People's Consultative Assembly
The People's Consultative Assembly is the legislative branch in Indonesia's political system
Politics of Indonesia
Politics of Indonesia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Indonesia is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both...

. It is composed of the members of the People's Representative Council
People's Representative Council
The People's Representative Council , sometimes referred to as the House of Representatives, is one of two elected national legislative assemblies in Indonesia....

  and the Regional Representative Council. Before 2004, and the amendments to the 1945 Constitution
Constitution of Indonesia
The Constitution of Indonesia is the basis for the government of the Indonesia.The constitution was written in June, July and August 1945, when Indonesia was emerging from Japanese control at the end of World War II...

, the MPR was the highest governing body in Indonesia
Indonesia , officially the Republic of Indonesia , is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania. Indonesia is an archipelago comprising approximately 13,000 islands. It has 33 provinces with over 238 million people, and is the world's fourth most populous country. Indonesia is a republic, with an...


In accordance with Law No. 16/1960, the assembly was formed after the first general election of 1971. It was decided at that time that the membership of the Assembly would be twice that of the Representative House.

The 920 membership of MPR continued for the periods of 1977–1982 and 1982–1987. For the periods 1987–1992, 1992–1997, and 1997–1999 the MPR's membership became 1000. One hundred members were appointed representing delegations from groups as addition to the faction delegates of Karya Pembangunan (FKP), Partai Demokrasi Indonesia (FPDI)
Indonesian Democratic Party
The Indonesian Democratic Party was one of the two state-approved parties during the New Order era of the late 20th-century in Indonesia.-Origins:...

, and Persatuan Pembangunan (FPP). For the period of 1999–2004 the membership of MPR was only 700, likewise for the 2004–2009 period.


On 18 August 1945, the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (the Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia, known as the PPKI) approved a new constitution for the country. It was, however, difficult to implement because of the unsettled postwar conditions. The Preparatory Committee therefore decided to instead implement a document titled The Four Clauses of Transition Regulations. Clause IV of those regulations stated that until permanent governing bodies could be established all governmental powers would be held by the President with the assistance of a National Committee.

On 29 August 1945, the Central Indonesian National Committee
Central Indonesian National Committee
The Central Indonesian National Committee or KNIP, was a body appointed to assist the president of the newly independent Indonesia. Originally purely advisory, it later gained assumed legislative functions...

 (KNIP) was set up, with membership drawn from leaders of communities from various regions as well from the Preparatory Committee. the MPR..

On 16 October 1945, Vice President Mohammad Hatta
Mohammad Hatta
was born in Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, Dutch East Indies . He was Indonesia's first vice president, later also serving as the country's Prime Minister. Known as "The Proclamator", he and a number of Indonesians, including the first president of Indonesia, Sukarno, fought for the independence of...

 issued a decree that outlined the function and authority of the KNIP. In addition to the assisting the President, the committee would perform legislative duties until an MPR and DPR
People's Representative Council
The People's Representative Council , sometimes referred to as the House of Representatives, is one of two elected national legislative assemblies in Indonesia....

 could be formed. In taking on the functions of the MPR, the KNIP was responsible for creating the Broad Outlines of Government Policy (GBHN).

The role which KNIP played would provide a rough outline of the duties which Preparatory Committee (the MPR) would later perform.

Federal Era and Parliamentary Democracy Era

On 27 December 1949, Indonesia's independence was recognized by the Dutch
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 Government, and the search was on for a form of government that would suit Indonesia.

From that year until 17 August 1950, Indonesia was known as the United States of Indonesia (RIS) and had a federal system of government. Under the constitution of the RIS, the MPR was not recognized as the highest state institution, and it ceased to function. On the 17 August 1950, however, the RIS ceased to exist, and Indonesia changed its name to the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia (NKRI).

Parliamentary democracy
Liberal Democracy Era in Indonesia (1950-1957)
An era of Liberal Democracy in Indonesia began in 1950 following the securing of Indonesian independence in the Indonesian National Revolution, and ended with the imposition of martial law and President Sukarno's introduction of Guided Democracy in 1957...

 was the form of government quickly adopted by the newly re-formed nation. It operated under a provisional constitution
Provisional Constitution of 1950
The 1950 Provisional Constitution replaced the Federal Constitution of 1949 when Indonesia unilaterally withdrew from the union with the Netherlands agreed at the Round Table Conference and returned to being a unitary state. It came into force on August 17, 1950...

 that did not recognize the MPR. As a result of the 1955 legislative elections
Indonesian legislative election, 1955
Indonesia's first parliamentary general election was held on 29 September 1955. The candidates were seeking to be elected to the 257-seat People's Representative Council, which would replace the existing provisional legislature...

