Modern conveniences
Modern conveniences or Mod cons are labor-saving devices that make a task easier to perform than a traditional method. Because of the historical use of the term, and the differences in lifestyles around the world, the term is a relative term based upon the conveniences previously available to a person and his or her neighbors. For instance, an American definition of "modern convenience" is likely different than an individual living in an developing country
Developing country
A developing country, also known as a less-developed country, is a nation with a low level of material well-being. Since no single definition of the term developing country is recognized internationally, the levels of development may vary widely within so-called developing countries...


Most of the time the term "modern conveniences" is used to express personal lifestyle and home life.

Late 19th century


In 1889, architect and author Louis. H. Gibson defined modern conveniences as "those arrangements and appliances which make it possible for people to live comfortably in a larger house, without seriously increasing the cares which they had in a smaller one." The supposition is that at that time if a family lived in a smaller home, they would have less furniture, appliances and other goods to take care of, and as a result the family's lifestyle and housekeeping would be relatively easy. If, on the other hand, a family moved into a larger home the increase area and furnishings would be much more difficult to manage without labor-saving devices.

Examples of modern conveniences at that time included:
  • Kitchen sinks with hot and cold running water
    Tap water
    Tap water is a principal component of "indoor plumbing", which became available in urban areas of the developed world during the last quarter of the 19th century, and common during the mid-20th century...

     and waste water drainage
  • The addition of bathroom
    A bathroom is a room for bathing in containing a bathtub and/or a shower and optionally a toilet, a sink/hand basin/wash basin and possibly also a bidet....

    s as separate rooms with sinks and toilets, also with waste water and sewage
    Sewage is water-carried waste, in solution or suspension, that is intended to be removed from a community. Also known as wastewater, it is more than 99% water and is characterized by volume or rate of flow, physical condition, chemical constituents and the bacteriological organisms that it contains...

  • A furnace
    A furnace is a device used for heating. The name derives from Latin fornax, oven.In American English and Canadian English, the term furnace on its own is generally used to describe household heating systems based on a central furnace , and sometimes as a synonym for kiln, a device used in the...

    , also identified as a significant cost-savings
  • Closet
    A closet is a small and enclosed space, a cabinet, or a cupboard in a house or building used for general storage or hanging clothes. A closet for food storage is usually referred to as a pantry...

    s in bedrooms, bathrooms, hall-way for linen, broom closets
  • Gas lighting
    Gas lighting
    Gas lighting is production of artificial light from combustion of a gaseous fuel, including hydrogen, methane, carbon monoxide, propane, butane, acetylene, ethylene, or natural gas. Before electricity became sufficiently widespread and economical to allow for general public use, gas was the most...

    , stove
    Kitchen stove
    A kitchen stove, cooking stove, cookstove, or cooker is a kitchen appliance designed for the purpose of cooking food. Kitchen stoves rely on the application of direct heat for the cooking process and may also contain an oven, used for baking.In the industrialized world, as stoves replaced open...

    s and fireplaces, where gas was available
  • Icebox
    An icebox is a compact non-mechanical refrigerator which was a common kitchen appliance before the development of safe powered refrigeration devices.- Design :...

     or refrigerator
    A refrigerator is a common household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room...

20th century

In addition to the modern conveniences of the previous century, the 20th century also afforded the following common conveniences:

The homes of the 20th century are much bigger than the homes of our family members from the 19th century, both in terms of square foot
Square foot
The square foot is an imperial unit and U.S. customary unit of area, used mainly in the United States, Canada, United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Afghanistan. It is defined as the area of a square with sides of 1 foot in length...

age and number of rooms. Homes built at the beginning of the 21st century have 2-3 times more rooms than homes at the turn of the 20th century. In terms of square footage, new homes built in 2000 are 50% larger than a home built in the 1960s.

Some examples of modern conveniences in the 20th century include:
  • Home appliances: washing machine
    Washing machine
    A washing machine is a machine designed to wash laundry, such as clothing, towels and sheets...

    s and clothes dryer
    Clothes dryer
    A clothes dryer or tumble dryer is a household appliance that is used to remove moisture from a load of clothing and other textiles, generally shortly after they are cleaned in a washing machine....

    s, dishwasher
    A dishwasher is a mechanical device for cleaning dishes and eating utensils. Dishwashers can be found in restaurants and private homes.Unlike manual dishwashing, which relies largely on physical scrubbing to remove soiling, the mechanical dishwasher cleans by spraying hot water, typically between ...

