Dominion of Newfoundland
The Dominion of Newfoundland was a British Dominion from 1907 to 1949 (before which the territory had the status of a British
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 colony, self-governing from 1855) . The Dominion of Newfoundland was situated in northeastern North America
North America
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas...

 along the Atlantic
Atlantic Ocean
The Atlantic Ocean is the second-largest of the world's oceanic divisions. With a total area of about , it covers approximately 20% of the Earth's surface and about 26% of its water surface area...

 coast and comprised the island of Newfoundland and Labrador
Labrador is the distinct, northerly region of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. It comprises the mainland portion of the province, separated from the island of Newfoundland by the Strait of Belle Isle...

 on the continental mainland. According to the Statute of Westminster
Statute of Westminster 1931
The Statute of Westminster 1931 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Passed on 11 December 1931, the Act established legislative equality for the self-governing dominions of the British Empire with the United Kingdom...

 of December 11, 1931, the Dominion of Newfoundland was independent within the British Commonwealth, as were Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

, Ireland
Ireland is an island to the northwest of continental Europe. It is the third-largest island in Europe and the twentieth-largest island on Earth...

, the Union of South Africa
Union of South Africa
The Union of South Africa is the historic predecessor to the present-day Republic of South Africa. It came into being on 31 May 1910 with the unification of the previously separate colonies of the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and the Orange Free State...

, Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

, and New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

. But on February 16, 1934 the Newfoundland Parliament passed an Address to the Crown relinquishing self-government. Responsible government in Newfoundland voluntarily ended and governance of the dominion reverted to direct control from London — one of the few countries that has ever voluntarily given up direct self-rule. Between 1934 and 1949 a six-member Commission of Government
Commission of Government
The Commission of Government was a non-elected body that governed Newfoundland from 1934 to 1949...

 (plus a governor) administered Newfoundland, reporting to the Dominions Office in London. Newfoundland remained a de jure
De jure
De jure is an expression that means "concerning law", as contrasted with de facto, which means "concerning fact".De jure = 'Legally', De facto = 'In fact'....

dominion until it joined Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 in 1949 to become Canada's tenth province
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second-largest country by area. There are ten provinces and three territories...


The Union Jack
Union Flag
The Union Flag, also known as the Union Jack, is the flag of the United Kingdom. It retains an official or semi-official status in some Commonwealth Realms; for example, it is known as the Royal Union Flag in Canada. It is also used as an official flag in some of the smaller British overseas...

 was adopted by legislature as the official national flag of the Dominion of Newfoundland on May 15, 1931, before which time the Newfoundland Red Ensign, as civil ensign
Civil ensign
The civil ensign is the national flag flown by civil ships to denote nationality...

 of Newfoundland, was used as the national flag (though unlegislated).

Political origins

In 1854 the British government established Newfoundland's responsible government
Responsible government
Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy...

. In 1855, Philip Francis Little
Philip Francis Little
Philip Francis Little was the first Premier of Newfoundland Colony between 1855 and 1858. He was born in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. Little studied law there with Charles Young and was admitted to the bar in 1844. He came to Newfoundland in 1846 and articled in law. He got involved in...

, a native of Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island is a Canadian province consisting of an island of the same name, as well as other islands. The maritime province is the smallest in the nation in both land area and population...

, won a parliamentary majority over Sir Hugh Hoyles
Hugh Hoyles
Sir Hugh Hoyles was a politician and lawyer who served as the third premier of the Newfoundland Colony. Hoyles was the first premier of Newfoundland to have been born in the colony, and served from 1861 to 1865. Born in St...

 and the Conservatives. Little formed the first administration from 1855 to 1858. Newfoundland rejected confederation with Canada in the 1869 general election. Prime Minister of Canada
Prime Minister of Canada
The Prime Minister of Canada is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus head of government for Canada, charged with advising the Canadian monarch or viceroy on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution...

 Sir John Thompson came very close to negotiating Newfoundland's entry into confederation in 1892.

It remained a colony until acquiring dominion status in 1907.

First World War and after

Newfoundland's own regiment, the 1st Newfoundland Regiment, fought in the First World War. On July 1, 1916, the German Army wiped out most of that regiment at Beaumont Hamel
Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial
The Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial is a memorial site in France dedicated to the commemoration of Dominion of Newfoundland forces members who were killed during World War I. The preserved battlefield park encompasses the grounds over which the Newfoundland Regiment made their unsuccessful...

 on the first day on the Somme
First day on the Somme
The first day on the Somme, 1 July 1916, was the opening day of the Battle of Albert, which was the first phase of the British and French offensive that became known as the Battle of the Somme...