, however, a new DPR was formed. In December 1955, a government body called the Constitutional Assembly of Indonesia (Konstituante) was formed, and its duty was to draft a new constitution for Indonesia. Nevertheless, the Constitutional Assembly could not agree on a constitution, and by 1959, the government was demanding a return to the 1945 constitution; this step was rejected by the Constitutional Assembly.


On 5 July 1959, President Sukarno
Sukarno, born Kusno Sosrodihardjo was the first President of Indonesia.Sukarno was the leader of his country's struggle for independence from the Netherlands and was Indonesia's first President from 1945 to 1967...

, who until then had played the role of ceremonial Head of State
Head of State
A head of state is the individual that serves as the chief public representative of a monarchy, republic, federation, commonwealth or other kind of state. His or her role generally includes legitimizing the state and exercising the political powers, functions, and duties granted to the head of...

 intervened. In a decree
President Sukarno's 1959 Decree
The Presidential Decree of 5 July 1959 was issued by President Sukarno in the face of the inability of the Constitutional Assembly of Indonesia to achieve the two-thirds majority to reimpose the 1945 Constitution...

, he dissolved the Constitutional Assembly and declared that the 1945 Constitution would thenceforth be in force and that the Provisional Constitution was void. With the return to the 1945 Constitution, the MPR was once again recognized as the highest governing body in the land.

Immediately after issuing the decree, Sukarno set to work in establishing an MPR, although it would be dubbed the Provisional People's Consultative Assembly (MPRS). Sukarno had originally envisaged a legislative election to be held to replace the MPRS with a proper MPR, but that vote was delayed until 1971 under President Suharto's rule.


The MPRS during the Guided Democracy
Guided Democracy (1957–1965)
Guided Democracy was the political system in place in Indonesia from 1957 until the New Order began in 1966. It was the brainchild of President Sukarno, and was an attempt to bring about political stability. Sukarno believed that Western-style democracy was inappropriate for Indonesia's situation...

 era numbered 616 members. It consisted of the 257 DPR members, 241 Representatives of the Functional Groups, and 118 Regional Representatives. The MPRS was subservient to Sukarno, with the President deciding everything from the number of seats to the appointment of additional members and the choice of the body's Chairman and Vice Chairmen.

1960 General Session

The MPRS held its first General Session in Bandung
Bandung is the capital of West Java province in Indonesia, and the country's third largest city, and 2nd largest metropolitan area in Indonesia, with a population of 7.4 million in 2007. Located 768 metres above sea level, approximately 140 km southeast of Jakarta, Bandung has cooler...

, West Java
West Java
West Java , with a population of over 43 million, is the most populous and most densely populated province of Indonesia. Located on the island of Java, it is slightly smaller in area than densely populated Taiwan, but with nearly double the population...

 from 10 November to 7 December. Its main resolution was the adoption of Sukarno's political manifesto as the GBHN and the broad outlines of an eight-year Development Plan, which was set to start in 1961.

1963 General Session

The second General Session was held in Bandung from 15 May to 22 May 1963. It was at this General Session that Sukarno was elected President for Life.

1965 General Session

The MPRS held its third General Session in Bandung from 11 April to 15 April 1965. This General Session further entrenched Sukarno's ideological approaches in the running of Indonesia. Many of Sukarno's Independence Day speeches were adopted as the guideline for policies in politics and economics. The MPRS also decided on the principals of Guided Democracy, which would involve consultations (Musyawarah and Mufakat).

1966 General Session

Perhaps the most significant of the MPR's General Sessions was that in 1966. Meeting in Jakarta from 20 June to 5 July 1966, the General Session marked the beginning of the official transfer of power from Sukarno to Suharto. Although the de facto
De facto
De facto is a Latin expression that means "concerning fact." In law, it often means "in practice but not necessarily ordained by law" or "in practice or actuality, but not officially established." It is commonly used in contrast to de jure when referring to matters of law, governance, or...

 transfer of power had been made on 11 March by virtue of Supersemar
The Supersemar, the Indonesian abbreviation for Surat Perintah Sebelas Maret was a document signed by the Indonesian President Sukarno on March 11, 1966, giving the Army commander Lt. Gen. Suharto authority to take whatever measures he "deemed necessary" to restore order to the chaotic situation...

 document, Suharto wanted to maintain the appearance of legality.