    s, microwave oven
    Microwave oven
    A microwave oven is a kitchen appliance that heats food by dielectric heating, using microwave radiation to heat polarized molecules within the food...

    s, frost-free refrigerator
    A refrigerator is a common household appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump that transfers heat from the inside of the fridge to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below the ambient temperature of the room...

    s, water heaters, air conditioning, vacuum cleaner
    Vacuum cleaner
    A vacuum cleaner, commonly referred to as a "vacuum," is a device that uses an air pump to create a partial vacuum to suck up dust and dirt, usually from floors, and optionally from other surfaces as well. The dirt is collected by either a dustbag or a cyclone for later disposal...

    s, iron
    Iron (appliance)
    A clothes iron, also referred to as simply an iron, is a small appliance used in ironing to remove wrinkles from fabric.Ironing works by loosening the ties between the long chains of molecules that exist in polymer fiber materials. With the heat and the weight of the ironing plate, the fibers are...

    s and more.
  • Electricity and electronics: stereo
    High fidelity
    High fidelity—or hi-fi—reproduction is a term used by home stereo listeners and home audio enthusiasts to refer to high-quality reproduction of sound or images, to distinguish it from the poorer quality sound produced by inexpensive audio equipment...

     equipment, color television
    Color television
    Color television is part of the history of television, the technology of television and practices associated with television's transmission of moving images in color video....

    , answering machine
    Answering machine
    The answering machine or message machine, also known as the telephone answering machine in the UK and some Commonwealth countries) and previously known as an ansaphone, ansafone, or telephone answering device is a device for answering telephones and recording callers' messages.Unlike voicemail,...

    , and Video cassette recorders (VCRs).

21st century

Comparison of modern conveniences in new housing construction

Peter Ferrara
Peter Ferrara
Peter J. Ferrara is an American lawyer, policy analyst, and columnist who is the current general counsel for the American Civil Rights Union and analyst for The Heartland Institute...

 quotes in his book America's Ticking Bankruptcy Bomb that the access to modern conveniences is markedly different in 21st century new homes than at the beginning of the 20th century:
Modern conveniences 1900 1950 2011
Electricity < 2% (1) (1)
Running water
Flush toilets
Vacuum cleaner
Gas or electric heat
< 20% Unknown 80-100%
Microwave oven
Air conditioner
None < 20% 80-100%
Central air conditioning
Decks and Patios
Swimming pools
Ceiling fans
(2) (2) Prevalent

(1) Not stated, likely 100%.
(2) Likely extremely rare at the beginning of the 20th century.

Upcoming technological advancements

David Kirkpatrick, author of The Facebook Effect
The Facebook Effect
The Facebook Effect is a book by David Kirkpatrick and published by Simon and Schuster. It describes the history of Facebook and its social implications....

and Tech Targets the Third World projects that technological advancements in education
Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts...

 and health care
Health care
Health care is the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in humans. Health care is delivered by practitioners in medicine, chiropractic, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, allied health, and other care providers...

, mobile computing
Mobile computing
Mobile computing is a form of human–computer interaction by which a computer is expected to be transported during normal usage. Mobile computing has three aspects: mobile communication, mobile hardware, and mobile software...

 and broadband
The term broadband refers to a telecommunications signal or device of greater bandwidth, in some sense, than another standard or usual signal or device . Different criteria for "broad" have been applied in different contexts and at different times...

 will empower the poor and provide economic opportunities that they would not otherwise have access. These technologies are relatively easy and cost-effective to implement because of technological advancements that have driven down the costs and because developing countries do not have expensive and outdated legacy system
Legacy system
A legacy system is an old method, technology, computer system, or application program that continues to be used, typically because it still functions for the users' needs, even though newer technology or more efficient methods of performing a task are now available...

s to manage emerging technology.


Key beliefs that determine an Anabaptist
Anabaptists are Protestant Christians of the Radical Reformation of 16th-century Europe, and their direct descendants, particularly the Amish, Brethren, Hutterites, and Mennonites....

 community's position on use of modern conveniences are:
  • The belief that in order to enter the Kingdom of God
    Kingdom of God
    The Kingdom of God or Kingdom of Heaven is a foundational concept in the Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam.The term "Kingdom of God" is found in all four canonical gospels and in the Pauline epistles...

    , they must live apart from the "world", or the unreformed.
  • Avoiding "worldly" behaviors that pull their attention and intentions away from their religious community
    Religious community
    A religious community is a community who practice the same religion.In the wider sense it may describe members of one religion who live near or intermingled with members of other religions, who may often mix together in everyday life but worship separately. One might speak of the Catholic...