, inflicting 90 percent casualties. Yet the regiment went on to serve with distinction in several subsequent battles, earning the prefix "Royal." Despite people's pride in the accomplishments of the regiment, Newfoundland's war debt for the regiment and the cost of maintaining a trans-island railway led to increased and ultimately unsustainable government debt in the post-war era.

After the war, Newfoundland along with the other dominions sent a separate delegation to the Paris Peace Conference
Paris Peace Conference, 1919
The Paris Peace Conference was the meeting of the Allied victors following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers following the armistices of 1918. It took place in Paris in 1919 and involved diplomats from more than 32 countries and nationalities...

 but, unlike the other dominions, Newfoundland did not seek a separate membership in the League of Nations
League of Nations
The League of Nations was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War. It was the first permanent international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace...


In the 1920s, political scandals wracked the dominion. In 1923, the attorney general
Attorney General
In most common law jurisdictions, the attorney general, or attorney-general, is the main legal advisor to the government, and in some jurisdictions he or she may also have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions.The term is used to refer to any person...

 arrested Newfoundland's prime minister Sir Richard Squires
Richard Squires
Sir Richard Anderson Squires KCMG was the Prime Minister of Newfoundland from 1919 to 1923 and from 1928 to 1932.-Early career:...

  on charges of corruption. Despite his release soon after on bail, the British-led Hollis Walker commission reviewed the scandal. Soon after, the Squires government fell. Squires returned to power in 1928 because of the unpopularity of his successors, the pro-business Walter Stanley Monroe
Walter Stanley Monroe
Walter Stanley Monroe was a businessman and conservative politician who served as Prime Minister of Newfoundland from 1924 to 1928 as leader of the Liberal-Conservative Progressive Party....

 and (briefly) Frederick C. Alderdice
Frederick C. Alderdice
Frederick Charles Alderdice was a businessman, politician and the last Prime Minister of Newfoundland. A prominent St...

 (Monroe's cousin), but found himself governing a country suffering from the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...


The Judicial Committee of the Imperial Privy Council
Judicial Committee of the Privy Council
The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. Established by the Judicial Committee Act 1833 to hear appeals formerly heard by the King in Council The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (JCPC) is one of the highest courts in the United...

 resolved Newfoundland's long-standing Labrador boundary dispute with Canada to the satisfaction of Newfoundland and of Canada (but not of Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

, the province that bordered Labrador) with a ruling on April 1, 1927. Prior to 1867, the Quebec North Shore portion of the "Labrador coast" had shuttled back and forth between the colonies of Lower Canada
Lower Canada
The Province of Lower Canada was a British colony on the lower Saint Lawrence River and the shores of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence...

 and Newfoundland. Maps up to 1927 showed the coastal region as part of Newfoundland, with an undefined boundary. The Privy Council ruling established a boundary along the drainage divide separating waters that flowed through the territory to the Labrador coast, although following two straight lines from the Romaine River
Romaine River
The Romaine River is a river in the Côte-Nord region of the Canadian province of Quebec. It is long. It is not to be confused with the Olomane River that is to the east and had the same name for a long time....

 along the 52nd parallel
52nd parallel north
The 52nd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 52 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean....

, then south near 57 degrees west
57th meridian west
The meridian 57° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Atlantic Ocean, South America, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole....

 longitude to the Gulf of Saint Lawrence
Gulf of Saint Lawrence
The Gulf of Saint Lawrence , the world's largest estuary, is the outlet of North America's Great Lakes via the Saint Lawrence River into the Atlantic Ocean...

. Quebec has long rejected the outcome, and Quebec's provincially issued maps do not mark the boundary in the same way as boundaries with Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

 and New Brunswick
New Brunswick
New Brunswick is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and is the only province in the federation that is constitutionally bilingual . The provincial capital is Fredericton and Saint John is the most populous city. Greater Moncton is the largest Census Metropolitan Area...


End of responsible government

Not surprisingly for a small country which relied primarily upon the export of fish, paper and minerals, the Great Depression hit Newfoundland very hard. Economic frustration combined with anger over government corruption led to a general dissatisfaction with democratic government. On April 5, 1932, a mob of 10,000 people marched on the Colonial Building
Colonial Building
Colonial Building was the home of the Newfoundland government and the House of Assembly from January 28, 1850 to July 28, 1959. In 1974 it was declared a Provincial Historic Site....