During the 1966 session, the MPRS passed 24 resolutions; they included revoking Sukarno's appointment to the life presidency, banning Marxism-Leninism
Marxism–Leninism is a communist ideology, officially based upon the theories of Marxism and Vladimir Lenin, that promotes the development and creation of a international communist society through the leadership of a vanguard party over a revolutionary socialist state that represents a dictatorship...

, ratifying Supersemar, the holding of legislative elections, commissioning Suharto to create a new Cabinet, and a constitutional amendment in which a President who might be unable to perform his duty would be replaced by the holder of supersemar instead of the Vice President.

Also during the General Session, Sukarno delivered a speech called Nawaksara ("The Nine Points"), in which he was expected to give account for the 1965 30 September Movement
30 September Movement
The Thirtieth of September Movement ) was a self-proclaimed organization of Indonesian National Armed Forces members who, in the early hours of 1 October 1965, assassinated six Indonesian Army generals in an abortive coup d'état. Later that morning, the organization declared that it was in control...

, in which six generals and a first lieutenant were kidnapped and killed by alleged communists. The speech was rejected. and the MPRS asked Sukarno to give a supplementary speech at the next MPRS General Session.

1967 Special Session

The 1967 MPRS Special Session marked the end of Sukarno's presidency and the beginning of Suharto's. Much like the 1966 General Session, the official transfer of power was done before the General Session in March, with Sukarno stepping down from his position in February. Suharto's appointment as Acting President and the withdrawal of power from Sukarno during this General Session was just a formality.

The MPRS also passed a resolution to re-examine the adoption of the Political Manifesto as GBHN.

The Special Session assembled after Sukarno's Nawaksara Supplementary Letter was deemed to be unworthy because it had not accounted for the G30S. He did not deliver a speech. On 9 February 1967, the DPR declared that the President was endangering the nation through his leadership and ideological stance. It then asked for an MPRS Special Session to be held in March.

1968 Special Session

The 1968 MPRS Special Session officially consolidated Suharto's position by appointing him to the Presidency. The MPRS commissioned Suharto to continue stabilizing Indonesia's politics and to formulate a Five Year Plan for the economy.

The Special Session was assembled when it became obvious that Suharto was not going to be able to hold legislative elections on July 1968 as had been ordered by the 1966 MPRS General Session. During this Special Session, the MPRS also commissioned Suharto to hold elections by 5 July 1971.

New Order

1973 General Session

The 1973 General Session was the first MPR to be elected by the people. Its membership was increased to 920. and until 1999 it included members from Golkar
The Party of the Functional Groups is a political party in Indonesia. It is also known as Sekber Golkar . It was the ruling party during Suharto's regime...

, the United Development Party
United Development Party
The United Development Party , sometimes translated as Development Unity Party is a political party in Indonesia. It is an islamic party and currently led by Suryadharma Ali.-Origins:...

 (PPP), the Indonesian Democratic Party
Indonesian Democratic Party
The Indonesian Democratic Party was one of the two state-approved parties during the New Order era of the late 20th-century in Indonesia.-Origins:...

 (PDI), ABRI (the military), as well as Regional Representatives.

For the first time, the President was required to deliver an Accountability Speech in which he would outline the achievements which he had accomplished during his five-year term and the way in which they fulfilled the GBHN which the MPR had set out.

In this General Session, the MPR passed resolutions that outlined the method of the election of the President and Vice President and decided on the relationship between the Governing Bodies in Indonesia — such as the MPRS, DPR, DPA, etc.). Suharto was elected to a second term as President, with Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX as Vice President.

1978 General Session

The 1978 General Session passed resolutions that included the integration of East Timor
East Timor
The Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste, commonly known as East Timor , is a state in Southeast Asia. It comprises the eastern half of the island of Timor, the nearby islands of Atauro and Jaco, and Oecusse, an exclave on the northwestern side of the island, within Indonesian West Timor...

 as a province of Indonesia and commissioning Suharto to establish Pancasila
Pancasila Indonesia
Pancasila is the official philosophical foundation of the Indonesian state. Pancasila consists of two Sanskrit words, "pañca" meaning five, and "sīla" meaning principles...

 as the national ideology via an indoctrination process.

