Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons or hydrogen from a substance to an oxidizing agent. Oxidation reactions can produce free radicals. In turn, these radicals can start chain reactions. When...

 strength, particularly due to their dense contents of ellagic acid
Ellagic acid
Ellagic acid is a natural phenol antioxidant found in numerous fruits and vegetables including blackberries, raspberries, strawberries, cranberries, walnuts, pecans, pomegranates, wolfberry and other plant foods...

 (from ellagotannins, see for instance raspberry ellagitannin
Raspberry ellagitannin
The raspberry ellagitannin is an ellagitannin found in raspberries. It is a polyphenol per se, containing 6 ellagic acid-type components and two additional monomeric phenolics, for a total of 14 gallic acid units ....

), quercetin
Quercetin
Quercetin , a flavonol, is a plant-derived flavonoid found in fruits, vegetables, leaves and grains. It also may be used as an ingredient in supplements, beverages or foods.-Occurrence:...

, gallic acid
Gallic acid
Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid, a type of organic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, found in gallnuts, sumac, witch hazel, tea leaves, oak bark, and other plants. The chemical formula is C6H23COOH. Gallic acid is found both free and as part of...

, anthocyanin
Anthocyanin
Anthocyanins are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that may appear red, purple, or blue according to pH...

s, cyanidin
Cyanidin
Cyanidin is a natural organic compound. It is a particular type of anthocyanidin . It is a pigment found in many red berries including but not limited to grapes, bilberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, elderberry, hawthorn, loganberry, acai berry and raspberry...

s, pelargonidin
Pelargonidin
Pelargonidin is an anthocyanidin, a type of plant pigment. Like all anthocyanins, it is an antioxidant. It produces a characteristic orange color, and can be found in red geraniums, and ripe raspberries and strawberries, as well as blueberries, blackberries, plums and cranberries and pomegranates....

s, catechin
Flavan-3-ol
Flavan-3-ols are a class of flavonoids that use the 2-phenyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-3-ol skeleton. These compounds include the catechins and the catechin gallates....

s, kaempferol
Kaempferol
Kaempferol is a natural flavonol, a type of flavonoid, that has been isolated from tea, broccoli, Delphinium, Witch-hazel, grapefruit,cabbage, kale, beans, endive, leek, tomato, strawberries, grapes, brussels sprouts, apples and other plant sources. Kaempferol is a yellow crystalline solid with a...

 and salicylic acid
Salicylic acid
Salicylic acid is a monohydroxybenzoic acid, a type of phenolic acid and a beta hydroxy acid. This colorless crystalline organic acid is widely used in organic synthesis and functions as a plant hormone. It is derived from the metabolism of salicin...

. Yellow raspberries and others with pale-coloured fruits are lower in anthocyanins.

Due to their rich contents of antioxidant vitamin C and the polyphenols mentioned above, raspberries have an ORAC value (oxygen radical absorbance capacity
Oxygen radical absorbance capacity
Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity is a method of measuring antioxidant capacities in biological samples in vitro.A wide variety of foods has been tested using this method, with certain spices, berries and legumes rated highly. There exists no physiological proof in vivo that free-radical theory...

) of about 4900 per 100 grams, including them among the top-ranked ORAC fruits. Cranberries
Cranberry
Cranberries are a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing vines in the subgenus Oxycoccus of the genus Vaccinium. In some methods of classification, Oxycoccus is regarded as a genus in its own right...

 and wild blueberries have around 9000 ORAC units and apple
Apple
The apple is the pomaceous fruit of the apple tree, species Malus domestica in the rose family . It is one of the most widely cultivated tree fruits, and the most widely known of the many members of genus Malus that are used by humans. Apple grow on small, deciduous trees that blossom in the spring...

s average 2800.

Although there are no clinical studies to date proving these effects in humans, antioxidant and antiproliferative (chemopreventive) effects against cancer have been linked to the amount of phenolics and flavonoids in various foods including raspberries.