 (seat of the House of Assembly
Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly
The Newfoundland and Labrador House of Assembly is one of two components of the General Assembly of Newfoundland and Labrador, the other being the Lieutenant-Governor of Newfoundland and Labrador. The Newfoundland and Labrador General Assembly meets in the Confederation Building at St...

) and forced prime minister Squires to flee. Squires lost the election held later in 1932. The next government, led once more by Alderdice, called upon the British government to take direct control until Newfoundland could become self-sustaining. The United Kingdom, concerned over Newfoundland's likelihood of defaulting on its war-debt payments, established the Newfoundland Royal Commission
Newfoundland Royal Commission
The Newfoundland Royal Commission or Amulree Commission was a royal commission established on February 17, 1933 by the Government of the United Kingdom "to examine into the future of Newfoundland and in particular to report on the financial situation and prospects therein."In November 1932, the...

, headed by a Scottish peer, William Mackenzie, 1st Baron Amulree
William Mackenzie, 1st Baron Amulree
William Warrender Mackenzie, 1st Baron Amulree GCB, KBE, PC, KC , known as Sir William Mackenzie between 1918 and 1929, was a British barrister, public servant and Labour, later National Labour, politician...

. Its report, released in 1933, assessed Newfoundland's political culture as intrinsically corrupt and its economic prospects as bleak, and advocated the abolition of responsible government and its replacement by a Commission of the British Government. Acting on the report's recommendations, Alderdice's government voted itself out of existence in December 1933.

In 1934, the Dominion suspended Newfoundland's self-governing status and the Commission of Government
Commission of Government
The Commission of Government was a non-elected body that governed Newfoundland from 1934 to 1949...

 took control. Newfoundland remained a dominion in name only. A severe depression persisted until the Second World War broke out in 1939.

Second World War

Given Newfoundland's strategic location in the Battle of the Atlantic, the Allies
Allies of World War II
The Allies of World War II were the countries that opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War . Former Axis states contributing to the Allied victory are not considered Allied states...

 (especially the United States of America) built many military bases there. Large numbers of unskilled men gained the first paychecks they had seen in years by working on construction and in dockside crews. National income doubled overnight as an economic boom took place in the Avalon Peninsula
Avalon Peninsula
The Avalon Peninsula is a large peninsula that makes up the southeast portion of the island of Newfoundland.The peninsula is home to 257,223 people, which is approximately 51% of Newfoundland's population in 2009, and is the location of the provincial capital, St. John's. It is connected to the...

 and to a lesser degree in Gander
Gander, Newfoundland and Labrador
Gander is a Canadian town located in the northeastern part of the island of Newfoundland in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, approximately south of Gander Bay, south of Twillingate and east of Grand Falls-Windsor...

, Botwood
Botwood, Newfoundland and Labrador
Northwest: Point LeamingtonNorth: Northern ArmNortheast: Bay of Exploits, Burnt Arm, LaurencetonWest: Division No. 6, Subd. CBotwoodEast: Bay of Exploits, Division No. 6, Subd. A...

, and Stephenville
Stephenville, Newfoundland and Labrador
Stephenville is a Canadian town in Newfoundland and Labrador on the west coast of the island of Newfoundland....

. The United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 became the main supplier, and American money and influence diffused rapidly from the military, naval, and air bases. Prosperity returned to the fishing industry by 1943. Government revenues, aided by inflation and new income, quadrupled, even though Newfoundland had tax rates much lower than those in Canada, Britain, or the United States. To the astonishment of all, Newfoundland started financing loans to London. Wartime prosperity ended the long depression and reopened the question of political status.

The American Bases Act became law in Newfoundland on 11 June 1941. As Earle (1998) finds, Newfoundland girls married American personnel by the thousands, "the Yanks' jaunty manner and easy social ways making an often stark contrast to the Canadian servicemen who at this time began to coin the epithet 'Newfie
Newfie is a colloquial term used in Canada for someone who is from Newfoundland. It appears in a 1942 dictionary of slang; at the time, 'Newfie' was used as often to refer to Newfoundland itself as to people from Newfoundland .The term 'Newfie' has been applied to the Newfoundland people, the...

.'" The American connection worked so well that the Canadian government in Ottawa became alarmed. A new political party formed in Newfoundland to support closer ties with the U.S., the Economic Union Party
Economic Union Party
The Economic Union Party was a political party formed in the Dominion of Newfoundland on 20 March 1948, during the first referendum campaign on the future of the country. The British-appointed Commission of Government had administered the country since the financial collapse of 1934...

