Square (geometry)

Encyclopedia

In geometry

, a

quadrilateral

. This means that it has four equal sides and four equal angle

s (90-degree

angles, or right angles). A square with vertices

ABCD would be denoted

The square belong to the families of 2-hypercube

and 2-orthoplex.

is a square if and only if

it is any one of the following:

of a square whose sides have length

and the area

is

In classical times, the second power was described in terms of the area of a square, as in the above formula. This led to the use of the term

(equal sides), a kite

(two pairs of adjacent equal sides), a parallelogram

(opposite sides parallel), a quadrilateralIn Euclidean plane geometry, a quadrilateral is a polygon with four sides and four vertices or corners. Sometimes, the term quadrangle is used, by analogy with triangle, and sometimes tetragon for consistency with pentagon , hexagon and so on...

or tetragon (four-sided polygon), and a rectangle

(opposite sides equal, right-angles) and therefore has all the properties of all these shapes, namely:

In spherical geometry

, a square is a polygon whose edges are great circle

arcs of equal distance, which meet at equal angles. Unlike the square of plane geometry, the angles of such a square are larger than a right angle.

In hyperbolic geometry

, squares with right angles do not exist. Rather, squares in hyperbolic geometry have angles of less than right angles. Larger squares have smaller angles.

is often drawn as a square with all 6 edges connected. This graph also represents an orthographic projection

of the 4 vertices and 6 edges of the regular 3-simplex

(tetrahedron

).

Geometry

Geometry arose as the field of knowledge dealing with spatial relationships. Geometry was one of the two fields of pre-modern mathematics, the other being the study of numbers ....

, a

**square**is a regularRegular polygon

A regular polygon is a polygon that is equiangular and equilateral . Regular polygons may be convex or star.-General properties:...

quadrilateral

Quadrilateral

In Euclidean plane geometry, a quadrilateral is a polygon with four sides and four vertices or corners. Sometimes, the term quadrangle is used, by analogy with triangle, and sometimes tetragon for consistency with pentagon , hexagon and so on...

. This means that it has four equal sides and four equal angle

Angle

In geometry, an angle is the figure formed by two rays sharing a common endpoint, called the vertex of the angle.Angles are usually presumed to be in a Euclidean plane with the circle taken for standard with regard to direction. In fact, an angle is frequently viewed as a measure of an circular arc...

s (90-degree

Degree (angle)

A degree , usually denoted by ° , is a measurement of plane angle, representing 1⁄360 of a full rotation; one degree is equivalent to π/180 radians...

angles, or right angles). A square with vertices

Vertex (geometry)

In geometry, a vertex is a special kind of point that describes the corners or intersections of geometric shapes.-Of an angle:...

ABCD would be denoted

The square belong to the families of 2-hypercube

Hypercube

In geometry, a hypercube is an n-dimensional analogue of a square and a cube . It is a closed, compact, convex figure whose 1-skeleton consists of groups of opposite parallel line segments aligned in each of the space's dimensions, perpendicular to each other and of the same length.An...

and 2-orthoplex.

## Characterizations

A convex quadrilateralQuadrilateral

In Euclidean plane geometry, a quadrilateral is a polygon with four sides and four vertices or corners. Sometimes, the term quadrangle is used, by analogy with triangle, and sometimes tetragon for consistency with pentagon , hexagon and so on...

is a square if and only if

If and only if

In logic and related fields such as mathematics and philosophy, if and only if is a biconditional logical connective between statements....

it is any one of the following:

- a rectangleRectangleIn Euclidean plane geometry, a rectangle is any quadrilateral with four right angles. The term "oblong" is occasionally used to refer to a non-square rectangle...

with two adjacent equal sides - a quadrilateralQuadrilateralIn Euclidean plane geometry, a quadrilateral is a polygon with four sides and four vertices or corners. Sometimes, the term quadrangle is used, by analogy with triangle, and sometimes tetragon for consistency with pentagon , hexagon and so on...

with four equal sides and four right angleRight angleIn geometry and trigonometry, a right angle is an angle that bisects the angle formed by two halves of a straight line. More precisely, if a ray is placed so that its endpoint is on a line and the adjacent angles are equal, then they are right angles...

s - a parallelogramParallelogramIn Euclidean geometry, a parallelogram is a convex quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides. The opposite or facing sides of a parallelogram are of equal length and the opposite angles of a parallelogram are of equal measure...

with one right angle and two adjacent equal sides - a rhombusRhombusIn Euclidean geometry, a rhombus or rhomb is a convex quadrilateral whose four sides all have the same length. The rhombus is often called a diamond, after the diamonds suit in playing cards, or a lozenge, though the latter sometimes refers specifically to a rhombus with a 45° angle.Every...

with a right angle - a rhombus with all angles equal
- a rhombus with equal diagonals

