301 San Marino, one of the smallest nations in the world and the world's oldest republic still in existence, is founded by Saint Marinus.
1527 The Florentines drive out the Medici for a second time and Florence re-establishes itself as a republic.
1649 An Act of Parliament declaring England a Commonwealth is passed by the Long Parliament. England would be a republic for the next eleven years.
1793 The first republican state in Germany, the Republic of Mainz, is declared by Andreas Joseph Hofmann.
1849 Hungary becomes a republic.
1905 Norway holds a referendum in favor of monarchy over republic.
1917 Russia is officially proclaimed a republic.
1918 Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates after the German Revolution, and Germany is proclaimed a Republic.
1918 Czechoslovakia becomes a republic.
1923 Greece becomes a republic.
1944 Iceland declares independence from Denmark and becomes a republic.
1946 Birth of the Italian Republic: In a referendum, Italians vote to turn Italy from a monarchy into a Republic. After the referendum the king of Italy Umberto II di Savoia is exiled.
1960 Ghana becomes a Republic and Kwame Nkrumah becomes its first President as Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom ceases to be its Head of state.
1966 Malawi becomes a republic, with Hastings Banda as its first President.
1968 A second republic is declared in the Maldives.
1970 Rhodesia declares itself a republic, breaking its last links with the British crown.
1970 The Gambia becomes a republic within the Commonwealth of Nations, with Dawda Jawara as the first President.
1971 Sierra Leone becomes a republic.
1971 Sierra Leone becomes a republic, and Siaka Stevens the president.
1972 Ceylon adopts a new constitution, thus becoming a Republic, changes its name to Sri Lanka, and joins the Commonwealth of Nations.
1980 The Republic of Zimbabwe (formerly Rhodesia) comes into being, with Canaan Banana as the country's first President.
1987 Fiji becomes a republic.
1992 Mauritius becomes a republic while remaining a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.
2007 Nepal declares a federal democratic Republic by interim parliament, abolishing the monarchy.