Prince Edward Island
Overview
 
Prince Edward Island is a Canadian
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 province
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second-largest country by area. There are ten provinces and three territories...

 consisting of an island of the same name, as well as other islands. The maritime province
Maritimes
The Maritime provinces, also called the Maritimes or the Canadian Maritimes, is a region of Eastern Canada consisting of three provinces, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. On the Atlantic coast, the Maritimes are a subregion of Atlantic Canada, which also includes the...

 is the smallest in the nation in both land area and population. The island has a few other names: "Garden of the Gulf" referring to the pastoral scenery and lush agricultural lands throughout the province; and "Birthplace of Confederation", referring to the Charlottetown Conference
Charlottetown Conference
The Charlottetown Conference was held in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island for representatives from the colonies of British North America to discuss Canadian Confederation...

 in 1864, although PEI did not join the confederation itself until 1873 when it became the seventh Canadian province.

According to the 2009 estimates, Prince Edward Island has 141,000 residents.
Encyclopedia
Prince Edward Island is a Canadian
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

 province
Provinces and territories of Canada
The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second-largest country by area. There are ten provinces and three territories...

 consisting of an island of the same name, as well as other islands. The maritime province
Maritimes
The Maritime provinces, also called the Maritimes or the Canadian Maritimes, is a region of Eastern Canada consisting of three provinces, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. On the Atlantic coast, the Maritimes are a subregion of Atlantic Canada, which also includes the...

 is the smallest in the nation in both land area and population. The island has a few other names: "Garden of the Gulf" referring to the pastoral scenery and lush agricultural lands throughout the province; and "Birthplace of Confederation", referring to the Charlottetown Conference
Charlottetown Conference
The Charlottetown Conference was held in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island for representatives from the colonies of British North America to discuss Canadian Confederation...

 in 1864, although PEI did not join the confederation itself until 1873 when it became the seventh Canadian province.

According to the 2009 estimates, Prince Edward Island has 141,000 residents. It is located in a rectangle defined roughly by 46°
46th parallel north
The 46th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 46 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean....

47°N
47th parallel north
The 47th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 47 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, North America, and the Atlantic Ocean....

, and 62°
62nd meridian west
The meridian 62° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, North America, the Atlantic Ocean, South America, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole....

–64°30′W and at 5683.91 km² (2,194.6 sq mi) in size, it is the 104th largest island in the world, and Canada's 23rd largest island.
The island was named for Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn (1767–1820), the fourth son of King George III
George III of the United Kingdom
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of these two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death...

 and the father of Queen Victoria
Victoria of the United Kingdom
Victoria was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India....

.

Geography

Prince Edward Island is located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence west of Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island
Cape Breton Island is an island on the Atlantic coast of North America. It likely corresponds to the word Breton, the French demonym for Brittany....

, north of the Nova Scotia peninsula
Nova Scotia peninsula
The Nova Scotia peninsula is a peninsula on the Atlantic coast of North America.-Location:The Nova Scotia peninsula is part of the province of Nova Scotia, Canada and is connected to the neighbouring province of New Brunswick through the Isthmus of Chignecto...

, and east of New Brunswick
New Brunswick
New Brunswick is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and is the only province in the federation that is constitutionally bilingual . The provincial capital is Fredericton and Saint John is the most populous city. Greater Moncton is the largest Census Metropolitan Area...

. Its southern shore bounds the Northumberland Strait
Northumberland Strait
The Northumberland Strait is a strait in the southern part of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence in eastern Canada...

. The island has two urban areas. The largest surrounds Charlottetown Harbour, situated centrally on the island's southern shore, and consists of the capital city Charlottetown
Charlottetown
Charlottetown is a Canadian city. It is both the largest city on and the provincial capital of Prince Edward Island, and the county seat of Queens County. Named after Queen Charlotte, the wife of George III, Charlottetown was first incorporated as a town in 1855 and designated as a city in 1885...

, and suburban towns Cornwall
Cornwall, Prince Edward Island
Cornwall is a Canadian suburban town located in Queens County, Prince Edward Island.The town is located immediately west of the provincial capital Charlottetown and functions as a bedroom community.-History:...

 and Stratford
Stratford, Prince Edward Island
Stratford is a Canadian suburban town located in central Prince Edward Island.It is situated on a peninsula formed by the Hillsborough River estuary, Charlottetown Harbour, and Hillsborough Bay - a sub-basin of the Northumberland Strait....

 and a developing urban fringe. A much smaller urban area surrounds Summerside Harbour, situated on the southern shore 40 km (24.9 mi) west of Charlottetown Harbour, and consists primarily of the city of Summerside
Summerside, Prince Edward Island
Summerside is a Canadian city in Prince County, Prince Edward Island. It is the second largest city in the province and the principal municipality for the western part of the island.- History :...

. As with all natural harbours on the island, Charlottetown and Summerside harbours are created by ria
Ria
A ria is a coastal inlet formed by the partial submergence of an unglaciated river valley. It is a drowned river valley that remains open to the sea. Typically, rias have a dendritic, treelike outline although they can be straight and without significant branches. This pattern is inherited from the...

s.

The island's landscape is pastoral
Pastoral
The adjective pastoral refers to the lifestyle of pastoralists, such as shepherds herding livestock around open areas of land according to seasons and the changing availability of water and pasturage. It also refers to a genre in literature, art or music that depicts such shepherd life in an...

. Rolling hills, woods, reddish white sand beaches, ocean coves and the famous red soil have given Prince Edward Island a reputation as a province of outstanding natural beauty. The provincial government has enacted laws that attempt to preserve the landscape through regulation, although there is a lack of consistent enforcement, and an absence of province-wide zoning
Zoning
Zoning is a device of land use planning used by local governments in most developed countries. The word is derived from the practice of designating permitted uses of land based on mapped zones which separate one set of land uses from another...

 and land-use planning.
The island's lush landscape has a strong bearing on its economy and culture. Author Lucy Maud Montgomery
Lucy Maud Montgomery
Lucy Maud Montgomery OBE , called "Maud" by family and friends and publicly known as L.M. Montgomery, was a Canadian author best known for a series of novels beginning with Anne of Green Gables, published in 1908. Anne of Green Gables was an immediate success...

 drew inspiration from the land during the late Victorian Era
Victorian era
The Victorian era of British history was the period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity, refined sensibilities and national self-confidence...

 for the setting of her classic novel Anne of Green Gables
Anne of Green Gables
Anne of Green Gables is a bestselling novel by Canadian author Lucy Maud Montgomery published in 1908. Set in 1878, it was written as fiction for readers of all ages, but in recent decades has been considered a children's book...

. Today, many of the same qualities that Montgomery and others found in the island are enjoyed by tourists who visit year-round. They enjoy a variety of leisure activities, including beaches, various golf course
Golf course
A golf course comprises a series of holes, each consisting of a teeing ground, fairway, rough and other hazards, and a green with a flagstick and cup, all designed for the game of golf. A standard round of golf consists of playing 18 holes, thus most golf courses have this number of holes...

s, eco-tourism adventures, touring the countryside, and enjoying cultural events in local communities around the island.

The smaller, rural communities as well as the towns and villages throughout the province proudly retain a slower-paced, old-world flavour, something factoring heavily into Prince Edward Island's popularity as a destination for relaxation. The economy of most rural communities on the island is based on small-scale agriculture
Small-scale agriculture
Small-scale agriculture is an alternative to factory farming or more broadly, intensive agriculture or unsustainable farming methods that are prevalent in primarily first world countries. Environmental Health Perspectives has noted that " Sustainable agriculture is not merely a package of...

, given the size of farm properties is small when compared with other areas in Canada. There is an increasing amount of industrial farming as older farm properties are consolidated and modernized.

The coastline consists of a combination of long beach
Beach
A beach is a geological landform along the shoreline of an ocean, sea, lake or river. It usually consists of loose particles which are often composed of rock, such as sand, gravel, shingle, pebbles or cobblestones...

es, dunes, red sandstone
Sandstone
Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized minerals or rock grains.Most sandstone is composed of quartz and/or feldspar because these are the most common minerals in the Earth's crust. Like sand, sandstone may be any colour, but the most common colours are tan, brown, yellow,...

 cliffs, salt water marsh
Marsh
In geography, a marsh, or morass, is a type of wetland that is subject to frequent or continuous flood. Typically the water is shallow and features grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, other herbaceous plants, and moss....

es and numerous bays
Headlands and bays
Headlands and bays are two related features of the coastal environment.- Geology and geography :Headlands and bays are often found on the same coastline. A bay is surrounded by land on three sides, whereas a headland is surrounded by water on three sides. Headlands are characterized by high,...

 and harbours
Harbor
A harbor or harbour , or haven, is a place where ships, boats, and barges can seek shelter from stormy weather, or else are stored for future use. Harbors can be natural or artificial...

