Pistoia is a city and comune
In Italy, the comune is the basic administrative division, and may be properly approximated in casual speech by the English word township or municipality.-Importance and function:...

 in the Tuscany
Tuscany is a region in Italy. It has an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.75 million inhabitants. The regional capital is Florence ....

 region of Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, the capital of a province of the same name
Province of Pistoia
The Province of Pistoia is a province in the Tuscany region of Italy. Its capital is the city of Pistoia. It has an area of 965 km², and a total population of 268,503 . There are 22 communes in the province .-External links:...

, located about 30 km west and north of Florence
Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the province of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with approximately 370,000 inhabitants, expanding to over 1.5 million in the metropolitan area....

 and is crossed by the Ombrone Pistoiese, a tributary of the River Arno
The Arno is a river in the Tuscany region of Italy. It is the most important river of central Italy after the Tiber.- Source and route :The river originates on Mount Falterona in the Casentino area of the Apennines, and initially takes a southward curve...



Pistoria (in Latin other possible spellings are Pistorium or Pistoriae) was centre of Gallic
The Gauls were a Celtic people living in Gaul, the region roughly corresponding to what is now France, Belgium, Switzerland and Northern Italy, from the Iron Age through the Roman period. They mostly spoke the Continental Celtic language called Gaulish....

, Ligurian
Ligurian may mean:* Ligurian, pertaining to modern Liguria* Ligurian, pertaining to the ancient Ligures* Ligurian , a modern language spoken in parts of Italy, France, Monaco and Argentina...

 and Etruscan
Etruscan civilization
Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to a civilization of ancient Italy in the area corresponding roughly to Tuscany. The ancient Romans called its creators the Tusci or Etrusci...

 settlements before becoming a Roman
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 colony in the 6th century BC, along the important road Via Cassia
Via Cassia
The Via Cassia was an important Roman road striking out of the Via Flaminia near the Milvian Bridge in the immediate vicinity of Rome and, passing not far from Veii traversed Etruria...

: in 62 BC the demagogue Catiline
Lucius Sergius Catilina , known in English as Catiline, was a Roman politician of the 1st century BC who is best known for the Catiline conspiracy, an attempt to overthrow the Roman Republic, and in particular the power of the aristocratic Senate.-Family background:Catiline was born in 108 BC to...

 and his fellow conspirators were slain nearby. From the 5th century the city was a bishopric, and during the Lombardic
The Lombards , also referred to as Longobards, were a Germanic tribe of Scandinavian origin, who from 568 to 774 ruled a Kingdom in Italy...

 kingdom it was a royal city and had several privileges. Pistoia's most splendid age began in 1177 when it proclaimed itself a free commune: in the following years it became an important political centre, erecting walls and several public and religious buildings.

In 1254 the Ghibelline Pistoia was taken over by Guelph
Guelphs and Ghibellines
The Guelphs and Ghibellines were factions supporting the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor, respectively, in central and northern Italy. During the 12th and 13th centuries, the split between these two parties was a particularly important aspect of the internal policy of the Italian city-states...

 Florence, but supposedly resulted in the division of the Guelphs into "Black" and "White" factions.
Pistoia remained a Florentine holding except for a brief period in the 14th century, when Castruccio Castracani
Castruccio Castracani
Castruccio Castracani degli Antelminelli was an Italian condottiero and duke of Lucca.-Biography:Castruccio was born in Lucca, a member of the noble family of Antelminelli, of the Ghibelline party. In 1300 he was exiled with his parents and others of their faction by the Guelphs "Black" party,...

 captured it for Lucca
Lucca is a city and comune in Tuscany, central Italy, situated on the river Serchio in a fertile plainnear the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Lucca...

, and was officially annexed to Florence
Florence is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany and of the province of Florence. It is the most populous city in Tuscany, with approximately 370,000 inhabitants, expanding to over 1.5 million in the metropolitan area....

 in 1530. During the 14th century Ormanno Tedici
Ormanno Tedici
Ormanno Tedici was an abbot and Italian politician. He was the Lord of Pistoia between 1322 and 1324.-References: Paolo Paolieri. Un abate al potere. La signoria di Ormanno Tedici a Pistoia. Pistoia, Editrice C.R.T., 2002. ISBN 888817236X....

 was one of the Lords of the city.

In 1786 a famous Jansenist episcopal synod was convened in Pistoia.

Dante Alighieri
Durante degli Alighieri, mononymously referred to as Dante , was an Italian poet, prose writer, literary theorist, moral philosopher, and political thinker. He is best known for the monumental epic poem La commedia, later named La divina commedia ...

 mentioned in his Divina Commedia the free town of Pistoia as the home town of Vanni Fucci, who is encountered in Inferno tangled up in a knot of snakes while cursing God, and Michelangelo
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni , commonly known as Michelangelo, was an Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet, and engineer who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art...

 called the Pistoiesi the "enemies of heaven".