## Perimeter and area

The perimeterPerimeter

A perimeter is a path that surrounds an area. The word comes from the Greek peri and meter . The term may be used either for the path or its length - it can be thought of as the length of the outline of a shape. The perimeter of a circular area is called circumference.- Practical uses :Calculating...

of a square whose sides have length

*t*isand the area

Area

Area is a quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional surface or shape in the plane. Area can be understood as the amount of material with a given thickness that would be necessary to fashion a model of the shape, or the amount of paint necessary to cover the surface with a single coat...

is

In classical times, the second power was described in terms of the area of a square, as in the above formula. This led to the use of the term

*square*to mean raising to the second power.## Standard coordinates

The coordinates for the vertices of a square centered at the origin and with side length 2 are (±1, ±1), while the interior of the same consists of all points (*x*_{0},*x*_{1}) with −1 <*x*_{i}< 1.## Equations

The equation max describes a square of side = 2, centered at the origin. This equation means " or , whichever is larger, equals 1." The circumradius of this square (the radius of a circle drawn through the square's vertices) is half the square's diagonal, and equals .## Properties

A square is a special case of a rhombusRhombus

In Euclidean geometry, a rhombus or rhomb is a convex quadrilateral whose four sides all have the same length. The rhombus is often called a diamond, after the diamonds suit in playing cards, or a lozenge, though the latter sometimes refers specifically to a rhombus with a 45° angle.Every...

(equal sides), a kite

Kite (geometry)

In Euclidean geometry a kite is a quadrilateral whose four sides can be grouped into two pairs of equal-length sides that are next to each other. In contrast, a parallelogram also has two pairs of equal-length sides, but they are opposite each other rather than next to each other...

(two pairs of adjacent equal sides), a parallelogram

Parallelogram

In Euclidean geometry, a parallelogram is a convex quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides. The opposite or facing sides of a parallelogram are of equal length and the opposite angles of a parallelogram are of equal measure...

(opposite sides parallel), a quadrilateral

Quadrilateral

or tetragon (four-sided polygon), and a rectangle

Rectangle

In Euclidean plane geometry, a rectangle is any quadrilateral with four right angles. The term "oblong" is occasionally used to refer to a non-square rectangle...

(opposite sides equal, right-angles) and therefore has all the properties of all these shapes, namely:

- The diagonalDiagonalA diagonal is a line joining two nonconsecutive vertices of a polygon or polyhedron. Informally, any sloping line is called diagonal. The word "diagonal" derives from the Greek διαγώνιος , from dia- and gonia ; it was used by both Strabo and Euclid to refer to a line connecting two vertices of a...

s of a square bisectBisectionIn geometry, bisection is the division of something into two equal or congruent parts, usually by a line, which is then called a bisector. The most often considered types of bisectors are the segment bisector and the angle bisector In geometry, bisection is the division of something into two equal...

each other and meet at 90 degrees - The diagonals of a square bisect its angles.
- The diagonals of a square are perpendicularPerpendicularIn geometry, two lines or planes are considered perpendicular to each other if they form congruent adjacent angles . The term may be used as a noun or adjective...

. - Opposite sides of a square are both parallelParallel (geometry)Parallelism is a term in geometry and in everyday life that refers to a property in Euclidean space of two or more lines or planes, or a combination of these. The assumed existence and properties of parallel lines are the basis of Euclid's parallel postulate. Two lines in a plane that do not...

and equal length. - All four angles of a square are equal. (Each is 360°/4 = 90 degrees, so every angle of a square is a right angle.)
- The diagonals of a square are equal.

## Other facts

- The diagonals of a square are (about 1.414) times the length of a side of the square. This value, known as Pythagoras’ constantSquare root of 2The square root of 2, often known as root 2, is the positive algebraic number that, when multiplied by itself, gives the number 2. It is more precisely called the principal square root of 2, to distinguish it from the negative number with the same property.Geometrically the square root of 2 is the...

, was the first number proven to be irrationalIrrational numberIn mathematics, an irrational number is any real number that cannot be expressed as a ratio a/b, where a and b are integers, with b non-zero, and is therefore not a rational number....

. - A square can also be defined as a parallelogramParallelogramIn Euclidean geometry, a parallelogram is a convex quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides. The opposite or facing sides of a parallelogram are of equal length and the opposite angles of a parallelogram are of equal measure...

with equal diagonals that bisect the angles. - If a figure is both a rectangle (right angles) and a rhombus (equal edge lengths), then it is a square.
- If a circle is circumscribed around a square, the area of the circle is (about 1.57) times the area of the square.
- If a circle is inscribed in the square, the area of the circle is (about 0.79) times the area of the square.
- A square has a larger area than any other quadrilateral with the same perimeter.
- A square tiling is one of three regular tilingsTiling by regular polygonsPlane tilings by regular polygons have been widely used since antiquity. The first systematic mathematical treatment was that of Kepler in Harmonices Mundi.- Regular tilings :...