. The beaches, dunes and sandstone cliffs consist of sedimentary rock and other material with a high iron concentration which oxidises upon exposure to the air. The geological properties of a white silica sand found at Basin Head
Basin Head, Prince Edward Island
Basin Head is a cape in Lot 47, Kings County, Prince Edward Island, Canada.Extending into the Northumberland Strait, its geographic coordinates are 46'23"N, 62'07"W....

 are unique in the province; the sand grains cause a scrubbing noise as they rub against each other when walked on, aptly named the singing sands. Large dune fields on the north shore can be found on barrier island
Barrier island
Barrier islands, a coastal landform and a type of barrier system, are relatively narrow strips of sand that parallel the mainland coast. They usually occur in chains, consisting of anything from a few islands to more than a dozen...

s at the entrances to various bays and harbours. The magnificent sand dunes at Greenwich
Greenwich, Prince Edward Island
Greenwich is an unincorporated Canadian rural community located in eastern Prince Edward Island, Canada.Located on the Greenwich Peninsula, which extends northwest from St. Peters, creating St...

 are of particular significance. The shifting, parabolic dune system is home to a variety of birds and rare plants and is also a site of significant archeological interest.

Geology

Between 250 to 300 million years ago, freshwater streams flowing from ancient mountains brought silt, sand and gravel into what is now the Gulf of St. Lawrence. These sediments accumulated to form a sedimentary basin
Sedimentary basin
The term sedimentary basin is used to refer to any geographical feature exhibiting subsidence and consequent infilling by sedimentation. As the sediments are buried, they are subjected to increasing pressure and begin the process of lithification...

, and make up the island's bedrock
Bedrock
In stratigraphy, bedrock is the native consolidated rock underlying the surface of a terrestrial planet, usually the Earth. Above the bedrock is usually an area of broken and weathered unconsolidated rock in the basal subsoil...

. When Pleistocene
Pleistocene
The Pleistocene is the epoch from 2,588,000 to 11,700 years BP that spans the world's recent period of repeated glaciations. The name pleistocene is derived from the Greek and ....

 glacier
Glacier
A glacier is a large persistent body of ice that forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation over many years, often centuries. At least 0.1 km² in area and 50 m thick, but often much larger, a glacier slowly deforms and flows due to stresses induced by its weight...

s receded about 15,000 years ago, glacial debris such as till was left behind to cover most of the area that would become the island. This area was connected to the mainland by a strip of land, but when ocean levels rose as the glaciers melted this land strip was flooded, forming the island. As the land rebounded from the weight of the ice, the island rose up to elevate it further from the surrounding water.

Climate

Winters are moderately cold, with clashes of cold Arctic air and milder Atlantic air causing frequent temperature swings. From December to April, the island usually has many storms (which may produce rain as well as snow) and blizzards. Springtime temperatures typically remain cool until the sea ice has melted, usually in late April or early May. Summers are moderately warm, but rarely uncomfortable, with the daily maximum temperature only occasionally reaching as high as 30 °C (86 °F). Autumn is a rather pleasant season, as the moderating Gulf waters delay the onset of frost, although storm activity does increase over that of summer. There is ample precipitation throughout the year, although it is heaviest in the late autumn and early winter and mid spring.

History

Before the influx of Europeans, the Mi'kmaq people inhabited Prince Edward Island. They named the Island Epekwitk, meaning "resting on the waves"; Europeans represented the pronunciation as Abegweit. The natives believed that the island was formed by the Great Spirit placing on the Blue Waters some dark red crescent-shaped clay.

French colony

In 1534, Jacques Cartier
Jacques Cartier
Jacques Cartier was a French explorer of Breton origin who claimed what is now Canada for France. He was the first European to describe and map the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River, which he named "The Country of Canadas", after the Iroquois names for the two big...

 was the first European to see the island. As part of the French colony of Acadia
Acadia
Acadia was the name given to lands in a portion of the French colonial empire of New France, in northeastern North America that included parts of eastern Quebec, the Maritime provinces, and modern-day Maine. At the end of the 16th century, France claimed territory stretching as far south as...

, the island was called "Île Saint-Jean".

Battle at Port-la-Joye (1745)

After the Siege of Louisbourg (1745)
Siege of Louisbourg (1745)
The Siege of Louisbourg took place in 1745 when a New England colonial force aided by a British fleet captured Louisbourg, the capital of the French province of Île-Royale during the War of the Austrian Succession, known as King George's War in the British colonies.Although the Fortress of...

 during King George's War
King George's War
King George's War is the name given to the operations in North America that formed part of the War of the Austrian Succession . It was the third of the four French and Indian Wars. It took place primarily in the British provinces of New York, Massachusetts Bay, New Hampshire, and Nova Scotia...

, the New Englanders also captured Île Saint-Jean (Prince Edward Island). An English detachment landed at Port-la-Joye. Under the command of Joseph de Pont Duvivier, the French had a garrison of 20 French troops at Port-la-Joye. The troops fled and New Englanders burned the capital to the ground. Duvivier and the twenty men retreated up the Northeast River (Hillsborough River), pursued by the New Englanders until the French troops received reinforcements from the Acadian militia and the Mi'kmaq. The French troops and their allies were able to drive the New Englanders to their boats, nine New Englanders killed, wounded or made prisoner. The New Englanders took six Acadian hostages, who would be executed if the Acadians or Mi'kmaq rebelled against New England control. The New England troops left for Louisbourg. Duvivier and his 20 troops left for Quebec. After the fall of Louisbourg, the resident French population of Ile Royal were deported to France. The Acadians of Ile Saint-Jean lived under the threat of deportation for the remainder of the war.

Battle at Port-la-Joye (1746)

The New Englanders had a force of two war ships and 200 soldiers stationed at Port-La-Joye
Port-la-Joye–Fort Amherst
Port-la-Joye—Fort Amherst is a National Historic Site of Canada in Prince Edward Island, Canada, commemorating the location's double distinction in hosting both the oldest permanent European settlement on Ile Saint-Jean and the first military fortification on the island to be built by the British...

. To regain Acadia, Ramezay was sent from Quebec to the region to join forces with the Duc d'Anville Expedition
Duc d'Anville Expedition
The Duc d'Anville Expedition was sent from France to recapture peninsular Acadia . The expedition was the largest military force ever to set sail for the New World prior to the American Revolution. The effort to take the Nova Scotian capital, Annapolis Royal was also supported on land by a force...

. Upon arriving at Chignecto, he sent Boishebert to Ile Saint-Jean on a reconnaissance to assess the size of the New England force. After Boishebert returned, Ramezay sent Joseph-Michel Legardeur de Croisille et de Montesson along with over 500 men, 200 of whom were Mi'kmaq, to Port-La-Joye. In July 1746, the battle happened near York River. Montesson and his troops killed forty New Englanders and captured the rest. Montesson was commended for having distinguished himself in his first independent command.

Expulsion of the Acadians

Roughly one thousand Acadians lived on the island, many of whom had fled to the island from mainland Nova Scotia during the first wave of the British-ordered expulsion
Great Upheaval
The Expulsion of the Acadians was the forced removal by the British of the Acadian people from present day Canadian Maritime provinces: Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island...

 in 1755, reaching a population of 5,000. However, many more were forcibly deported during the second wave of the expulsion after the Siege of Louisbourg (1758)
Siege of Louisbourg (1758)
The Siege of Louisbourg was a pivotal battle of the Seven Years' War in 1758 which ended the French colonial era in Atlantic Canada and led directly to the loss of Quebec in 1759 and the remainder of French North America the following year.-Background:The British government realized that with the...

. In the Ile Saint-Jean Campaign
Ile Saint-Jean Campaign
The Ile Saint-Jean Campaign was a series of military operations in fall 1758, during the French and Indian War, to deport the Acadians that either lived on Ile Saint-Jean or had taken refuge there from earlier deportation operations...

 (1758) General Jeffery Amherst ordered Colonel Andrew Rollo
Andrew Rollo, 5th Lord Rollo
Andrew Rollo, 5th Lord Rollo, was a Scottish army commander in Canada and Dominica during the Seven Years' War, who led the British land forces in the capture of Dominica on June 6, 1761....

 to capture the island. Many Acadians died in the expulsion enroute to France: on December 13, 1758, the transport ship Duke William sank and 364 died. A day earlier the Violet sank and 280 died; several days later the Ruby sank with 213 on board.

British colony

Great Britain
Kingdom of Great Britain
The former Kingdom of Great Britain, sometimes described as the 'United Kingdom of Great Britain', That the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England, shall upon the 1st May next ensuing the date hereof, and forever after, be United into One Kingdom by the Name of GREAT BRITAIN. was a sovereign...

 obtained the island from France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 under the terms of the Treaty of Paris
Treaty of Paris (1763)
The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on 10 February 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain, France and Spain, with Portugal in agreement. It ended the French and Indian War/Seven Years' War...

in 1763 which settled the Seven Years' War
Seven Years' War
The Seven Years' War was a global military war between 1756 and 1763, involving most of the great powers of the time and affecting Europe, North America, Central America, the West African coast, India, and the Philippines...

. The British called their new colony St. John's Island (also the Island of St. John's).

The first British governor of St. John's Island, Walter Patterson
Walter Patterson
Walter Patterson was the first British colonial Governor of Prince Edward Island.-Birth and life in the military:...

, was appointed in 1769. Assuming office in 1770, he had a controversial career during which land title disputes and factional conflict slowed the initial attempts to populate and develop the island under a feudal system. In an attempt to attract settlers from Ireland, in one of his first acts (1770) Patterson led the island's colonial assembly to rename the island "New Ireland", but the British Government promptly vetoed this as exceeding the authority vested in the colonial government; only the Privy Council in London could change the name of a colony.

