Columbus, New Mexico
Columbus is a village in Luna County
Luna County, New Mexico
-2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*77.7% White*1.1% Black*1.3% Native American*0.5% Asian*0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*2.6% Two or more races*16.8% Other races*61.5% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

, New Mexico
New Mexico
New Mexico is a state located in the southwest and western regions of the United States. New Mexico is also usually considered one of the Mountain States. With a population density of 16 per square mile, New Mexico is the sixth-most sparsely inhabited U.S...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. The population was 1,765 at the 2000 census
United States Census, 2000
The Twenty-second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13.2% over the 248,709,873 persons enumerated during the 1990 Census...

. The town is named after 15th century explorer Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus
Christopher Columbus was an explorer, colonizer, and navigator, born in the Republic of Genoa, in northwestern Italy. Under the auspices of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain, he completed four voyages across the Atlantic Ocean that led to general European awareness of the American continents in the...



On March 9, 1916, on the orders of Mexican
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

 revolutionary leader Francisco "Pancho" Villa
Pancho Villa
José Doroteo Arango Arámbula – better known by his pseudonym Francisco Villa or its hypocorism Pancho Villa – was one of the most prominent Mexican Revolutionary generals....

, (Colonel) Francisco Beltrán, (Colonel) Candelario Cervantes, (General) Nicolás Fernández, (General) Pablo López and others led five hundred men in an attack against the town, which was garrisoned by a detachment of the U.S. 13th Cavalry Regiment
United States Cavalry
The United States Cavalry, or U.S. Cavalry, is the designation of the mounted force of the United States Army. The role of the U.S. Cavalry is reconnaissance, security and mounted assault. Cavalry has served as a part of the Army forces in every war in which the United States has participated...

. Villa's army burned a part of the town and killed seven or eight soldiers and 10 residents before retreating back into Mexico.

United States President Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
Thomas Woodrow Wilson was the 28th President of the United States, from 1913 to 1921. A leader of the Progressive Movement, he served as President of Princeton University from 1902 to 1910, and then as the Governor of New Jersey from 1911 to 1913...

 responded to the Columbus raid by sending 10,000 troops under Brigadier General John J. Pershing
John J. Pershing
John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing, GCB , was a general officer in the United States Army who led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I...

 to Mexico to pursue Villa. This was known as the Punitive Mexican Expedition or Pancho Villa Expedition
Pancho Villa Expedition
The Pancho Villa Expedition—officially known in the United States as the Mexican Expedition and sometimes colloquially referred to as the Punitive Expedition—was a military operation conducted by the United States Army against the paramilitary forces of Mexican insurgent Francisco "Pancho" Villa...

. The expedition was eventually called off after failing to find Villa, who had successfully escaped.

In July 2011, Columbus dissolved its police force, due to a gun smuggling
Smuggling is the clandestine transportation of goods or persons, such as out of a building, into a prison, or across an international border, in violation of applicable laws or other regulations.There are various motivations to smuggle...

 scandal that involved its village officials and others. The Mayor, a village trustee, a former police chief, and nine other people were indicted in the scandal. The case is being prosecuted by the United States Attorney
United States Attorney
United States Attorneys represent the United States federal government in United States district court and United States court of appeals. There are 93 U.S. Attorneys stationed throughout the United States, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands...

 from El Paso, Texas
El Paso, Texas
El Paso, is a city in and the county seat of El Paso County, Texas, United States, and lies in far West Texas. In the 2010 census, the city had a population of 649,121. It is the sixth largest city in Texas and the 19th largest city in the United States...

, but the case will be tried starting October 3, 2011 before United States District Court
United States District Court for the District of New Mexico
The United States District Court for the District of New Mexico is the federal district court whose jurisdiction comprises the state of New Mexico...