, which Earle characterises as "a short-lived but lively movement for economic union with the United States". Advocates of union with Canada denounced the Economic Union Party as republican, disloyal and anti-British; Britain refused to allow the voting populace the option to choose union with the U.S., and the U.S. State Department
United States Department of State
The United States Department of State , is the United States federal executive department responsible for international relations of the United States, equivalent to the foreign ministries of other countries...

, needing British and Canadian cooperation during the Second World War, decided not to interfere.

National Convention and referendums

Following the Second World War, in 1946, an election took place to determine the membership of the Newfoundland National Convention
Newfoundland National Convention
The Newfoundland National Convention of 1946 was a forum established to decide the constitutional future of Newfoundland-Nominations:On 11 December 1945 the Government of Britain announced that there would be an election to a National Convention, which would debate constitutional options and make a...

, charged with deciding the future of Newfoundland. The Convention voted to hold a referendum
Newfoundland referendums, 1948
The Newfoundland Referendums of 1948 were a series of two referendums to decide the political future of the Dominion of Newfoundland. Before the referendums, Newfoundland was in debt and went through several delegations to determine whether the country would join Canada, remain under British rule...

 to decide between continuing the Commission of Government or restoring responsible government
Responsible government
Responsible government is a conception of a system of government that embodies the principle of parliamentary accountability which is the foundation of the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy...

. Joseph R. Smallwood, the leader of the confederates, moved for the inclusion of a third option — that of confederation with Canada. The Convention defeated his motion, but he did not give up, instead gathering more than 5,000 petition signatures within a fortnight, which he sent to London through the governor. The United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, insisting that it would not give Newfoundland any further financial assistance, added this third option of having Newfoundland join Canada to the ballot. After much debate, an initial referendum took place on June 3, 1948, to decide between continuing with the Commission of Government, reverting to dominion status, or joining the Canadian Confederation
Canadian Confederation
Canadian Confederation was the process by which the federal Dominion of Canada was formed on July 1, 1867. On that day, three British colonies were formed into four Canadian provinces...

. Three parties participated in the referendum campaign: Smallwood's Confederate Association
Confederate Association
The Confederate Association was a political party formed and led by Joey Smallwood and Gordon Bradley to advocate that the Dominion of Newfoundland join Canadian Confederation. The party was formed on February 21, 1948 prior to the launch of the 1948 Newfoundland referendums on Confederation...

 campaigned for the confederation option while in the anti-confederation campaign Peter Cashin's Responsible Government League
Responsible Government League
The Responsible Government League was a political movement in the Dominion of Newfoundland.The Responsible Government League of Newfoundland, led by Peter Cashin, was formed in February 1947 by anti-Confederation delegates to the Newfoundland National Convention on the future of the colony...

 and Chesley Crosbie
Chesley Crosbie
Chesley A. Crosbie was a Newfoundland businessman and politician.Crosbie belonged to a prominent St. John's family involved in hotels, fish exporting, insurance, shipping and manufactring...

's Economic Union Party
Economic Union Party
The Economic Union Party was a political party formed in the Dominion of Newfoundland on 20 March 1948, during the first referendum campaign on the future of the country. The British-appointed Commission of Government had administered the country since the financial collapse of 1934...

 (both of which called for a vote for responsible government) took part. No party advocated petitioning Britain to continue the Commission of Government.

The result proved inconclusive, with 44.5 percent supporting the restoration of dominion status, 41.1 percent for confederation with Canada, and 14.3 percent for continuing the Commission of Government. Between the first and second referendums, rumour had it that Catholic bishops were using their religious influence to alter the outcome of the votes. The Orange Order
Orange Institution
The Orange Institution is a Protestant fraternal organisation based mainly in Northern Ireland and Scotland, though it has lodges throughout the Commonwealth and United States. The Institution was founded in 1796 near the village of Loughgall in County Armagh, Ireland...

, incensed, called on all its members to vote for confederation, as the Catholics voted for responsible government. The Protestants of Newfoundland outnumbered the Catholics by a ratio of 2:1. Some commentators believe that this sectarian divide greatly influenced the outcome of the second referendum. A second referendum on July 22, 1948, which asked Newfoundlanders to choose between confederation and dominion status, produced a vote of 52 percent to 48 percent for confederation, and Newfoundland joined Canada on March 31, 1949.

Not everyone accepted the results, however. Peter John Cashin
Peter John Cashin
Major Peter John Cashin was a businessman, soldier and politician in Newfoundland and Labrador.-Early life:Cashin, a son of Sir Michael Cashin, joined the Newfoundland Regiment during World War I and ultimately served in command of the British Machine Gun Corp...