The session was noted for the mass walkout of PPP members when Suharto referred to religions as "streams of beliefs".

During this General Session, Suharto was elected to a third term as President, with Adam Malik
Adam Malik
Adam Malik Batubara was Indonesia's third vice president, a senior diplomat, and one of the pioneers of Indonesian journalism.-Early life:...

 as his Vice President.

1983 General Session

The 1983 General Session passed resolutions on the holding of a referendum
A referendum is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a new constitution, a constitutional amendment, a law, the recall of an elected official or simply a specific government policy. It is a form of...

, as well giving Suharto the title of "Father of Development". He was elected to a fourth term, with Umar Wirahadikusumah
Umar Wirahadikusumah
was the fourth Indonesian Vice President; he served from 1983 to 1988.-Early life:Umar Wirahadikusumah was born on 10 October 1924 to Raden Rangga Wirahadikusumah and Raden Ratnaringrum...

 as Vice President.

1988 General Session

The 1988 General Session was marked by a reorganization of the MPR. Another faction, dubbed the Groups Faction. was added. Members of this faction are drawn from all walks of life and integrated into the factions of Golkar, PPP, and PDI.

This General Session was also noted for the furor over the nomination of Sudharmono
Sudharmono was Indonesia's fifth vice president, and was in office during the period 1988 - 1993.-Early life:...

 as Vice President, which resulted in Brigadier General Ibrahim Saleh interrupting the General Session and PPP's Jaelani Naro nominating himself as Vice President before he was convinced to withdraw by Suharto. The latter was elected to a fifth term as President with Sudharmono as Vice President.

1993 General Session

The 1993 General Session was marked by another reorganization of the MPR, with membership being increased to 1,000
This General Session was noted for ABRI's preemptive nomination of Try Sutrisno
Try Sutrisno
Try Sutrisno was Indonesia's sixth vice president from 1993 to 1998.-Early life:Try Sutrisno was born on 15 November 1935 in Surabaya, East Java. His father Subandi was an ambulance driver, and his mother Mardiyah was a housewife. After the Indonesian Proclamation of Independence, the Dutch...

 as Vice President. Although displeased, Suharto did not want an open conflict with ABRI and accepted Try as his Vice President. Suharto was elected to a sixth term.

1998 General Session

The 1998 General Session was held during the height of the Asian Financial Crisis and the peak of pro-democratic movements in Suharto's regime. In an effort to restore security and stability, the MPR passed a resolution to give special powers to the President to ensure the success and security of development.

Suharto was elected to a seventh term, with BJ Habibie as Vice President.

To date, this is the New Order's last ever General Session, marked with Suharto's downfall on the Special Session in May, marking the starting the new Reformation era.

1998 Special Session

The 1998 Special Session (Sidang Istimewa) was the first MPR assembly held after Suharto's resignation from the Presidency and fall from power in May 1998. Although it still consisted of politicians who had flourished during Suharto's regime, these MPR members were keen to distance themselves from Suharto and appeal to the reformist sentiments that were prevalent in Indonesia at the time.

During this Special Session, MPR revoked the special powers given to the President in the 1998 General Session and limited the number of terms of the President. The MPR also resolved to hold legislative elections in 1999, ordered a crackdown on corruption, collusion, and nepotism and revoked the resolution which had ordered the indoctrination of Pancasila in order to establish it as a national ideology.

This Special Session, and Suharto's resignation, marked the downfall of the New Order, which transited to the Reformation era.

1999 General Session

The 1999 General Session was the first MPR with "real" reform credentials. In another reorganization process, the membership was reduced to 700. with 500 DPR members, 135 Regional Representatives, and 65 Group Representatives.

During the General Session, the MPR recognized the referendum in East Timor and set a task force to amend the 1945 constitution. It also stipulated that it would thenceforth hold annual sessions to receive reports from the President, DPR, the State Audit Board (BPK), DPA, and the Supreme Court. After receiving these annual reports, the MPR would then work to give recommendations on the course of action that the President could take.