Raid on Charlottetown (1775)

During the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War , the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War, began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen British colonies in North America, and ended in a global war between several European great powers.The war was the result of the...

 Charlottetown was raided in 1775 by a pair of American-employed privateers. Two armed schooners, Franklin and Hancock, from Beverly, Massachusetts
Beverly, Massachusetts
Beverly is a city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 39,343 on , which differs by no more than several hundred from the 39,862 obtained in the 2000 census. A resort, residential and manufacturing community on the North Shore, Beverly includes Beverly Farms and Prides...

, made prisoner of the attorney-general at Charlottetown, on advice given them by some Pictou residents after they had taken eight fishing vessels in the Gut of Canso.

During and after the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War , the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War, began as a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and thirteen British colonies in North America, and ended in a global war between several European great powers.The war was the result of the...

, from 1776 to 1783, the colony's efforts to attract exiled Loyalist refugees
United Empire Loyalists
The name United Empire Loyalists is an honorific given after the fact to those American Loyalists who resettled in British North America and other British Colonies as an act of fealty to King George III after the British defeat in the American Revolutionary War and prior to the Treaty of Paris...

 from the rebellious American colonies met with some success. Walter Patterson's brother, John Patterson, one of the original grantees of land on the island, was a temporarily exiled Loyalist and led efforts to persuade others to come.

The 1787 dismissal of Governor Patterson and his recall to London in 1789 dampened his brother's efforts, leading John to focus on his interests in the United States (one of John's sons, Commodore Daniel Patterson
Daniel Patterson
Daniel Todd Patterson was an officer in the United States Navy during the Quasi-War with France, the First Barbary War and the War of 1812.-Biography:...

, became a noted United States Navy
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. The U.S. Navy is the largest in the world; its battle fleet tonnage is greater than that of the next 13 largest navies combined. The U.S...

 hero, and John's grandsons, Rear Admiral Thomas H. Patterson
Thomas H. Patterson
Thomas Harmon Patterson was a rear admiral in the United States Navy.-Early life and career:Patterson was born in New Orleans, Louisiana, the second son of Commodore Daniel Todd Patterson, a War of 1812 U.S. Navy hero, and George Ann Pollock. Patterson saw action in the American Civil War and...

 and Lt. Carlile Pollock Patterson
Carlile Pollock Patterson
Carlile Pollock Patterson was an American civil engineer, superintendent of the United States Coast Survey...

 USN, achieved success).

Edmund Fanning
Edmund Fanning (colonial administrator)
Edmund Fanning first gained fame for his role in the War of the Regulation, but later had a distinguished career as a colonial governor and British general.right| Sketch of Edmund Fanning...

, also a Loyalist exiled by the Revolution, took over as the second governor, serving until 1804. His tenure was more successful than Patterson's.

On November 29, 1798, during Fanning's administration, Great Britain granted approval to change the colony's name from St. John's Island to Prince Edward Island to distinguish it from similar names in the Atlantic, such as the cities of Saint John, New Brunswick
Saint John, New Brunswick
City of Saint John , or commonly Saint John, is the largest city in the province of New Brunswick, and the first incorporated city in Canada. The city is situated along the north shore of the Bay of Fundy at the mouth of the Saint John River. In 2006 the city proper had a population of 74,043...

 and St. John's
St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador
St. John's is the capital and largest city in Newfoundland and Labrador, and is the oldest English-founded city in North America. It is located on the eastern tip of the Avalon Peninsula on the island of Newfoundland. With a population of 192,326 as of July 1, 2010, the St...

 in Newfoundland. The colony's new name honoured the fourth son of King George III
George III of the United Kingdom
George III was King of Great Britain and King of Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of these two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death...

, Prince Edward Augustus, the Duke of Kent (1767–1820), who subsequently led the British military forces on the continent as Commander-in-Chief, North America
Commander-in-Chief, North America
The office of Commander-in-Chief, North America was a military position of the British Army. Established in 1755 in the early years of the Seven Years' War, holders of the post were generally responsible for land-based military personnel and activities in and around those parts of North America...

 (1799–1800), with his headquarters in Halifax
City of Halifax
Halifax is a city in Canada, which was the capital of the province of Nova Scotia and shire town of Halifax County. It was the largest city in Atlantic Canada until it was amalgamated into Halifax Regional Municipality in 1996...

. (Prince Edward later became the father of the future Queen Victoria
Victoria of the United Kingdom
Victoria was the monarch of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837 until her death. From 1 May 1876, she used the additional title of Empress of India....

.)

During the 19th century the colony of Prince Edward Island began to attract "adventurous Victorian families looking for elegance on the sea. Prince Edward Island became a fashionable retreat in the nineteenth century for British nobility."

The island is known in Scottish Gaelic as Eilean a' Phrionnsa (lit. "the Island of the Prince", the local form of the longer 'Eilean a' Phrionnsa Iomhair/Eideard') or Eilean Eòin for some Gaelic speakers in Nova Scotia though not on PEI (lit. "John's Island" in reference to the island's former name of St. John's Island: the English translation of Île Saint Jean); in Míkmaq as Abegweit or Epekwitk roughly translated "land cradled in the waves".

Confederation

In September 1864, Prince Edward Island hosted the Charlottetown Conference
Charlottetown Conference
The Charlottetown Conference was held in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island for representatives from the colonies of British North America to discuss Canadian Confederation...

, which was the first meeting in the process leading to the Articles of Confederation
Canadian Confederation
Canadian Confederation was the process by which the federal Dominion of Canada was formed on July 1, 1867. On that day, three British colonies were formed into four Canadian provinces...

 and the creation of Canada in 1867. Prince Edward Island did not find the terms of union favourable and balked at joining in 1867, choosing to remain a colony of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

. In the late 1860s, the colony examined various options, including the possibility of becoming a discrete dominion unto itself, as well as entertaining delegations from the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, who were interested in Prince Edward Island joining the United States of America.
In 1871, the colony began construction of a railway
Prince Edward Island Railway
The Prince Edward Island Railway was a historic Canadian railway.-Construction:Located wholly within the province of Prince Edward Island, construction of the PEIR started in 1871, financed by the United Kingdom...

 and, frustrated by Great Britain's Colonial Office, began negotiations with the United States. In 1873, Prime Minister
Prime Minister of Canada
The Prime Minister of Canada is the primary minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus head of government for Canada, charged with advising the Canadian monarch or viceroy on the exercise of the executive powers vested in them by the constitution...

 Sir John A. Macdonald
John A. Macdonald
Sir John Alexander Macdonald, GCB, KCMG, PC, PC , QC was the first Prime Minister of Canada. The dominant figure of Canadian Confederation, his political career spanned almost half a century...

, anxious to thwart American expansionism and facing the distraction of the Pacific Scandal
Pacific Scandal
The Pacific Scandal was a political scandal in Canada involving allegations of bribes being accepted by the Conservative government in the attempts of private interests to influence the bidding for a national rail contract...

, negotiated for Prince Edward Island to join Canada. The Dominion Government of Canada assumed the colony's extensive railway debts and agreed to finance a buy-out of the last of the colony's absentee landlords to free the island of leasehold tenure and from any new immigrants entering the island (accomplished through the passage of the Land Purchase Act, 1875
Land Purchase Act (1875)
The Land Purchase Act, 1875 was a statute in Prince Edward Island, Canada passed by the General Assembly of Prince Edward Island in 1875...

). Prince Edward Island entered Confederation on 1 July 1873.

As a result of having hosted the inaugural meeting of Confederation, the Charlottetown Conference
Charlottetown Conference
The Charlottetown Conference was held in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island for representatives from the colonies of British North America to discuss Canadian Confederation...

, Prince Edward Island presents itself as the "Birthplace of Confederation" with several buildings, a ferry
Northumberland Ferries Limited
Northumberland Ferries Limited is a ferry company operating in eastern Canada and headquartered in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island...

 vessel, and the Confederation Bridge
Confederation Bridge
The Confederation Bridge is a bridge spanning the Abegweit Passage of Northumberland Strait, linking Prince Edward Island with mainland New Brunswick, Canada. It was commonly referred to as the "Fixed Link" by residents of Prince Edward Island prior to its official naming. Construction took place...

 (constructed 1993 to 1997). The most prominent building in the province with this name is the Confederation Centre of the Arts
Confederation Centre of the Arts
The Confederation Centre of the Arts is a cultural centre dedicated to the visual and performing arts located in the city of Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada.-History:...

, presented as a gift to Prince Edward Islanders by the 10 provincial governments and the Federal Government upon the centenary of the Charlottetown Conference, where it stands in Charlottetown as a national monument to the "Fathers of Confederation". The Centre is one of the 22 National Historic Sites of Canada located in Prince Edward Island.

Demographics

According to the 2001 Canadian Census, the largest ethnic group consists of people of Scottish
Scottish people
The Scottish people , or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically they emerged from an amalgamation of the Picts and Gaels, incorporating neighbouring Britons to the south as well as invading Germanic peoples such as the Anglo-Saxons and the Norse.In modern use,...

 descent (38.0%), followed by English
English people
The English are a nation and ethnic group native to England, who speak English. The English identity is of early mediaeval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Anglecynn. England is now a country of the United Kingdom, and the majority of English people in England are British Citizens...