Religion is a collection of cultural systems, belief systems, and worldviews that establishes symbols that relate humanity to spirituality and, sometimes, to moral values. Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to...

General position Electricity Comments use of modern conveniences
Amish Generally, the Amish
The Amish , sometimes referred to as Amish Mennonites, are a group of Christian church fellowships that form a subgroup of the Mennonite churches...

 avoid use of modern conveniences to limit their contact with the outside world. In recent years, there has been greater openness to strategically select certain modern conveniences to support their businesses, while keeping the spirit of the separateness. Per Donald Kraybill
Donald Kraybill
Donald B. Kraybill is a prolific author, lecturer, and educator on Anabaptist faiths and living. Kraybill is widely recognized for his studies on Anabaptist groups, and is the foremost living expert on the Old Order Amish....

 and Steven Nolt
Steven Nolt
Steven M. Nolt is professor of history at Goshen College and author of ten books, most of which focus on Amish and Mennonite history and culture. He is a frequent source for journalists and other researching Anabaptist groups. He was often quoted in the aftermath of the 2006 Amish school shooting...

: "If it enhances the welfare of the community, new technology is welcomed. Only when it peels away community cohesion
Community cohesion
Community cohesion refers to the aspect of togetherness and bonding exhibited by members of a community, the "glue" that holds a community together...

 does technology face the frown of the church."
Generally,Amish avoid electricity lines coming directly in their homes, but they may used battery
Battery (electricity)
An electrical battery is one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Since the invention of the first battery in 1800 by Alessandro Volta and especially since the technically improved Daniell cell in 1836, batteries have become a common power...

, generator
An engine-generator is the combination of an electrical generator and an engine mounted together to form a single piece of equipment. This combination is also called an engine-generator set or a gen-set...

s, or pneumatic or hydraulic power
Fluid power
Fluid power is the use of fluids under pressure to generate, control, and transmit power. Fluid power is subdivided into hydraulics using a liquid such as mineral oil or water, and pneumatics using a gas such as air or other gases...

, such as for machinery and tools.
In most cases the Amish do not have cars, telephone lines coming into their home, or farm equipment that they would ride, all of which increase contact with the outside world or be significant advantages from worldly capabilities. There are exceptions, such as use of voicemail
Voicemail is a computer based system that allows users and subscribers to exchange personal voice messages; to select and deliver voice information; and to process transactions relating to individuals, organizations, products and services, using an ordinary telephone...

 and mobile phones for people who own businesses or are in a progressive order, with guidance provided by their church.
Mennonite There is wide disparity among the Mennonite
The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations named after the Frisian Menno Simons , who, through his writings, articulated and thereby formalized the teachings of earlier Swiss founders...

, from those most Progressive to the strictest Old Order about the use of modern conveniences. For instance, some Progressive Mennonites life in cities and enjoy many of the modern conveniences of their non-Mennonite neighbors. Each Mennonite community determines its right path, but always with the ideal of living "simply and humbly".
See general comment and Old Order information. See general comment and Old Order information.
Old order Anabaptists: Hutterites, Mennonites, Amish
The Amish , sometimes referred to as Amish Mennonites, are a group of Christian church fellowships that form a subgroup of the Mennonite churches...

 and Brethren
Schwarzenau Brethren
The Schwarzenau Brethren, originated in Germany, the outcome of the Radical Pietist ferment of the late 17th and early 18th century. Hopeful of the imminent return of Christ, the founding Brethren abandoned the established Reformed and Lutheran churches, forming a new church in 1708 when their...

Although there are some modern conveniences that Old Order members enjoy, they are the most reluctant of the Anabaptist
Anabaptists are Protestant Christians of the Radical Reformation of 16th-century Europe, and their direct descendants, particularly the Amish, Brethren, Hutterites, and Mennonites....

s to accept the use of technology, especially direct use. For many of them it is a slippery slope that leads to eternal damnation.
Use of telephone service and electricity lines brought into the home are generally discouraged, decisions are made by the individual religious communities. Like the Amish, they explore creative use of energy, like batteries, generators, etc. It is difficult to provide one conclusion for four Old Order religions: Each religious community determines the use of modern conveniences based upon their specific circumstances.