According to one theory, Pistoia lent its name to the pistol
When distinguished as a subset of handguns, a pistol is a handgun with a chamber that is integral with the barrel, as opposed to a revolver, wherein the chamber is separate from the barrel as a revolving cylinder. Typically, pistols have an effective range of about 100 feet.-History:The pistol...

, which it started manufacturing in the 16th century. But today it is also notable for the extensive garden
A garden is a planned space, usually outdoors, set aside for the display, cultivation, and enjoyment of plants and other forms of nature. The garden can incorporate both natural and man-made materials. The most common form today is known as a residential garden, but the term garden has...

 nurseries spreading around it. Consequently, Pistoia is also famous for its flower markets, as is the nearby Pescia
Pescia is an Italian city in the province of Pistoia, Tuscany, central Italy.It is located in a central zone between the cities Lucca and Florence, on the banks of the homonymous river.-History:...


Main sights

Although not as visited as other towns in Tuscany
Tuscany is a region in Italy. It has an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.75 million inhabitants. The regional capital is Florence ....

, mostly due to the industrial environs, Pistoia presents a well-preserved and charming medieval city inside the old walls.

Piazza del Duomo

The large Piazza del Duomo is lined with attractive original buildings as the Palazzo del Comune and the Palazzo del Podestà
Podestà is the name given to certain high officials in many Italian cities, since the later Middle Ages, mainly as Chief magistrate of a city state , but also as a local administrator, the representative of the Emperor.The term derives from the Latin word potestas, meaning power...

: it is the setting (in July) of the Giostra dell'Orso ("Bear Joust"), when the best horsemen of the districts of the town tilt with lances at a target held up by a dummy shaped like a bear
Bears are mammals of the family Ursidae. Bears are classified as caniforms, or doglike carnivorans, with the pinnipeds being their closest living relatives. Although there are only eight living species of bear, they are widespread, appearing in a wide variety of habitats throughout the Northern...


The original Cathedral of San Zeno (5th century) burned down in 1108, but was rebuilt during the following century, and received incremental improvements until the 17th century. The façade has a prominent Romanesque
Romanesque architecture
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterised by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque architecture, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style,...

 style, while the interior received heavy Baroque
The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

 additions which were removed during the 1960s. Its outstanding feature is the Altar of St James, an exemplar of the silversmith
A silversmith is a craftsperson who makes objects from silver or gold. The terms 'silversmith' and 'goldsmith' are not synonyms as the techniques, training, history, and guilds are or were largely the same but the end product varies greatly as does the scale of objects created.Silversmithing is the...

's craft begun in 1287 but not finished until the 15th century. Its various sections contain 628 figures, the total weighing nearly a ton. The Romanesque belfry, standing at some 67 m, was erected over an ancient Lombard
The Lombards , also referred to as Longobards, were a Germanic tribe of Scandinavian origin, who from 568 to 774 ruled a Kingdom in Italy...


In the square is also the 14th century Baptistry, in Gothic
Gothic architecture
Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

 style, with white-green marble decorations.

The Palazzo dei Vescovi ("Bishops' Palace"), is characterized by a Gothic loggia
Loggia is the name given to an architectural feature, originally of Minoan design. They are often a gallery or corridor at ground level, sometimes higher, on the facade of a building and open to the air on one side, where it is supported by columns or pierced openings in the wall...

to at the first floor. It is known from 1091, initially as a fortified noble residence. In the 12th century it received a more decorated appearance, with mullioned windows and frescoes, of which traces remain. It was later modified in the mid-12th (when the St. James Chapel, narrated by Dante Alighieri
Dante Alighieri
Durante degli Alighieri, mononymously referred to as Dante , was an Italian poet, prose writer, literary theorist, moral philosopher, and political thinker. He is best known for the monumental epic poem La commedia, later named La divina commedia ...

 in the XXIV canto of his Inferno
Inferno means "Hell" in both Italian and Portuguese, so this word may refer to:*Hell*Conflagration, a large uncontrolled fire.-Literature:* Inferno , the first part of Dante's Divine Comedy...

) and in the 13th century; to the latter restoration belongs the white marble-decorated staircase, one of the most ancient examples in Italy in civil architecture. In the 14th century the Chapel of St. Nicholas was decorated with stories of the namesake saint and of martyrs

The Tower of Catilina is from the High Middle Ages, and stands 30 m high.