 (28.7%), Irish
Irish people
The Irish people are an ethnic group who originate in Ireland, an island in northwestern Europe. Ireland has been populated for around 9,000 years , with the Irish people's earliest ancestors recorded having legends of being descended from groups such as the Nemedians, Fomorians, Fir Bolg, Tuatha...

 (27.9%), French
French people
The French are a nation that share a common French culture and speak the French language as a mother tongue. Historically, the French population are descended from peoples of Celtic, Latin and Germanic origin, and are today a mixture of several ethnic groups...

 (21.3%), German (4.0%), and Dutch
Dutch people
The Dutch people are an ethnic group native to the Netherlands. They share a common culture and speak the Dutch language. Dutch people and their descendants are found in migrant communities worldwide, notably in Suriname, Chile, Brazil, Canada, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, and the United...

 (3.1%) descent. In recent times the island has received an influx of immigrants from Asia
Asia
Asia is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area and with approximately 3.879 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human population...

 and Africa
Africa
Africa is the world's second largest and second most populous continent, after Asia. At about 30.2 million km² including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of the Earth's total surface area and 20.4% of the total land area...

. Almost half of respondents identified their ethnicity as "Canadian."
Population of Prince Edward Island since 1851
Year Population Mean annual 5-year 10-year Rank*
  Percentage change
1851 62,678 5
1861 80,857 2.6 29.0
1871 94,021 1.5 16.3
1881 108,891 1.5 15.8
1891 109,078 0.017 0.2 6
1901 103,259 −0.55 −5.3 7
1911 93,728 −0.96 −9.2 9
1921 88,615 −0.56 −5.4
1931 88,038 −0.065 −0.7
1941 95,047 0.77 8.0
1951 98,429 0.35 3.6 10
1956 99,285 0.17 0.9
1961 104,629 1.1 5.4 6.3
1966 108,535 0.74 3.7 9.3
1971 111,635 0.56 2.9 6.7
1976 118,225 1.2 5.9 8.9
1981 122,506 0.7 3.6 9.7
1986 126,640 0.67 3.4 7.1
1991 129,765 0.49 2.5 5.9
1996 134,557 0.73 3.7 6.3
2001 135,294 0.11 0.5 4.2
2006 135,851 NA 0.4 NA



Source: Statistics Canada
Statistics Canada
Statistics Canada is the Canadian federal government agency commissioned with producing statistics to help better understand Canada, its population, resources, economy, society, and culture. Its headquarters is in Ottawa....


Language

The 2006 Canadian census
Canada 2006 Census
The Canada 2006 Census was a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population. Census day was May 16, 2006. The next census following will be the 2011 Census. Canada's total population enumerated by the 2006 census was 31,612,897...

 showed a population of 135,851. Of the 133,570 singular responses to the census question concerning 'mother tongue' the most commonly reported languages were:
Rank Language Number Percent
1. English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

125,265 93.8%
2. French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

5,345 4.0%
3. Dutch
Dutch language
Dutch is a West Germanic language and the native language of the majority of the population of the Netherlands, Belgium, and Suriname, the three member states of the Dutch Language Union. Most speakers live in the European Union, where it is a first language for about 23 million and a second...

865 0.6%
4. German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

275 0.2%
5. Spanish
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

220 0.2%
6. Chinese
Chinese language
The Chinese language is a language or language family consisting of varieties which are mutually intelligible to varying degrees. Originally the indigenous languages spoken by the Han Chinese in China, it forms one of the branches of Sino-Tibetan family of languages...

190 0.1%
7. Arabic
Arabic language
Arabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...

150 0.1%
8. Hungarian
Hungarian language
Hungarian is a Uralic language, part of the Ugric group. With some 14 million speakers, it is one of the most widely spoken non-Indo-European languages in Europe....

120 0.1%
9. Mi'kmaq
Mi'kmaq language
The Mi'kmaq language is an Eastern Algonquian language spoken by nearly 9,100 Mi'kmaq in Canada and the United States out of a total ethnic Mi'kmaq population of roughly 20,000. The word Mi'kmaq is a plural word meaning 'my friends' ; the adjectival form is Míkmaw...

90 0.1%
10. Japanese
Japanese language
is a language spoken by over 130 million people in Japan and in Japanese emigrant communities. It is a member of the Japonic language family, which has a number of proposed relationships with other languages, none of which has gained wide acceptance among historical linguists .Japanese is an...

80 0.1%
11. Polish
Polish language
Polish is a language of the Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages, used throughout Poland and by Polish minorities in other countries...

70 0.1%
12. Korean
Korean language
Korean is the official language of the country Korea, in both South and North. It is also one of the two official languages in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in People's Republic of China. There are about 78 million Korean speakers worldwide. In the 15th century, a national writing...

65

In addition, there were also 105 responses of both English and a 'non-official language'; 25 of both French and a 'non-official language'; 495 of both English and French; 10 of English, French, and a 'non-official language'; and about 1,640 people who either did not respond to the question, or reported multiple non-official languages, or else gave another unenumerated response. (Figures shown are for the number of single language responses and the percentage of total single-language responses.)

Religion

Traditionally the population has been evenly divided between Catholic and Protestant affiliations. The 2001 census indicated number of adherents for the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the world's largest Christian church, with over a billion members. Led by the Pope, it defines its mission as spreading the gospel of Jesus Christ, administering the sacraments and exercising charity...

 with 63,240 (47%) and various Protestant churches with 57,805 (43%). This included the United Church of Canada
United Church of Canada
The United Church of Canada is a Protestant Christian denomination in Canada. It is the largest Protestant church and, after the Roman Catholic Church, the second-largest Christian church in Canada...

 with 26,570 (20%); the Presbyterian Church with 7,885 (6%) and the Anglican Church of Canada
Anglican Church of Canada
The Anglican Church of Canada is the Province of the Anglican Communion in Canada. The official French name is l'Église Anglicane du Canada. The ACC is the third largest church in Canada after the Roman Catholic Church and the United Church of Canada, consisting of 800,000 registered members...

 with 6,525 (5%); those with no religion were among the lowest of the provinces with 8,705 (6.5%).

Economy

The provincial economy is dominated by the seasonal industries of agriculture, tourism, and the fishery
Fishery
Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery. According to the FAO, a fishery is typically defined in terms of the "people involved, species or type of fish, area of water or seabed, method of fishing, class of boats,...

. The province is limited in terms of heavy industry and manufacturing. Although commercial deposits of minerals have not been found, exploration for natural gas
Natural gas
Natural gas is a naturally occurring gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, typically with 0–20% higher hydrocarbons . It is found associated with other hydrocarbon fuel, in coal beds, as methane clathrates, and is an important fuel source and a major feedstock for fertilizers.Most natural...

 beneath the eastern end of the province has resulted in the discovery of an undisclosed quantity of gas.

Agriculture remains the dominant industry in the provincial economy, as it has since colonial times. During the 20th century, potatoes replaced mixed farming as the leading cash crop
Cash crop
In agriculture, a cash crop is a crop which is grown for profit.The term is used to differentiate from subsistence crops, which are those fed to the producer's own livestock or grown as food for the producer's family...

, accounting for one-third of provincial farm income. The province currently accounts for a third of Canada's total potato production, producing approximately 1.3 billion kilograms annually. Comparatively, the state of Idaho
Idaho
Idaho is a state in the Rocky Mountain area of the United States. The state's largest city and capital is Boise. Residents are called "Idahoans". Idaho was admitted to the Union on July 3, 1890, as the 43rd state....

 produces approximately 6.2 billion kilograms annually, with a population approximately 9.5 times greater. The province is a major producer of seed potatoes, exporting to more than twenty countries around the world.
The island's economy has grown significantly over the last decade in key areas of innovation. Aerospace, Bioscience, ICT and Renewable energy have been a focus for growth and diversification. Aerospace alone now accounts for over 25% of the province's international exports and is the island's fourth largest industry at $355 million in annual sales.

As a legacy of the island's colonial history, the provincial government enforces extremely strict rules for non-resident land ownership. Residents and corporations are limited to maximum holdings of 400 and 1,200 hectares respectively. There are also restrictions on non-resident ownership of shorelines.

Many of the province's coastal communities rely upon shellfish harvesting, particularly lobster fishing
Lobster fishing
Lobster fishing, sometimes called lobstering, is the commercial or recreational harvesting of marine lobsters, spiny lobsters or crayfish.-Lobster tools and technology:...

 as well as oyster
Oyster
The word oyster is used as a common name for a number of distinct groups of bivalve molluscs which live in marine or brackish habitats. The valves are highly calcified....

 fishing and mussel
Mussel
The common name mussel is used for members of several families of clams or bivalvia mollusca, from saltwater and freshwater habitats. These groups have in common a shell whose outline is elongated and asymmetrical compared with other edible clams, which are often more or less rounded or oval.The...

 farming.