of the plane (the others are the equilateral triangle and the regular hexagon). - The square is in two families of polytopes in two dimensions: hypercubeHypercubeIn geometry, a hypercube is an n-dimensional analogue of a square and a cube . It is a closed, compact, convex figure whose 1-skeleton consists of groups of opposite parallel line segments aligned in each of the space's dimensions, perpendicular to each other and of the same length.An...

and the cross polytope. The Schläfli symbol for the square is {4}. - The square is a highly symmetric object. There are four lines of reflectional symmetryReflection symmetryReflection symmetry, reflectional symmetry, line symmetry, mirror symmetry, mirror-image symmetry, or bilateral symmetry is symmetry with respect to reflection. That is, a figure which does not change upon undergoing a reflection has reflectional symmetry.In 2D there is a line of symmetry, in 3D a...

and it has rotational symmetryRotational symmetryGenerally speaking, an object with rotational symmetry is an object that looks the same after a certain amount of rotation. An object may have more than one rotational symmetry; for instance, if reflections or turning it over are not counted, the triskelion appearing on the Isle of Man's flag has...

of order 4 (through 90°, 180° and 270°). Its symmetry groupSymmetry groupThe symmetry group of an object is the group of all isometries under which it is invariant with composition as the operation...

is the dihedral groupDihedral groupIn mathematics, a dihedral group is the group of symmetries of a regular polygon, including both rotations and reflections. Dihedral groups are among the simplest examples of finite groups, and they play an important role in group theory, geometry, and chemistry.See also: Dihedral symmetry in three...

*D*_{4}.

## Non-Euclidean geometry

In non-euclidean geometry, squares are more generally polygons with 4 equal sides and equal angles.In spherical geometry

Spherical geometry

Spherical geometry is the geometry of the two-dimensional surface of a sphere. It is an example of a geometry which is not Euclidean. Two practical applications of the principles of spherical geometry are to navigation and astronomy....

, a square is a polygon whose edges are great circle

Great circle

A great circle, also known as a Riemannian circle, of a sphere is the intersection of the sphere and a plane which passes through the center point of the sphere, as opposed to a general circle of a sphere where the plane is not required to pass through the center...

arcs of equal distance, which meet at equal angles. Unlike the square of plane geometry, the angles of such a square are larger than a right angle.

In hyperbolic geometry

Hyperbolic geometry

In mathematics, hyperbolic geometry is a non-Euclidean geometry, meaning that the parallel postulate of Euclidean geometry is replaced...

, squares with right angles do not exist. Rather, squares in hyperbolic geometry have angles of less than right angles. Larger squares have smaller angles.

**Examples:**Six squares can tile the sphere with 3 squares around each vertex and 120 degree internal angle Internal angle In geometry, an interior angle is an angle formed by two sides of a polygon that share an endpoint. For a simple, convex or concave polygon, this angle will be an angle on the 'inner side' of the polygon... s. This is called a spherical cube. The Schläfli symbol is {4,3}. |
Squares can tile the Euclidean plane with 4 around each vertex, with each square having an internal angle of 90 degrees. The Schläfli symbol is {4,4}. |
Squares can tile the Hyperbolic plane Hyperbolic space In mathematics, hyperbolic space is a type of non-Euclidean geometry. Whereas spherical geometry has a constant positive curvature, hyperbolic geometry has a negative curvature: every point in hyperbolic space is a saddle point... with 5 around each vertex, with each square having 72 degree internal angles. The Schläfli symbol is {4,5}. |

## Graphs

The K_{4}complete graphComplete graph

In the mathematical field of graph theory, a complete graph is a simple undirected graph in which every pair of distinct vertices is connected by a unique edge.-Properties:...

is often drawn as a square with all 6 edges connected. This graph also represents an orthographic projection

Orthographic projection

Orthographic projection is a means of representing a three-dimensional object in two dimensions. It is a form of parallel projection, where all the projection lines are orthogonal to the projection plane, resulting in every plane of the scene appearing in affine transformation on the viewing surface...

of the 4 vertices and 6 edges of the regular 3-simplex

Simplex

In geometry, a simplex is a generalization of the notion of a triangle or tetrahedron to arbitrary dimension. Specifically, an n-simplex is an n-dimensional polytope which is the convex hull of its n + 1 vertices. For example, a 2-simplex is a triangle, a 3-simplex is a tetrahedron,...

(tetrahedron

Tetrahedron

In geometry, a tetrahedron is a polyhedron composed of four triangular faces, three of which meet at each vertex. A regular tetrahedron is one in which the four triangles are regular, or "equilateral", and is one of the Platonic solids...

).

3-simplex (3D) |

## External links

- Animated course (Construction, Circumference, Area)
- Definition and properties of a square With interactive applet
- Animated applet illustrating the area of a square
- www.mathisfun.com/quadrilaterals.html Everything you want to know about quadrilaterals.