1811 Father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, leader of the Mexican insurgency, is executed by the Spanish in Chihuahua, Mexico.
1821 Mexico gains its independence from Spain.
1824 Mexico adopts a new constitution and becomes a federal republic.
1836 Spain recognizes the independence of Mexico.
1845 According with International Boundary delimitation, U.S.A annexes the Mexican state of Texas, following the Manifest Destiny doctrine. For others, the Republic of Texas is admitted as the 28th U.S. state.
1846 Mexican-American War: The United States declares war on Mexico.
1848 American victory at the battle of Cerro Gordo opens the way for invasion of Mexico.
1848 Mexican-American War: Mexico ratifies the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo thus ending the war and ceding California, Nevada, Utah and parts of four other modern-day U.S. states to the United States for $15 million USD.
1864 Archduke Maximilian of Habsburg is elected emperor of Mexico.
1864 Emperor Maximilian of Mexico arrives in Mexico for the first time.
1889 Tijuana, Mexico, is founded.
1909 The Flores Theater fire in Acapulco, Mexico kills 250.
1917 The current constitution of Mexico is adopted, establishing a federal republic with powers separated into independent executive, legislative, and judicial branches.
1917 World War I: The U.S. ambassador to the United Kingdom is given the Zimmermann Telegram, in which Germany pledges to ensure the return of New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona to Mexico if Mexico declares war on the United States.
1924 Diplomatic relations between Mexico and the Soviet Union are established.
1938 Mexico nationalizes all foreign-owned oil properties within its borders.
1943 The Parícutin volcano begins to form in Parícutin, Mexico.
1969 Allende meteorite falls near Pueblito de Allende, Chihuahua, Mexico.
1997 Acteal massacre: Attendees at a prayer meeting of Roman Catholic activists for indigenous causes in the small village of Acteal in the Mexican state of Chiapas are massacred by paramilitary forces.