of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
, located mainly in North-West Europe
and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea
to the north and west, Belgium
to the south, and Germany
to the east, and shares maritime borders with Belgium
, and the United Kingdom
. It is a parliamentary
organised as a unitary state
. The country capital
and the seat of government is The Hague
. The Netherlands in its entirety is often referred to as Holland, although North
and South Holland
are actually only two of its twelve provinces
(a case of pars pro toto
; see terminology of "the Netherlands"
The Netherlands is a geographically low-lying country, with about 25% of its area and 21% of its population located below sea level, and 50% of its land lying less than one metre above sea level
69 Batavian rebellion: The Batavians in Germania Inferior (Netherlands) revolt under the leadership of Gaius Julius Civilis.
1248 The Dutch city of Ommen receives city rights and fortification rights from Otto III, the Archbishop of Utrecht.
1287 St. Lucia's flood: The Zuider Zee sea wall in the Netherlands collapses, killing over 50,000 people.
1421 A seawall at the Zuiderzee dike in the Netherlands breaks, flooding 72 villages and killing about 10,000 people.
1487 Citizens of Leeuwarden, Netherlands strike against ban on foreign beer.
1530 The St. Felix's Flood destroys the city of Reimerswaal in the Netherlands.
1554 A great fire occurs in Eindhoven, Netherlands.
1555 Calvinists are granted rights in the Netherlands.
1566 Two-hundred Dutch noblemen, led by Hendrik van Brederode, force themselves into the presence of Margaret of Parma and present the Petition of Compromise, denouncing the Spanish Inquisition in the Netherlands. The Inquisition is suspended and a delegation is sent to Spain to petition Philip II.
1568 The Netherlands declare their independence from Spain.