Raspberries are a low-glycemic index
Glycemic index
The glycemic index, glycaemic index, or GI is a measure of the effects of carbohydrates on blood sugar levels. Carbohydrates that break down quickly during digestion and release glucose rapidly into the bloodstream have a high GI; carbohydrates that break down more slowly, releasing glucose more...

 food, as are most other berries.

Commercial production


Output in Tons, 2003-2004:
FAOSTAT (FAO)
 Russia 95000 26 % 110000 28 %
 Serbia 79471 21 % 79180 20 %
 United States 48535 13 % 50000 13 %
 Poland 42941 12 % 42000 11 %
 Germany 20600 6 % 20500 5 %
 Ukraine 19700 5 % 20000 5 %
 Canada 14236 4 % 13700 4 %
 Hungary 9000 2 % 10000 3 %
 United Kingdom 8000 2 % 8000 2 %
 Early Modern France 6830 2 % 7500 2 %
The Rest 27603 7 % 27890 7 %
Total 371916 100 % 389061 100 %

See table and map at right

Leaves

Raspberry leaves can be used fresh or dried in herbal and medicinal teas. They have an astringent flavour, and in herbal medicine are reputed to be effective in regulating menses.

Cultivation

Raspberries are traditionally planted in the winter as dormant canes, although planting of tender, plug plants produced by tissue culture has become much more common. A specialized production system called "long cane production" involves growing canes for 1 year in a northern climate such as Scotland
Scotland
Scotland is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the...

 (UK) or Washington State (US) where the chilling requirement for proper bud break is met early. These canes are then dug, roots and all, to be replanted in warmer climates such as Spain where they quickly flower and produce a very early season crop. Plants should be spaced 1 m apart in fertile, well drained soil; raspberries are usually planted in raised beds/ridges if there is any question about root rot problems.

The flowers can be a major nectar source
Northern Nectar Sources for Honeybees
The nectar source in a given area depends on the type of vegetation present and the length of their bloom period. What type of vegetation will grow in an area depends on soil texture, soil pH, soil drainage, daily maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation, extreme minimum winter temperature,...

 for honeybees and other pollinators.

Raspberries are very vigorous and can be locally invasive. They propagate using basal shoot
Basal shoot
A basal shoot, root sprout, adventitious shoot, water sprout or sucker is a shoot or cane which grows from a bud at the base of a tree or shrub or from its roots. This shoot then becomes, or takes the form of, a singular plant. A plant that produces suckers is referred to as surculose...

s (also known as suckers); extended underground shoots that develop roots and individual plants. They can sucker new canes some distance from the main plant. For this reason, raspberries spread well, and can take over gardens if left unchecked.

The fruit is harvested when it comes off the torus/receptacle easily and has turned a deep colour (red, black, purple, or golden yellow, depending on the species and cultivar). This is when the fruits are ripest and sweetest. Excess fruit can be made into raspberry jam or frozen.

Selected important cultivars

Numerous raspberry cultivar
Cultivar
A cultivar'Cultivar has two meanings as explained under Formal definition. When used in reference to a taxon, the word does not apply to an individual plant but to all those plants sharing the unique characteristics that define the cultivar. is a plant or group of plants selected for desirable...

s have been selected. Raspberries are often propagated using cuttings and will root readily in moist soil conditions. Using cuttings preserves the genotype of the parent, and is the preferred method of propagation when making large plantings.

Two types of most commercially grown kinds of raspberry are available, the summer-bearing type that produces an abundance of fruit on second-year canes (floricanes) within a relatively short period in mid-summer, and double- or "ever"-bearing plants, which also bear some fruit on first-year canes (primocanes) in the late summer and fall, as well as the summer crop on second-year canes. Various kinds of raspberries can be cultivated from hardiness zone
Hardiness zone
A hardiness zone is a geographically defined area in which a specific category of plant life is capable of growing, as defined by climatic conditions, including its ability to withstand the minimum temperatures of the zone...

s 3 to 9.

Source: New RHS Dictionary of Gardening.