Religious buildings

  • Basilica of Our Lady of Humility
    Basilica of Our Lady of Humility
    The Basilica of Our Lady of Humility is a Roman Catholic Marian basilica in Pistoia, Tuscany, Italy.A miracle attributed to the fresco of the Madonna of humility painted in about 1370 gave rise to the construction of the basilica. The fresco is sometimes attributed to Bartolomeo Cristiani, but was...

     (Madonna dell'Umiltà) (1509), finished by Giorgio Vasari
    Giorgio Vasari
    Giorgio Vasari was an Italian painter, writer, historian, and architect, who is famous today for his biographies of Italian artists, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing.-Biography:...

     with a 59 m-high cupola. The original project was by Giuliano da Sangallo
    Giuliano da Sangallo
    Giuliano da Sangallo was an Italian sculptor, architect and military engineer active during the Italian Renaissance.He was born in Florence. His father Francesco Giamberti was a woodworker and architect, much employed by Cosimo de Medici, and his brother Antonio da Sangallo the Elder and nephew...

    , but works were begun in 1495 by Ventura Vitoni. The dome was commissioned by Cosimo I de' Medici to Vasari, the lantern begin completed in 1568 and the church consecrated in 1582. In the apse is a painting by Bernardino del Signoraccio (1493).
  • the Baroque
    The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

     Santissima Annunziata, famous for its Chiostro dei Morti ("Dead's Cloister").
  • San Bartolomeo in Pantano
    San Bartolomeo in Pantano
    San Bartolomeo in Pantano is a church in Pistoia, Tuscany, central Italy, dedicated to St. Bartholomew the Apostle. The pantano of the name refers to the once marshy area in which the building was located.-History:...

     (12th century).
  • San Giovanni Battista (15th century). Damaged during World War II bombardments, it is now used as an exhibition center.
  • San Giovanni Battista al Tempio (11th century), owned for a while by the Templar and then by the Hospitaller Knights.
  • San Benedetto (14th century, restored in 1630). It houses a 1390 Annunciation by Giovanni di Bartolomeo Cristiani
    Giovanni di Bartolomeo Cristiani
    Giovanni di Bartolomeo Cristiani, who lived at Pistoia in the 14th century, is thought by Ciampi to have been employed at the Campo Santo of Pisa in 1382. He is known to have painted a 'Virgin and Child between SS. Nicholas and John the Baptist' in the Oratorio dei Nerli at Montemurlo...

    , a 16th century Forentine school St. Benedict with the Redeemer and, in the cloister, Histories of the Order of the Knights of St. Benedict by Giovan Battista Vanni (1660).
  • San Domenico.
  • Franciscan church of San Francesco (begun in 1289). It has an unfinished façade with bichrome marble decoration. It has frescoes with Histories of St. Francis in the main chapel and other 14th–15th centuries frescoes.
  • The Romanesque San Giovanni Fuoricivitas
    San Giovanni Fuoricivitas
    San Giovanni Fuoricivitas is a Romanesque religious complex in Pistoia, Tuscany, central Italy. The adjective fuoricivitas refers to the fact that, when it was founded during the Lombard rule in Italy, was located outside the city walls.-History:No traces remain of the original Lombard...

     (12th–14th century).
  • San Leone, built in the 14th century but enlarged in the 16th–18th centuries. Its Baroque-Roccoco interior houses some notable canvasses by artists such as Giovanni Lanfranco
    Giovanni Lanfranco
    Giovanni Lanfranco was an Italian painter of the Baroque period.-Biography:Giovanni Gaspare Lanfranco was born in Parma, the third son of Stefano and Cornelia Lanfranchi, and was placed as a page in the household of Count Orazio Scotti...

    , Stefano Marucelli and Vincenzo Meucci
    Vincenzo Meucci
    Vincenzo Meucci was an Italian painter of the late-Baroque period. Born in Florence. He was a pupil first of the painter Sebastiano Galeotti, then of Giovanni Gioseffo dal Sole in Bologna....

  • Santa Maria delle Grazie.
  • Santa Maria in Ripalta, mentioned from the 11th century. It houses a large Ascension fresco in the apse, attributed to Manfredino d'Alberto (1274).
  • San Paolo
    San Paolo, Pistoia
    San Paolo is a church in Pistoia, Tuscany, Italy.It was built in 748, and remade in the 12th century, although only in the 14th century it obtained the current forms. The exterior is characterized by a typical Tuscan blend of Romanesque and Gothic styles, with a polychrome decoration of the façade....