The provincial government provides consumer protection in the form of regulation for certain items, ranging from apartment rent increases to petroleum products including gas
Gasoline
Gasoline , or petrol , is a toxic, translucent, petroleum-derived liquid that is primarily used as a fuel in internal combustion engines. It consists mostly of organic compounds obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum, enhanced with a variety of additives. Some gasolines also contain...

, diesel, propane
Propane
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula , normally a gas, but compressible to a transportable liquid. A by-product of natural gas processing and petroleum refining, it is commonly used as a fuel for engines, oxy-gas torches, barbecues, portable stoves, and residential central...

 and heating oil
Heating oil
Heating oil, or oil heat, is a low viscosity, flammable liquid petroleum product used as a fuel for furnaces or boilers in buildings. Home heating oil is often abbreviated as HHO...

. These are regulated through the Island Regulatory and Appeals Commission (IRAC). IRAC is authorised to limit the number of companies who are permitted to sell petroleum products.

The sale of carbonated beverages such as beer
Beer
Beer is the world's most widely consumed andprobably oldest alcoholic beverage; it is the third most popular drink overall, after water and tea. It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of sugars, mainly derived from malted cereal grains, most commonly malted barley and malted wheat...

 and soft drink
Soft drink
A soft drink is a non-alcoholic beverage that typically contains water , a sweetener, and a flavoring agent...

s in non-refillable containers, such as aluminum cans or plastic bottles, was banned in 1976 as an environmental measure in response to public concerns over litter. Beer and soft drink companies opted to use refillable glass bottles for their products which were redeemable at stores and bottle depots. The introduction of recycling programs for cans and plastic bottles in neighbouring provinces in recent years (also using a redemption system) has seen the provincial government introduce legislation to reverse this ban with the restriction lifted on May 3, 2008.

Prince Edward Island has Canada's highest provincial retail sales tax
Sales tax
A sales tax is a tax, usually paid by the consumer at the point of purchase, itemized separately from the base price, for certain goods and services. The tax amount is usually calculated by applying a percentage rate to the taxable price of a sale....

 rate, currently (2008) established at 10%. The tax is applied to almost all goods and services except some clothing, food and home heating fuel. The tax is also applied to the Federal Goods and Services Tax
Goods and Services Tax (Canada)
The Goods and Services Tax is a multi-level value added tax introduced in Canada on January 1, 1991, by then Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and his finance minister Michael Wilson. The GST replaced a hidden 13.5% Manufacturers' Sales Tax ; Mulroney claimed the GST was implemented because the MST...

.

At present, approximately fifteen percent of electricity
Electricity
Electricity is a general term encompassing a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. These include many easily recognizable phenomena, such as lightning, static electricity, and the flow of electrical current in an electrical wire...

 consumed on the island is generated from renewable energy
Renewable energy
Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable . About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewables, with 10% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from...

 (largely wind turbine
Wind turbine
A wind turbine is a device that converts kinetic energy from the wind into mechanical energy. If the mechanical energy is used to produce electricity, the device may be called a wind generator or wind charger. If the mechanical energy is used to drive machinery, such as for grinding grain or...

s); the provincial government has set renewable energy targets as high as 30-50% for electricity consumed by 2015. Until wind generation, the province relied entirely on electricity imports on a submarine cable from New Brunswick. A thermal oil-fired generating station in Charlottetown is also available.

Persons employed on Prince Edward Island earn a minimum wage of $9.00/hour as of October 1, 2010.

Transportation

Prince Edward Island's transportation network has traditionally revolved around its seaports of Charlottetown, Summerside, Borden, Georgetown
Georgetown, Prince Edward Island
Georgetown is a Canadian town and the county seat of Kings County, Prince Edward Island. As of 2011, the population was 693.-Geography:Georgetown, Capital of Kings County, sits on an 8 kilometre long peninsula formed by the Cardigan and Brudenell Rivers, Along with Georgetown Harbour...

, and Souris —linked to its railway system, and the two main airports, Charlottetown
Charlottetown Airport
Charlottetown Airport, , is located north of Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada. The airport is currently run by the Charlottetown Airport Authority, is owned by Transport Canada and forms part of the National Airports System....

 and Summerside
Summerside Airport
Summerside Airport is located north-northwest of Summerside, Prince Edward Island, Canada.The airport is one of only two on Prince Edward Island with instrument approaches for bad-weather operations .-History:...

, for communication with mainland North America. The railway system was abandoned by CN in 1989 in favour of an agreement with the federal government to improve major highways.

Until 1997, the province was linked by two passenger-vehicle ferry
Ferry
A ferry is a form of transportation, usually a boat, but sometimes a ship, used to carry primarily passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo as well, across a body of water. Most ferries operate on regular, frequent, return services...

 services to the mainland: one, provided by Marine Atlantic
Marine Atlantic
Marine Atlantic Inc. is an independent Canadian Crown corporation offering ferry services between the provinces of Newfoundland and Labrador and Nova Scotia.Marine Atlantic's corporate headquarters are in St...

, operated year-round between Borden
Borden-Carleton, Prince Edward Island
Borden-Carleton is a Canadian village located on the south shore of Prince Edward Island, fronting on the Northumberland Strait.The village was created through a merger on April 12, 1995 of the original port town of Borden and the farming community of Carleton...

 and Cape Tormentine, New Brunswick
Cape Tormentine, New Brunswick
Cape Tormentine is a Canadian rural community in Westmorland County, New Brunswick.The community derives its name from a headland of the same name which extends into the Northumberland Strait, forming the easternmost point in the province.-Railway:...

; the other, provided by Northumberland Ferries Limited
Northumberland Ferries Limited
Northumberland Ferries Limited is a ferry company operating in eastern Canada and headquartered in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island...

, operates seasonally between Wood Islands
Wood Islands, Prince Edward Island
Wood Islands is a Canadian rural farming and fishing community located in southeastern Queens County, Prince Edward Island on the Northumberland Strait....

 and Caribou, Nova Scotia
Caribou, Nova Scotia
Caribou is a small Canadian rural community in Pictou County, Nova Scotia.Located on the Northumberland Strait northwest of the town of Pictou, Caribou is named after the Woodland Caribou which used to live in Nova Scotia until European settlers hunted the herds to extinction in the 19th century...

. A third ferry service provided by CTMA
Coopérative de transport maritime et aérien
The Coopérative de Transport Maritime et Aérien is a Canadian transportation company operating in Quebec and Prince Edward Island.Labelling itself Groupe CTMA, the company operates the seasonal ferry service from Cap-aux-Meules, Quebec in the Magdalen Islands to Souris, Prince Edward Island using...

 operates seasonally between Souris
Souris, Prince Edward Island
Souris is a Canadian port town in northeastern Kings County, Prince Edward Island. It is located in an area famous for its beaches and potatoes, containing the majority of Prince Edward Island's potato manufacturers.-History:...

 and Cap-aux-Meules, Quebec
Cap-aux-Meules, Quebec
Cap-aux-Meules is an unincorporated Canadian community located on Île du Cap aux Meules in Quebec's Magdalen Islands...

, in the Magdalen Islands
Magdalen Islands
The Magdalen Islands form a small archipelago in the Gulf of Saint Lawrence with a land area of . Though closer to Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia, the islands form part of the Canadian province of Quebec....

.

On June 1, 1997, the Confederation Bridge
Confederation Bridge
The Confederation Bridge is a bridge spanning the Abegweit Passage of Northumberland Strait, linking Prince Edward Island with mainland New Brunswick, Canada. It was commonly referred to as the "Fixed Link" by residents of Prince Edward Island prior to its official naming. Construction took place...

 opened, connecting Borden-Carleton to Cape Jourimain
Cape Jourimain, New Brunswick
Cape Jourimain is a headland in the western part of the Northumberland Strait on its southern shore, 3 kilometres west of New Brunswick's easternmost point at Cape Tormentine....

, New Brunswick. The longest bridge over ice covered waters in the world, it replaced the Marine Atlantic ferry service. Since then, the Confederation Bridge's assured transportation link to the mainland has altered the province's tourism and agricultural and fisheries export economies.

The province has very strict laws regarding use of road-side signs. Billboard
Billboard (advertising)
A billboard is a large outdoor advertising structure , typically found in high traffic areas such as alongside busy roads. Billboards present large advertisements to passing pedestrians and drivers...

s and the use of portable signs are banned. There are standard direction information signs on roads in the province for various businesses and attractions in the immediate area. Some municipalities' by-laws also restrict the types of permanent signs that may be installed on private property.
There is an extensive bicycling / hiking trail that spans the island. The Confederation Trail
Confederation Trail
Confederation Trail is the name for a 470 kilometre recreational rail trail system in the Canadian province of Prince Edward Island.It was developed in the 1990s, following the December 31, 1989 abandonment of all railway lines in the province by Canadian National Railway .-Description and...

 is a 470 kilometre recreational trail system. The land once was owned and used by Canadian National Railway (CN) as a rail line on the island.

Government

Prince Edward Island has a high level of political representation, with four Members of Parliament
Canadian House of Commons
The House of Commons of Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign and the Senate. The House of Commons is a democratically elected body, consisting of 308 members known as Members of Parliament...

, four Senators
Canadian Senate
The Senate of Canada is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the House of Commons, and the monarch . The Senate consists of 105 members appointed by the governor general on the advice of the prime minister...

