that is part of
the United Kingdom
. Occupying the northern third of the island of Great Britain
, it shares a border
to the south and is bounded by the North Sea
to the east, the Atlantic Ocean
to the north and west, and the North Channel
and Irish Sea
to the southwest. In addition to the mainland, Scotland includes over 790 islands including the Northern Isles
and the Hebrides
, the country's capital and second largest city, is one of Europe
's largest financial centres.
565 St. Columba reports seeing a monster in Loch Ness, Scotland.
1054 Siward, Earl of Northumbria invades Scotland to support Malcolm Canmore against Macbeth of Scotland, who usurped the Scottish throne from Malcolm's father, King Duncan. Macbeth is defeated at Dunsinane.
1153 Malcolm IV becomes King of Scotland.
1291 Scottish nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England.
1292 (O.S.) John Balliol becomes King of Scotland.
1295 Scotland and France form an alliance, the so-called "Auld Alliance", against England.
1296 Edward I sacks Berwick-upon-Tweed, during armed conflict between Scotland and England.
1296 Battle of Dunbar: The Scots are defeated by Edward I of England.
1305 William Wallace, who led the Scottish resistance against England, is captured by the English near Glasgow and transported to London where he is put on trial and executed.
1306 The Earl of Pembroke's army defeats Bruce's Scottish army at the Battle of Methven.