  • San Pier Maggiore.
  • Pieve di Sant'Andrea
    Pieve di Sant'Andrea (Pistoia)
    The Pieve di Sant'Andrea is a church in Pistoia, Tuscany, central Italy. It is dedicated to St. Andrew the Apostle, and includes the famous Pulpit of St. Andrew by Giovanni Pisano. The church probably dates from as early as the 8th century, though in a smaller size...

    , housing Giovanni Pisano
    Giovanni Pisano
    Giovanni Pisano was an Italian sculptor, painter and architect. Son of the famous sculptor Nicola Pisano, he received his training in the workshop of his father....

    's Pulpit of St. Andrew
    Pulpit of St. Andrew
    The pulpit in the church of Sant' Andrea, Pistoia is a masterpiece of 1301 by the Italian sculptor Giovanni Pisano, in the pieve of Sant'Andrea, Pistoia, Italy....

  • The ancient Pieve
    In the Middle Ages, a pieve was a rural church with a baptistery, upon which other churches without baptisteries depended.The Italian word pieve is descended from Latin plebs which, after the expansion of Christianity in Italy, was applied to the community of baptized people...

     of San Michele in Groppoli, in the neighbourhood of the city.
  • La Vergine.


  • The 14th century walls. These had originally four gates, Porta al Borgo, Porta San Marco, Porta Carratica and Porta Lucchese, all demolished at the beginning of the 20th century.
  • Ospedale del Ceppo
    Ospedale del Ceppo
    Ospedale del Ceppo is a medieval hospital in Pistoia, Tuscany, central Italy.-History:According to tradition, it was founded in 1277 by the company of Santa Maria or "del Ceppo dei poveri" . In 1345 there were ongoing works for a new cloister, oratory and domus...

     (13th century).
  • Palazzo Panciatichi
    Palazzo Panciatichi
    Palazzo Panciatichi or Palazzo del Balì is a medieval building in Pistoia, Tuscany, central Italy.It was begun in 1320 by Vinciguerra Panciatichi, a rich Ghibelline banker, as a fortified private residence. It has a stone façade with three floors ending with a large Renaissance gutter...

  • The Monument in Honour of Brazilians (Soldiers and Pilots) killed in action on Italian Campaign (World War II)
    Italian Campaign (World War II)
    The Italian Campaign of World War II was the name of Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe. Joint Allied Forces Headquarters AFHQ was operationally responsible for all Allied land forces in the Mediterranean theatre, and it planned and commanded the...

  • The Medici Fortress of Santa Barbara, built a first time in 1331 century by the Florentines, but destroyed by the Pistoiese citizens in 1343. It was rebuilt by order of Cosimo I de' Medici from 1539, and later enlarged by Bernardo Buontalenti
    Bernardo Buontalenti
    Bernardo Buontalenti, byname of Bernardo Delle Girandole was an Italian stage designer, architect, theatrical designer, military engineer and artist.-Biography:Buontalenti was born in Florence....

    . It sustained one single siege by the Barberini
    The Barberini are a family of the Italian nobility that rose to prominence in 17th century Rome. Their influence peaked with the election of Cardinal Maffeo Barberini to the papal throne in 1623, as Pope Urban VIII...

     troops in 1643, before being disarmed by Grand Duke Peter Leopold in 1734. Later it was used as barracks and military jail, while now houses cinema shows in summer.


Its station
Pistoia railway station
Pistoia railway station is the station of Pistoia in Piazza Dante. It is on the Maria Antonia railway, which connects Florence and Viareggio and it is at the beginning of the Porrettana railway to Bologna.-Overview:...

 is on the Maria Antonia railway, connecting Florence, Lucca
Lucca railway station
Lucca railway station is the main station in Lucca and is located on the Florence–Viareggio line and is the terminus of lines to Pisa and Aulla. These lines are served by regional trains only. The station has five platforms for passengers...

 and Viareggio
Viareggio is a city and comune located in northern Tuscany, Italy, on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea. With a population of over 64,000 it is the main centre of the northern Tuscan Riviera known as Versilia, and the second largest city within the Province of Lucca.It is known as a seaside resort...

 and it is at the southern end of the Porrettana railway
Porrettana railway
The Porrettana Railway is an Italian railway connecting Bologna to Pistoia and was the first line through the Apennines between Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna. It is also known in Italian as the Transappenninica...

, the original line between Florence and Bologna.

Notable people

  • Enrico Betti
    Enrico Betti
    -External links:...

  • Mauro Bolognini
    Mauro Bolognini
    Mauro Bolognini was an Italian film director of literate sensibility, known for masterful handling of period subject matter.-Biography:Mauro Bolognini was born in Pistoia, Tuscany....