, 27 Members of the Legislative Assembly
Legislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island
The Legislative Assembly of Prince Edward Island, along with the Lieutenant-Governor, forms the parliament of the province. The General Assembly meets at Province House, which is located at the intersection of Richmond and Great George Streets in Charlottetown....

 and two cities, seven towns and sixty incorporated rural communities yielding over five hundred municipal councilors and mayors. This gives a total of 566 elected officials for a population (as of 2006) of 135,851.

Communities

Ten largest Communities by population
Community 2011 2001
Charlottetown
Charlottetown
Charlottetown is a Canadian city. It is both the largest city on and the provincial capital of Prince Edward Island, and the county seat of Queens County. Named after Queen Charlotte, the wife of George III, Charlottetown was first incorporated as a town in 1855 and designated as a city in 1885...

 
32,545a 32,455
Summerside
Summerside, Prince Edward Island
Summerside is a Canadian city in Prince County, Prince Edward Island. It is the second largest city in the province and the principal municipality for the western part of the island.- History :...

 
15,654b 14,433
Stratford
Stratford, Prince Edward Island
Stratford is a Canadian suburban town located in central Prince Edward Island.It is situated on a peninsula formed by the Hillsborough River estuary, Charlottetown Harbour, and Hillsborough Bay - a sub-basin of the Northumberland Strait....

 
8,043 6,314
Cornwall
Cornwall, Prince Edward Island
Cornwall is a Canadian suburban town located in Queens County, Prince Edward Island.The town is located immediately west of the provincial capital Charlottetown and functions as a bedroom community.-History:...

 
5,375 4,412
Montague
Montague, Prince Edward Island
Montague is a Canadian town and the largest population centre in Kings County, Prince Edward Island.The town straddles the Montague River which is the dividing line between the townships of Lot 52 and Lot 59. The town functions as a regional service centre for a rural population of 20,000...

 
5,134 2,014
Kensington
Kensington, Prince Edward Island
Kensington is a town located 15 kilometres northeast of Summerside in Prince County, Prince Edward Island, Canada; As of 2001, the population was 1,385....

 
1,385 1,379
Souris
Souris, Prince Edward Island
Souris is a Canadian port town in northeastern Kings County, Prince Edward Island. It is located in an area famous for its beaches and potatoes, containing the majority of Prince Edward Island's potato manufacturers.-History:...

 
1,232 1,238
Alberton
Alberton, Prince Edward Island
Alberton is a Canadian town located in the western part of Prince County, Prince Edward Island. It is situated in the township of Lot 5....

 
1,081 975
Tignish  998 846
Georgetown
Georgetown, Prince Edward Island
Georgetown is a Canadian town and the county seat of Kings County, Prince Edward Island. As of 2011, the population was 693.-Geography:Georgetown, Capital of Kings County, sits on an 8 kilometre long peninsula formed by the Cardigan and Brudenell Rivers, Along with Georgetown Harbour...

 
678 680
aCensus agglomeration population: 58,358.
bCensus agglomeration population: 16,200.

Education

Prince Edward Island is home to one university, the University of Prince Edward Island
University of Prince Edward Island
The University of Prince Edward Island is a public liberal arts university in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada, and the sole university in the province. Founded in 1969, it traces its roots back to its two earlier predecessor organizations, St. Dunstan's University and Prince of Wales...

 (UPEI), located in the city of Charlottetown
Charlottetown
Charlottetown is a Canadian city. It is both the largest city on and the provincial capital of Prince Edward Island, and the county seat of Queens County. Named after Queen Charlotte, the wife of George III, Charlottetown was first incorporated as a town in 1855 and designated as a city in 1885...

. The university was created by the Island legislature to replace Prince of Wales College
Prince of Wales College
Prince of Wales College is a former university college, which was located in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada. PWC merged with St. Dunstan's University in 1969 to form the University of Prince Edward Island....

 and St. Dunstan's University. UPEI is also home to the Atlantic Veterinary College
Atlantic Veterinary College
The Atlantic Veterinary College is a well accredited and worldwide recognized veterinary school at University of Prince Edward Island, located in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada.- History :...

, which offers the region's only veterinary medicine program.

Holland College
Holland College
Holland College is the provincial community college for the Canadian province of Prince Edward Island. It is named after British Army engineer and surveyor Captain Samuel Holland...

 is the provincial community college
Community college
A community college is a type of educational institution. The term can have different meanings in different countries.-Australia:Community colleges carry on the tradition of adult education, which was established in Australia around mid 19th century when evening classes were held to help adults...

, with campuses across the province, including specialised facilities such as the Atlantic Police Academy, Marine Training Centre, and the Culinary Institute of Canada.

Prince Edward Island's public school system has two English language school districts, Eastern
Eastern School District
The Eastern School District is a Canadian school district in Prince Edward Island.The Eastern School District is an Anglophone district operating 43 public schools in Queens and Kings Counties with its headquarters in Stratford...

 and Western
Western School Board
The Western School Board is a Canadian school district in Prince Edward Island.It is an Anglophone district operating 21 public schools in Prince County. It maintains offices in Summerside and Elmsdale....

, as well as a Francophone district, the Commission scolaire de langue française
Commission scolaire de langue française
The Commission scolaire de langue française is a Canadian school district in Prince Edward Island.The Commission scolaire de langue française is a Francophone district operating 6 public schools across the province.Current enrollment is approximately 673 students and ? teachers...

. The English language districts have a total of 10 secondary schools and 54 intermediate and elementary schools while the Francophone district has 6 schools covering all grades.

Prince Edward Island, along with most rural regions in North America, is experiencing an accelerated rate of youth emigration. The provincial government has projected that public school enrollment will decline by 40% during the 2010s.

Health care

The province has a single health administrative region (or district health authority called Health PEI. Health PEI receives funding for its operations and is regulated by the Department of Health and Wellness. There are eight hospitals in the province.
  • Queen Elizabeth Hospital
    Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Prince Edward Island
    The Queen Elizabeth Hospital is a 274 bed acute care hospital located in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada, making it the largest hospital in the province....

     (Charlottetown
    Charlottetown
    Charlottetown is a Canadian city. It is both the largest city on and the provincial capital of Prince Edward Island, and the county seat of Queens County. Named after Queen Charlotte, the wife of George III, Charlottetown was first incorporated as a town in 1855 and designated as a city in 1885...

    )
  • Prince County Hospital (Summerside
    Summerside, Prince Edward Island
    Summerside is a Canadian city in Prince County, Prince Edward Island. It is the second largest city in the province and the principal municipality for the western part of the island.- History :...

    )
  • Kings County Memorial Hospital (Montague
    Montague, Prince Edward Island
    Montague is a Canadian town and the largest population centre in Kings County, Prince Edward Island.The town straddles the Montague River which is the dividing line between the townships of Lot 52 and Lot 59. The town functions as a regional service centre for a rural population of 20,000...

    )
  • Community Hospital (O'Leary
    O'Leary, Prince Edward Island
    -References:*...

    )
  • Souris Hospital (Souris
    Souris, Prince Edward Island
    Souris is a Canadian port town in northeastern Kings County, Prince Edward Island. It is located in an area famous for its beaches and potatoes, containing the majority of Prince Edward Island's potato manufacturers.-History:...

    )
  • Stewart Memorial Hospital (Tyne Valley
    Tyne Valley, Prince Edward Island
    Tyne Valley is a Canadian village in Prince County, Prince Edward Island.Incorporated in 1966, the community is located in the township of Lot 13 at the intersection of Routes 12 and 167.- History :...

    )
  • Western Hospital (Alberton
    Alberton, Prince Edward Island
    Alberton is a Canadian town located in the western part of Prince County, Prince Edward Island. It is situated in the township of Lot 5....

    )
  • Hillsborough Hospital
    Hillsborough Hospital
    The Hillsborough Hospital is a psychiatric hospital in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. It is the province's only mental health facility.It is a 75-bed facility providing 24 hr/day, 7 day/week medical services for individuals who are facing acute or enduring mental illnesses.-Mission:As the...

     (Charlottetown) - the province's only psychiatric hospital


Due to its small tax base and population, Prince Edward Island does not offer all specialist services that are available in many Canadian provinces. Consequently, patients requiring specialist services are referred to clinics and specialists in neighbouring provinces. Specialist operations and treatments are also provided at larger tertiary referral hospitals in neighbouring provinces such as the IWK Health Centre
IWK Health Centre
The IWK Health Centre is a hospital in Halifax, Nova Scotia that provides care to women, children, and youth from Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island.-Location:The IWK Health Centre is located in the south end of Halifax...

 and Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre
Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre
Queen Elizabeth II Health Sciences Centre, in Halifax, Nova Scotia, is a large teaching hospital affiliated with Dalhousie University. Administratively it is part of the Capital District Health Authority.-History:...

 in Nova Scotia or the Saint John Regional Hospital
Saint John Regional Hospital
Saint John Regional Hospital is a Canadian hospital in Saint John, New Brunswick.Saint John Regional Hospital is the largest tertiary care referral hospital in New Brunswick and specializes in cardiac and trauma care services....