, an outspoken anti-Confederate, questioned the validity of the votes. He claimed that an "unholy union between London and Ottawa" brought about confederation.

National anthem

The official anthem of the Dominion of Newfoundland was the "Ode to Newfoundland
Ode to Newfoundland
"Ode to Newfoundland" is the official provincial anthem of Newfoundland and Labrador. It was composed by Governor Sir Cavendish Boyle in 1902. as a four-verse poem entitled Newfoundland. On December 22, 1902 it was sung by Frances Daisy Foster at the Casino Theatre of St. John's during the closing...

", written by British colonial governor Sir Charles Cavendish Boyle
Charles Cavendish Boyle
Sir Charles Cavendish Boyle, KCMG was a British colonial administrator. He joined the British Colonial Office and was made magistrate in the Leeward Islands in 1879. He served as Colonial Secretary in Bermuda from 1882 to 1888 and in Gibraltar from 1888 to 1894 and was granted a knighthood for his...

 in 1902 during his administration of Newfoundland (1901 to 1904). It was adopted as the official anthem on May 20, 1904, until confederation with Canada in 1949. In 1980, the province of Newfoundland re-adopted the song as an official provincial anthem, making Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador
Newfoundland and Labrador is the easternmost province of Canada. Situated in the country's Atlantic region, it incorporates the island of Newfoundland and mainland Labrador with a combined area of . As of April 2011, the province's estimated population is 508,400...

 the only province in Canada to adopt a provincial anthem officially. The "Ode to Newfoundland" continues to be heard at public events in the province to this day; however, only the first and last verses are traditionally sung.

See also

  • Newfoundland Act
    Newfoundland Act
    The Newfoundland Act was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that confirmed and gave effect to the Terms of Union agreed to between the then-separate Dominions of Canada and Newfoundland on March 23, 1949...

    , a British Act of Parliament
    Act of Parliament
    An Act of Parliament is a statute enacted as primary legislation by a national or sub-national parliament. In the Republic of Ireland the term Act of the Oireachtas is used, and in the United States the term Act of Congress is used.In Commonwealth countries, the term is used both in a narrow...

     that confirmed and gave effect to the Terms of Union agreed to between the Dominion of Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland on March 23, 1949.
  • List of prime ministers of the Dominion of Newfoundland
  • General elections in Newfoundland (pre-Confederation)
    General elections in Newfoundland (pre-Confederation)
    Newfoundland, as a British colony and dominion, held 29 general elections for its 28 Newfoundland House of Assemblies. In 1934 the Dominion of Newfoundland surrendered its constitution to the Crown and ceased to have a legislature in order to be ruled by London through the Commission of...

  • List of political parties in Newfoundland and Labrador
  • Charles Jost Burchell
    Charles Jost Burchell
    Charles Jost Burchell, PC was a Canadian diplomat. He served as Canada's first High Commissioner to Australia from 1939 to 1941 and as Canada's first and last High Commissioner to the Dominion of Newfoundland serving from 1941 to 1944 and again from 1948 to 1949.Burchell also raised the...

    , Canada's High Commissioner to Newfoundland, involved in negotiating union with Canada.

Political parties in the Dominion of Newfoundland
  • Conservative parties in Newfoundland (pre-Confederation)
    Conservative parties in Newfoundland (pre-Confederation)
    For the modern Conservative Party see Progressive Conservative Party of Newfoundland and LabradorThe Conservative Party of Newfoundland was a political party in the Dominion of Newfoundland prior to confederation with Canada in 1949....

  • Liberal parties in Newfoundland (pre-Confederation)
    Liberal parties in Newfoundland (pre-Confederation)
    For the modern Liberal Party see Liberal Party of Newfoundland and LabradorSeveral earlier groupings functioned in the Dominion of Newfoundland under the name Liberal Party of Newfoundland from the granting of responsible government to the island in the 1850s until its suspension in 1934 when the...

  • Fisherman's Protective Union
  • Newfoundland People's Party
    Newfoundland People's Party
    The Newfoundland People's Party was a political party in the Dominion of Newfoundland before it joined Canada.The party was created by Attorney-General Edward Patrick Morris in 1907, when he split from the ruling Liberal Party to found his own political vehicle...

  • United Newfoundland Party
    United Newfoundland Party
    The United Newfoundland Party was the name of a conservative party in the Dominion of Newfoundland led by Frederick C. Alderdice from 1928 to 1934. It was organized by Alderdice when disaffected Liberals joined his Liberal-Conservative Progressive Party sitting in Opposition and won the 1932...

External links

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