For the first time, the MPR rejected a President's accountability speech, and Presidential and Vice Presidential elections were held with more than one person competing.

During the General Session, Abdurrahman Wahid
Abdurrahman Wahid
Abdurrahman Wahid, born Abdurrahman Addakhil , colloquially known as , was an Indonesian Muslim religious and political leader who served as the President of Indonesia from 1999 to 2001...

 was elected President, with Megawati Sukarnoputri
Megawati Sukarnoputri
In this Indonesian name, the name "Sukarnoputri" is a patronymic, not a family name, and the person should be referred to by the given name "Megawati"....

 as Vice President.

2000 Annual Session

The 2000 Annual Session continued the reform process. The MPR separated the TNI
TNI stands for:* Satna Airport, IATA code TNI* Tahitian Noni International, Inc.* Taqramiut Nipingat Inc., an Inuit broadcasting organization in Quebec, Canada* Telephone Network Interface; see Network Interface Device...

 from the National Police and defined their roles. It also passed resolutions on the consolidation of National Unity and recommendations regarding the execution of Regional Autonomy.

2001 Special Session

The 2001 Special Session assembled after President Wahid was allegedly involved in a corruption case and after the DPR began claiming that Wahid's leadership had become incompetent. Originally scheduled for August 2001, the Special Session was brought forward to July 2001. It then removed Wahid from the Presidency and elected Megawati as President and Hamzah Haz
Hamzah Haz
Hamzah Haz is an Indonesian politician. He is the head of the United Development Party and served as the ninth Vice-President from 2001 until 2004....

 as Vice President.

2002 Annual Session

The 2002 Annual Session continued the constitutional amendment process, most notably changing the system of presidential elections, abolishing the DPA and requiring that 20 percent of the national budget be allocated for education, It also order the formulation of the Constitutional Court by 17 August 2003.

2003 Annual Session

The 2003 Annual Session focused on the legal status of the previous resolutions that the MPR and the MPRS had passed, as well as deciding on the composition of a Constitutional Commission.

The 2003 Annual Session also outlined the MPR's new status, which would come into effect with the inauguration of the new President in 2004. With the President and Vice President thenceforth elected directly by the people and with the constitutional amendments which the MPR had worked on from 1999 to 2002, the MPR's power was reduced. It would no longer be the highest governing body but would stand on equal terms with the DPR, BPK, the Supreme Court, and the Constitutional Court. In dealing with the President and Vice President, the MPR would be responsible for the inauguration ceremony and, should the occasion call for it, the impeachment of the President or Vice President, or both. The MPR would elect a President and Vice President only if both positions were vacant.

2004 Annual Session

During this session, the MPR heard its last accountability speech by a President.


  • Idham Chalid (1972-1977)
  • Adam Malik
    Adam Malik
    Adam Malik Batubara was Indonesia's third vice president, a senior diplomat, and one of the pioneers of Indonesian journalism.-Early life:...

  • Gen. Daryatmo (1978-1982)
  • Gen. Amirmachmud
    Amirmachmud was an Indonesian Military General who was an eyewitness to the signing of the Supersemar document transferring power from President Sukarno to General Suharto.-Early life:...

  • Lt. Gen. Kharis Suhud (1987-1992)
  • Lt. Gen. Wahono (1992-1997)
  • Harmoko
    Harmoko is an Indonesian politician. He served as information minister in the New Order regime of President Suharto from 1983 until 1997 and chairman of the People's Consultative Assembly and People's Representative Council from 1997 until 1999.-References:* "The Editors" , The Sixth Development...

  • Amien Rais
    Amien Rais
    Amien Rais is a prominent Indonesian politician who led and inspired the reform movement that forced the resignation of President Suharto in 1998. Amien Rais was the leader of Muhammadiyah, one of the two biggest Muslim organizations in Indonesia, from 1995 to 2000...

  • Hidayat Nur Wahid
    Hidayat Nur Wahid
    Hidayat Nur Wahid was the Speaker of Indonesia People's Consultative Assembly for the 2004–2009 period. He resigned as the leader of Prosperous Justice Party on 11 October 2004...

  • Taufiq Kiemas
    Taufiq Kiemas
    Taufiq Kiemas is the Speaker of Indonesia People's Consultative Assembly since 2009. He is the husband of Megawati Sukarnoputri, who was President of Indonesia from 2001 to 2004....

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