, Moncton Hospital
Moncton Hospital
Moncton Hospital is a Canadian hospital in Moncton, New Brunswick.Moncton Hospital operates as a tertiary care referral hospital and specializes in neurosurgery and trauma care services.Other services include:* trauma/emergency medicine...

, and Dr. Georges-L.-Dumont University Hospital Centre
Dr. Georges-L.-Dumont University Hospital Centre
Dr. Georges-L.-Dumont University Hospital Centre is a Canadian hospital in Moncton, New Brunswick.Dr. Georges-L.-Dumont University Hospital Centre operates as a tertiary care referral hospital and specializes in oncology and trauma care services....

 in New Brunswick
New Brunswick
New Brunswick is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and is the only province in the federation that is constitutionally bilingual . The provincial capital is Fredericton and Saint John is the most populous city. Greater Moncton is the largest Census Metropolitan Area...

.

Ground ambulance service in Prince Edward Island is provided under contract by Island EMS. Air ambulance service is provided under contract by LifeFlight
LifeFlight
LifeFlight is an air ambulance service that operates in the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island.It is delivered under contract to the Government of Nova Scotia's Department of Health by EMC Emergency Care Inc.. EMC Emergency Medical Care Inc...

.

In recent decades, Prince Edward Island's population has shown statistically significant and abnormally high rates of diagnosed rare cancers, particularly in rural areas. Health officials, ecologists and environmental activists point to the use of pesticides for industrial potato
Potato
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae family . The word potato may refer to the plant itself as well as the edible tuber. In the region of the Andes, there are some other closely related cultivated potato species...

 farming as a primary contaminant.

Prince Edward Island is the only province in Canada that does not provide abortion
Abortion
Abortion is defined as the termination of pregnancy by the removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or embryo prior to viability. An abortion can occur spontaneously, in which case it is usually called a miscarriage, or it can be purposely induced...

 services through its hospitals. The last abortion was performed in the province in 1982 prior to the opening of the Queen Elizabeth Hospital
Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Prince Edward Island
The Queen Elizabeth Hospital is a 274 bed acute care hospital located in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada, making it the largest hospital in the province....

 which saw the closure of the Roman Catholic-affiliated Charlottetown Hospital
Charlottetown Hospital
The Charlottetown Hospital is a former acute care hospital that was located in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. It was the first public hospital established in the province....

 and the non-denominational Prince Edward Island Hospital
Prince Edward Island Hospital
The Prince Edward Island Hospital is a former acute care hospital that was located in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. It was the first public general hospital established in the province and the largest such facility throughout its history....

; a condition of the "merger" being that abortions not be performed in the province. In 1988 following the court decision R. v. Morgentaler
R. v. Morgentaler
R. v. Morgentaler [1988] 1 S.C.R. 30 was a decision of the Supreme Court of Canada wherein the abortion provision in the Criminal Code of Canada was found to be unconstitutional, as it violated a woman's right under section 7 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms to "security of person"...

, the then-opposition Progressive Conservative Party of Prince Edward Island tabled a motion demanding that the ban on abortions be upheld at the province's hospitals; the then-governing Prince Edward Island Liberal Party
Prince Edward Island Liberal Party
The Prince Edward Island Liberal Party is a major political party in the province of Prince Edward Island, Canada. The PEI Liberals are aligned with the federal Liberal Party of Canada. The party is led by Robert Ghiz, a former member of the staff of the Prime Minister's Office under Prime Minister...

 under Premier Joe Ghiz
Joe Ghiz
Joseph Atallah "Joe" Ghiz was the 27th Premier of Prince Edward Island from 1986 to 1993, an educator of law and a justice of the Supreme Court of Prince Edward Island. He was the father of Robert Ghiz, the current Premier of Prince Edward Island...

 acquiesced and the ban was upheld. The Government of Prince Edward Island will fund abortions for women who travel to another province. However, most hospitals in neighbouring New Brunswick
New Brunswick
New Brunswick is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and is the only province in the federation that is constitutionally bilingual . The provincial capital is Fredericton and Saint John is the most populous city. Greater Moncton is the largest Census Metropolitan Area...

 and Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia
Nova Scotia is one of Canada's three Maritime provinces and is the most populous province in Atlantic Canada. The name of the province is Latin for "New Scotland," but "Nova Scotia" is the recognized, English-language name of the province. The provincial capital is Halifax. Nova Scotia is the...

 will not perform abortions on women who are not residents of those provinces. Women desiring an abortion in Prince Edward Island must have two Prince Edward Island physicians assess the situation as being medically necessary and if they qualify, travel to the nearest hospital in Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

 or Quebec
Quebec
Quebec or is a province in east-central Canada. It is the only Canadian province with a predominantly French-speaking population and the only one whose sole official language is French at the provincial level....

. Otherwise, women from Prince Edward Island may travel to the nearest private user-pay Morgentaler Clinic
Henry Morgentaler
Henry Morgentaler, CM is a Canadian physician and prominent pro-choice advocate who has fought numerous legal battles for that cause.-Early life:...

 in Fredericton, New Brunswick where they must pay for the procedure using their own funds.

Culture

The island's cultural traditions of art, music and creative writing are supported through the public education system. There is an annual arts festival, the Charlottetown Festival
Charlottetown Festival
The Charlottetown Festival is a seasonal Canadian musical theatre festival which runs from late May to mid-October every year since 1965.Named after its host city, Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, since its inception the festival has showcased Canada's most popular and longest-running musical,...

, hosted at the Confederation Centre of the Arts
Confederation Centre of the Arts
The Confederation Centre of the Arts is a cultural centre dedicated to the visual and performing arts located in the city of Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island, Canada.-History:...

.

Lucy Maud Montgomery
Lucy Maud Montgomery
Lucy Maud Montgomery OBE , called "Maud" by family and friends and publicly known as L.M. Montgomery, was a Canadian author best known for a series of novels beginning with Anne of Green Gables, published in 1908. Anne of Green Gables was an immediate success...

, who was born in Clifton (now New London) in 1874, wrote some 20 novels and numerous collections and anthologies. Her first Anne book Anne of Green Gables
Anne of Green Gables
Anne of Green Gables is a bestselling novel by Canadian author Lucy Maud Montgomery published in 1908. Set in 1878, it was written as fiction for readers of all ages, but in recent decades has been considered a children's book...

was published in 1908. The musical play Anne of Green Gables
Anne of Green Gables - The Musical
Anne Of Green Gables - The Musical is a musical based on the novel, Anne of Green Gables by Lucy Maud Montgomery. The book is by Don Harron, the music is by Norman Campbell and the lyrics by Don Harron, Norman Campbell, Elaine Campbell and Mavor Moore...

has run every year at the Charlottetown festival for more than four decades. The sequel, Anne & Gilbert
Anne & Gilbert
Anne & Gilbert is a musical based on the Anne of Green Gables series of books by Lucy Maud Montgomery. The show was based on the books Anne of Avonlea and Anne of the Island, and adapted by Jeff Hochhauser, Nancy White, and Bob Johnston....

, premiered in the Playhouse in Victoria
Victoria, Prince Edward Island
Victoria is a Canadian village located in central Prince Edward Island.A historic seaport, the community is situated at the extreme southwestern edge of Queens County in the township of Lot 29....

 in 2005. The fictional location of Green Gables
Green Gables
Green Gables is the name of a circa-19th century farm in Cavendish, Prince Edward Island, Canada. It is one of the most notable literary landmarks in Canada. The Green Gables farm and its surroundings are the setting for the popular Anne of Green Gables novels by Lucy Maud Montgomery. The site is...

, the house featured in Montgomery's Anne books, is in Cavendish
Cavendish, Prince Edward Island
Cavendish is a Canadian unincorporated rural area in the township of Lot 23, Queens County, Prince Edward Island. Its primary industries are tourism and agriculture. Cavendish is the largest seasonal resort area on Prince Edward Island...

, on the north shore of PEI.

Elmer Blaney Harris
Elmer Blaney Harris
Elmer Blaney Harris was an American author, dramatist, and playwright.- Biography :He was born in Chicago, Illinois, the youngest of eight children. He moved with his family to Oakland, California, after his father's broom factory burned to the ground...

 founded an artists colony at Fortune Bridge
Fortune Bridge, Prince Edward Island
Fortune Bridge is a small unincorporated area on Lot 43, East Parish, King County, Prince Edward Island, Canada. It is located west of the Town of Souris....

 and set his famous play Johnny Belinda
Johnny Belinda (1948 film)
Johnny Belinda is a 1948 American drama film based on the play of the same name by Elmer Blaney Harris. The movie was adapted to the screen by Allen Vincent and Irma von Cube, and directed by Jean Negulesco....

on the island. Robert Harris
Robert Harris (painter)
Robert Harris was a Welsh-born Canadian painter most noted for his portrait of the Fathers of Confederation....

 was a well-known artist.

Prince Edward Island's documented music history begins in the 19th century with religious music, some written by the local pump and block maker and organ-importer, Watson Duchemin. Several big bands including the Sons of Temperance Band and the Charlottetown Brass Band were active. Today, Acadian, Celtic, folk, and rock music prevail, with exponents including Gene MacLellan
Gene MacLellan
Gene MacLellan was a Canadian singer-songwriter from Prince Edward Island.Among his notable compositions were "Snowbird", made famous by Anne Murray, "Put Your Hand in the Hand, "The Call", "Pages of Time" and "Thorn in My Shoe"...