  • Giosuè Carducci
    Giosuè Carducci
    Giosuè Alessandro Michele Carducci was an Italian poet and teacher. He was very influential and was regarded as the official national poet of modern Italy. In 1906 he became the first Italian to win the Nobel Prize in Literature.-Biography:...

  • Cino da Pistoia
    Cino da Pistoia
    Cino da Pistoia was an Italian jurist and poet.He was born in Pistoia, Tuscany. His full name was Guittoncino dei Sinibaldi de Candia Pistoia or, Latinised as Cinus de Sighibuldis, his father was from a noble man from the House of Sinibaldi and his mother a noble lady of the House of Candia Pistoia...

  • Pope Clement IX
    Pope Clement IX
    Pope Clement IX , born Giulio Rospigliosi, was Pope from 1667 to 1669.-Early life:Born Giulio Rospigliosi to a noble family of Pistoia, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, he was a pupil of the Jesuits. After receiving his doctorate in philosophy at the University of Pisa, he taught theology there...

  • Ippolito Desideri
    Ippolito Desideri
    Ippolito Desideri was an Italian Jesuit missionary in Tibet and the first European to have successfully studied and understood Tibetan language and culture.-Biography:...

  • Massimo Freccia
    Massimo Freccia
    Massimo Filippo Antongiulio Maria Freccia was an Italian American conductor. He had an international reputation but never held a post as music director of a major orchestra or opera house. Unusually for an Italian, he built his career around symphonic music rather than opera...

  • Licio Gelli
    Licio Gelli
    Licio Gelli is an Italian financier, chiefly known for his role in the Banco Ambrosiano scandal. He was revealed in 1981 as being the Venerable Master of the clandestine Masonic lodge Propaganda Due...

  • Marino Marini
  • Giovanni Michelucci
    Giovanni Michelucci
    Giovanni Michelucci was an Italian architect, urban planner and engraver. He was one of the major Italian architects of the 20th century, known for notable projects such as the Firenze Santa Maria Novella railway station and the San Giovanni Battista church on the Autostrada del Sole....

  • Filippo Pacini
    Filippo Pacini
    Filippo Pacini was an Italian anatomist, posthumously famous for isolating the cholera bacillus Vibrio cholerae in 1854, well before Robert Koch's more widely accepted discoveries thirty years later....


Badia a Pacciana, Baggio, Bargi, Barile, Bonelle, Bottegone, Campiglio Germinaia, Canapale, Candeglia, Capostrada, Case Nuove di Masiano, Castagno di Piteccio, Chiazzano, Chiesina Montalese, Chiodo, Cignano, Cireglio, Collina, Corsini Bianchi, Corsini Neri, Fabbrica, Gello, Iano, Le Fornaci, Le Grazie, Le Piastre, Le Pozze, Le Querci, Lupicciano, Masiano, Masotti, Nespolo, Orsigna, Piazza, Piestro, Piteccio, Piuvica, Pontelungo, Pontenuovo, Pracchia, Pupigliana, Ramini, Sammommè, San Biagio, San Felice, San Rocco, Sant'Agostino, Sant'Alessio in Bigiano, Santomato, Saturnana, Spazzavento, Stazzana, Torbecchia, Valdibrana, Vicofaro, Villa di Baggio, Villanova di Valdibrana.

Twin towns — sister cities

Pistoia is twinned with: Kruševac
Kruševac is a city and municipality, and the administrative center of the Rasina District, in central Serbia. According to the 2011 census, the municipality has a population of 127,429, while the town has 57,627....

, Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

 Pau, France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, since 1975 Zittau
Zittau is a city in the south east of the Free State of Saxony, Germany, close to the border tripoint of Germany, Poland, and the Czech Republic. , there are 28,638 people in the city. It is part of the Görlitz district....

, Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...


  • Pistoia Blues, an international music festival held since 1980.
  • Giostra dell'Orso ("Joust of the Bear"), a ceremony that is mentioned even in a chronicle of 1300, when a dozen riders organized a ritual combat against a bear. Despite many changes, this traditional ceremony was staged every year until 1666, when the abandonment was recorded by the ritual celebration of the people. It was restarted in 1947, and takes place on July 25.


  • David Herlihy
    David Herlihy
    David Herlihy was an American historian who wrote on medieval and renaissance life. Particular topics include domestic life, especially the roles of women, and the changing structure of the family...

    . Medieval and Renaissance Pistoia: the social history of an Italian town. New Haven and London
    London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

    , Yale University Press
    Yale University Press
    Yale University Press is a book publisher founded in 1908 by George Parmly Day. It became an official department of Yale University in 1961, but remains financially and operationally autonomous....

    , 1967.

External links

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