Red, early summer fruiting        
  • Boyne
  • Fertődi Venus
  • Rubin Bulgarski
  • Cascade Dawn
  • Glen Clova
  • Glen Moy
  • Killarney
  • Malahat
  • Malling Exploit
  • Titan
  • Willamette


Red, mid summer
  • Cuthbert
  • Lloyd George
  • Meeker
  • Newburgh
  • Ripley
  • Skeena
  • Cowichan
  • Chemainus
  • Saanich


Red, late summer
  • Cascade Delight
  • Coho
  • Fertődi Rubina
  • Glen Prosen
  • Malling Leo
  • Octavia
  • Schoenemann
  • Tulameen

Red, primocane, fall, autumn fruiting
  • Amity
  • Augusta
  • Autumn Bliss
  • Joan J (Thornless)
  • Caroline
  • Fertődi Kétszertermő
  • Heritage
  • Josephine
  • Ripley
  • Summit
  • Zeva Herbsternte


Gold/Yellow, primocane, fall, autumn fruiting
  • Anne
  • Fallgold
  • Fertődi Aranyfürt
  • Goldenwest
  • Golden Queen
  • Honey Queen
  • Kiwi Gold


Purple
  • Brandywine
  • Royalty


Black
  • Black Hawk
  • Bristol
  • Cumberland
  • Glencoe
  • Jewel
  • Munger
  • Ohio Everbearer
  • Scepter

Diseases and pests

Raspberries are sometimes eaten by the larva
Larva
A larva is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect development such as insects, amphibians, or cnidarians typically have a larval phase of their life cycle...

e of some Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera
Lepidoptera is a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies . It is one of the most widespread and widely recognizable insect orders in the world, encompassing moths and the three superfamilies of butterflies, skipper butterflies, and moth-butterflies...

 species (butterflies and moths). See list of Lepidoptera that feed on Rubus.

Botrytis cinerea
Botrytis cinerea
Botrytis cinerea is a necrotrophic fungus that affects many plant species, although its most notable hosts may be wine grapes. In viticulture, it is commonly known as botrytis bunch rot; in horticulture, it is usually called grey mould or gray mold.The fungus gives rise to two different kinds of...

, or Gray Mould, is a common fungal infection of raspberries and other soft fruit. It is seen as a grey mould growing on the raspberries, and particularly affects fruit which is bruised, as it provides an easy entrance point for the spores of B. Cinerea.


Raspberry plants should not be planted where potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants or bulbs have previously been grown, without prior fumigation of the soil. These crops are hosts for the disease Verticillium Wilt
Verticillium wilt
Verticillium Wilt is a wilt disease of over 300 species of eudicot plants caused by one of two species of Verticillium fungus, V. dahliae and V. albo-atrum. Many economically important plants are susceptible including cotton, tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants, peppers and ornamentals, as well as others...

, a fungus that can stay in the soil for many years and can infest the raspberry crop.

See also

  • Red raspberry leaf
    Red raspberry leaf
    The red raspberry leaf is a pale-green leaf produced by the raspberry plant; an upright shrub with perennial roots and prickly, biennial canes. The leaf has been used in folk remedies, due to its rich content in vitamins, minerals, and tannins.-Pregnancy:Traditional lore suggests that pregnant...

    , used as a herb
  • Chambord Liqueur Royale de France
    Chambord Liqueur Royale de France
    Chambord Black Raspberry Liqueur is modelled after a raspberry liqueur produced in the Loire Valley of France during the late 17th century. The liqueur was said to have been introduced to Louis XIV during one of his visits to the Château de Chambord. It was common during that time for liqueurs and...

  • List of culinary fruits
  • Raspberry ketone
    Raspberry ketone
    Raspberry ketone is a natural phenolic compound that is the primary aroma compound of red raspberries. It is used in perfumery, in cosmetics, and as a food additive to impart a fruity odor. It is one of the most expensive natural flavor components used in the food industry. The natural compound...

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