, his daughter Catherine MacLellan
Catherine MacLellan
Catherine MacLellan is a Canadian folk singer-songwriter, currently based in Halifax, Nova Scotia. The daughter of Canadian songwriter Gene MacLellan, she was born and raised in Summerside, Prince Edward Island....

, Al Tuck
Al Tuck
Al Tuck , is a Canadian songwriter and folksinger, originally from Prince Edward Island. He has spent much of his career based out of Halifax, Nova Scotia.-Biography:...

, Lennie Gallant
Lennie Gallant
Lennie Gallant, CM is a Canadian singer-songwriter. His music crosses into the folk, Celtic, rock and country music genres...

 and Two Hours Traffic
Two Hours Traffic
Two Hours Traffic is a Canadian indie rock band, based in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island. They are named after a line in the prologue to Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. Although often described as the band that Halifax guitarist Joel Plaskett took "under his wing", they have increasingly...

. The celebrated singer-songwriter Stompin' Tom Connors
Stompin' Tom Connors
Charles Thomas "Stompin' Tom" Connors, OC is one of Canada's most prolific and well-known country and folk singers.He lives in Wellington County, Ontario.- Early life :...

 spent his formative years in Skinners Pond
Skinners Pond, Prince Edward Island
Skinners Pond is a rural community in Prince County, Prince Edward Island.It is located northwest of the village of Tignish in the township of Lot 1, near the northwestern tip of the province. The primary industries for the area are agriculture and fishing....

. A 4/4 March for bagpipes was composed in honour of Prince Edward Island.

There is also an annual jazzfestival, the P.E.I. Jazz and Blues Festival. The one week long series of concerts takes place at a multitude of venues including Murphy's Community Center, outdoor stages and churches at Charlotteville. The moving of its date to mid August caused in 2011 a serious loss in funding from Ottawa's regional development agency ACOA. The musician's line up in 2011 included Oliver Jones, Sophie Milman
Sophie Milman
Sophie Milman is a Russian-born jazz vocalist who currently lives in Canada.After emigrating from Russia in the early 1990s, Milman, who is of Jewish heritage, spent most of her childhood years in Israel where she listened extensively to jazz...

, Matt Dusk
Matt Dusk
Matthew-Aaron Dusk is a Canadian jazz musician / vocalist. He currently has two certified gold albums: Two Shots and Good News, and three number one radio hits: "Back in Town," "All About Me", and "Good News."-Biography:From an early age, Matt Dusk wanted to become a performer. At the age of...

, Jack de Keyzer
Jack de Keyzer
Jack de Keyzer is a two-time Juno Award winner and a seven-time Maple Blues award winning artist, blues guitarist, singer, song writer and producer. Jack has received numerous awards including Maple Blues Awards for Best Blues Album, and the 2001 Lifetime Achievement Award...

, Jack Semple
Jack Semple
-History:Semple grew up on a farm north of Regina, Saskatchewan. He started his musical career playing with various Regina-based bands, and later relocated to Toronto in the late 1980s to become the lead guitarist of The Lincolns, a popular funk and rhythm and blues band...

, Meaghan Smith
Meaghan Smith
Meaghan Smith is a Canadian singer-songwriter and guitarist. While her independently-recorded debut album, The Cricket's Orchestra was picked up by Sire Records/Warner Music Canada and released in early 2010, she received a great deal of exposure by contributing a cover of alternative rock group...

, Meaghan Blanchard, Hupman Brothers, Alex Dean, Charlie A'Court, Sean Ferris, Jimmy Bowskill, West End Blues Band, Bad Habits, Brian McConnell and Mellotones.

Sports

  • In 2009, Prince Edward Island hosted the Jeux Du Canada Summer Games.
  • Prince Edward Island Rocket
    P.E.I. Rocket
    The P.E.I. Rocket are a junior ice hockey team in the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League. The franchise was granted in 1999, however the Rocket were originally located in Montreal, Quebec and called the Montreal Rocket. In 2003 they were relocated to Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island...

     play in the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League
    Quebec Major Junior Hockey League
    The Quebec Major Junior Hockey League is one of the three major junior ice hockey leagues which constitute the Canadian Hockey League...

    .
  • In 2008, and 2009 Prince Edward Island Hosted the "Tour Du PEI" a province wide cycling race consisting of women from around the world.

Notable people and residents

  • Milton Acorn
    Milton Acorn
    Milton James Rhode Acorn , nicknamed The People's Poet by his peers, was a Canadian poet, writer, and playwright. He was born in Charlottetown, Prince Edward Island....

     - 20th century poet, Named by his peers 'The People's Poet'
  • Alex Campbell
    Alex Campbell
    Alexander Bradshaw Campbell, PC is a former politician of Prince Edward Island, Canada. He is the son of former premier Thane A. Campbell and Cecilia L. Bradshaw. He entered politics by winning a seat in the legislature through a 1965 by-election in 5th Prince...

     – 20th century politician, the longest serving premier of the province.
  • Amber MacArthur
    Amber MacArthur
    Amber Dawn MacArthur is a Canadian television and netcasting personality. MacArthur is currently the co-host of BNN's App Central....

     - television and Internet broadcasting personality, author
  • David (Eli) MacEachern – world-champion bobsledder and Olympic gold medalist at 1998 games in Nagano, Japan
  • Martha MacIsaac
    Martha MacIsaac
    Martha MacIsaac is a Canadian television and film actress and former child actress....

     – actress most notable for her role in Superbad
    Superbad
    Superbad may refer to:* Superbad ** Superbad * Superbad * "Super Bad" , by James Brown* Super Bad , by Terminator X* Superbad: The Return of Boosie Bad Azz, an album by Lil Boosie...

  • Adam McQuaid
    Adam McQuaid
    Adam McQuaid is a Canadian professional ice hockey defenceman currently playing for the Boston Bruins of the National Hockey League...

     – professional ice hockey player, defenceman for the Boston Bruins
    Boston Bruins
    The Boston Bruins are a professional ice hockey team based in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. They are members of the Northeast Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League . The team has been in existence since 1924, and is the league's third-oldest team and its oldest in the...

     of the National Hockey League
    National Hockey League
    The National Hockey League is an unincorporated not-for-profit association which operates a major professional ice hockey league of 30 franchised member clubs, of which 7 are currently located in Canada and 23 in the United States...

     (NHL), 2009–present
  • Brad Richards
    Brad Richards
    Bradley Glenn Richards is a Canadian professional ice hockey centre and alternate captain for the New York Rangers of the National Hockey League .-Early career:Born and raised in Murray Harbour, Prince Edward Island...

     – professional ice hockey player, Centre for the New York Rangers
    New York Rangers
    The New York Rangers are a professional ice hockey team based in the borough of Manhattan in New York, New York, USA. They are members of the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League . Playing their home games at Madison Square Garden, the Rangers are one of the...

     of the National Hockey League
    National Hockey League
    The National Hockey League is an unincorporated not-for-profit association which operates a major professional ice hockey league of 30 franchised member clubs, of which 7 are currently located in Canada and 23 in the United States...

     (NHL), 2000–present
  • James Jeffrey Roche
    James Jeffrey Roche
    James Jeffrey Roche was an Irish-American poet, journalist and diplomat. Roche was taken to the United States as a young child, and grew up in Prince Edward Island...

     – 19th century Irish-American poet and diplomat
  • Jacob Gould Schurman – American educator and diplomat, who served as President of Cornell University and U.S. Ambassador to Germany.
  • Mark Strand
    Mark Strand
    Mark Strand is an American poet, essayist, and translator. He was appointed Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress in 1990. Since 2005, he has been a professor of English at Columbia University.- Biography :...

     - poet, former U.S. Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry
  • Jonathan Torrens
    Jonathan Torrens
    Jonathan Ormond Torrens is a Canadian actor and television personality best known for his co-hosting of Street Cents, his talk show Jonovision, and his role as "J-Roc" in the popular Canadian mockumentary Trailer Park Boys...

     – actor and star of the Canadian TV series, The Trailer Park Boys

See also

  • Higher education in Prince Edward Island
    Higher education in Prince Edward Island
    Higher education in Prince Edward Island refers to education provided by higher education institutions in the Canadian province of Prince Edward Island. In Canada, education is the responsibility of the provinces and there is no Canadian federal ministry governing education...

  • Petroleum pricing in Prince Edward Island
    Petroleum Pricing in Prince Edward Island
    Petroleum pricing in Prince Edward Island is regulated by theIsland Regulatory and Appeals Commission of Prince Edward Island.-Price Make up :...

  • Scouting and Guiding in Prince Edward Island
  • Symbols of Prince Edward Island
    Symbols of Prince Edward Island
    Prince Edward Island is one of Canada's provinces, and has established several provincial symbols.-Symbols:...



Lists:
  • List of counties of Prince Edward Island
  • List of lieutenant governors of Prince Edward Island
  • List of premiers of Prince Edward Island


Further reading

Also under A very broad look at the historical geography of P.E.I.

External links

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.
 
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