 Judge Robert Brack
Robert C. Brack
Robert C. Brack is a United States federal judge.Born in Lynwood, California, Brack received a B.A. from Eastern New Mexico University in 1975 and a J.D. from the University of New Mexico in 1978. He was in private practice in New Mexico from 1978 to 1997...

 in Las Cruces, New Mexico
Las Cruces, New Mexico
Las Cruces, also known as "The City of the Crosses", is the county seat of Doña Ana County, New Mexico, United States. The population was 97,618 in 2010 according to the 2010 Census, making it the second largest city in the state....



Columbus is located at 31°49′51"N 107°38′30"W (31.830760, -107.641558).

According to the United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census. It also gathers other national demographic and economic data...

, the village has a total area of 2.8 square miles (7.3 km²), all of it land.

The village is approximately three miles north of the international border between the United States of America and Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

. The Mexican village of Puerto Palomas, Chihuahua
Puerto Palomas, Chihuahua
Puerto Palomas de Villa, also known simply as Palomas, is a small town of 4,688 people in the municipality of Ascensión, in the Mexican state of Chihuahua...

 is on the opposite side of the border.


As of the census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

of 2000, there were 1,765 people, 536 households, and 411 families residing in the village. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 was 635.3 people per square mile (245.1/km²). There were 720 housing units at an average density of 259.2 per square mile (100.0/km²). The racial makeup of the village was 70.42% White, 0.68% African American, 0.57% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 25.50% from other races
Race (United States Census)
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, as defined by the Federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most closely identify, and indicate whether or not they are...

, and 2.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 83.34% of the population.

There were 536 households out of which 50.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 61.8% were married couples
Marriage is a social union or legal contract between people that creates kinship. It is an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually intimate and sexual, are acknowledged in a variety of ways, depending on the culture or subculture in which it is found...

 living together, 10.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 23.3% were non-families. 20.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.29 and the average family size was 3.89.

In the village the population was spread out with 39.2% under the age of 18, 7.7% from 18 to 24, 22.0% from 25 to 44, 18.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females there were 100.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.6 males.

The median income for a household in the village was $13,773, and the median income for a family was $14,318. Males had a median income of $16,912 versus $12,344 for females. The per capita income
Per capita income
Per capita income or income per person is a measure of mean income within an economic aggregate, such as a country or city. It is calculated by taking a measure of all sources of income in the aggregate and dividing it by the total population...

 for the village was $6,721. About 56.7% of families and 57.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 67.0% of those under age 18 and 20.2% of those age 65 or over.


Columbus Elementary School is part of the Deming Public Schools
Deming Public Schools
Deming Public Schools is a public school district headquartered in Deming, New Mexico, United States.The district serves the city of Deming and the village of Columbus as well as other areas in Luna County....


Columbus Elementary School is located 30 miles south of Deming and 3 miles north of Palomas, Mexico. The current enrollment at Columbus Elementary School consists of 441 students.

90% of the students come from homes where Spanish is the dominant language. The staff at Columbus Elementary are required to be bilingually endorsed or working toward bilingual endorsement. The mission of Columbus Elementary School is to build on the students' bicultural and bilingual environment; they work in partnership with the parents and the community to enable students to reach their full potential.

Students from Columbus and Puerto Palomas, Chihuahua Mexico attend Columbus Elementary from pre-school up to sixth grade. Students then move on to attend Red Mountain Middle School (6-8) in Deming, NM. Hofacket Mid-High School (9-12), and Deming High School(9-12).

Deming Public Schools buses students residing in Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

 from the United States-Mexico border to Columbus Elementary .

See also

  • Village of Columbus and Camp Furlong
    Village of Columbus and Camp Furlong
    Village of Columbus and Camp Furlong is a historic district that includes portions of what is now the town of Columbus, New Mexico, Pancho Villa State Park, and an airfield, all in Columbus, New Mexico...

    , a U.S. National Historic Landmark
    National Historic Landmark
    A National Historic Landmark is a building, site, structure, object, or district, that is officially recognized by the United States government for its historical significance...


External links

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