Shabbat - Rest day in Orthodox and Conservative Judaism

Shabbat is the seventh day of the Jewish week and a day of rest in Judaism. Shabbat is observed from a few minutes before sunset on Friday evening until a few minutes after when one would expect to be able to see three stars in the sky on Saturday night. The exact times, therefore, differ from...

 is the seventh day of the Jewish week
Seven-day week
The seven-day week is used by the majority of the world and is the international standard as specified in ISO 8601.- Origins :The origin of the seven-day week is the religious significance that was placed on the seventh day by ancient cultures, including the Babylonian civilization and the Jewish...

 and a day of rest in Judaism
Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

. Shabbat is observed from a few minutes before sunset on Friday
Friday is the day between Thursday and Saturday. In countries adopting Monday-first conventions as recommended by the international standard ISO 8601, it is the fifth day of the week. It is the sixth day in countries that adopt a Sunday-first convention as in Abrahamic tradition...

 evening until a few minutes after the appearance of three stars in the sky on Saturday
Saturday is the day of the week following Friday and preceding Sunday.Saturday is the last day of the week on many calendars and in conventions that consider the week as beginning on Sunday, or the sixth day of the week according to international standard ISO 8601 which was first published in...

 night. On Shabbat Jews recall the Biblical Creation account in Genesis, describing God creating the Heavens and the Earth in six days and resting on the seventh. It also recalls the giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai , also known as Mount Horeb, Mount Musa, Gabal Musa , Jabal Musa meaning "Moses' Mountain", is a mountain near Saint Catherine in the Sinai Peninsula of Egypt. A mountain called Mount Sinai is mentioned many times in the Book of Exodus in the Torah and the Bible as well as the Quran...

, when God commanded the Israelite nation to observe the seventh day and keep it holy. Shabbat is considered a festive day, when a Jew is freed from the regular labors of everyday life, can contemplate the spiritual aspects of life, and can spend time with family. Orthodox and some Conservative authorities rule that there are 39 prohibited activities of work (melakhot), such as turning electric
Electricity is a general term encompassing a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. These include many easily recognizable phenomena, such as lightning, static electricity, and the flow of electrical current in an electrical wire...

 devices on or off, driving cars and more during the Shabbat, as listed in Mishnah
The Mishnah or Mishna is the first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions called the "Oral Torah". It is also the first major work of Rabbinic Judaism. It was redacted c...

 Tractate Shabbat
Shabbat (Talmud)
Shabbat is first tractate in the Order of Moed, of the Mishnah and Talmud. The tractate consists of 24 chapters.The tractate primarily deals with laws relating to Shabbat , and the activities prohibited on Shabbat and distinguishes between Biblical prohibitions and Rabbinic prohibitions...


Effects of certain modern conveniences

There are many ramifications of the development of modern conveniences for individuals and their families over the past 150 or more years. The many labor-saving devices have kept pace with growing houses and furnishings and allow for greater leisure. There are also some negative effects, some of which are also as the result of advancements in chemical technology in the food that we eat or products that we use. In these cases there are also conflicting opinions about the extent to which some of the products are harmful. Here are a few examples of positive and negative effects of modern conveniences.

Positive effects

Health Care
Some of the major improvements over the past century has been in improved health care.
  • Prevention of infectious diseases has been much more successful with the advent of waste (sewer) disposal and water treatment. It has also made marked changes in life expectancy.

Technological advancement in underdeveloped countries
Some of the most dramatic technological benefits are seen in third world, or underdeveloped, countries. For instance, cabling for land-line telephone service is expense and requires a significant amount of time to complete, especially in the most remote areas. Introduction of cellular phone service, on the other hand, is much cheaper and dramatically improves individual's ability to be economically productive, often in microbusinesses. It is estimated that 80% of the world's population is now located within range of cellular towers, 1.5 billion cellular phones are in use in developing countries and, in India alone, 5 million customers sign up for cellular service each week. Singapore, Taiwan, Korea and Libya are a few of the countries that have leveraged technology to become a presence in the global community.

Another example, led by Nicholas Negroponte of MIT's Media Lab in rural Asia, Latin America, and Africa, provides $100 laptop computers to underdeveloped countries.

Negative effects

In 1905 the Journal of the American Medical Association
Journal of the American Medical Association
The Journal of the American Medical Association is a weekly, peer-reviewed, medical journal, published by the American Medical Association. Beginning in July 2011, the editor in chief will be Howard C. Bauchner, vice chairman of pediatrics at Boston University’s School of Medicine, replacing ...

 published an article titled "Nervous Strain" about how "modern conveniences" make our lives busier and with less direct contact than the preceding generations. As an example, the author compared having a calming cup of tea with a person to the more distant practice of placing a telephone call. Labor-saving devices meant that people now spent more time sitting, breathed machinery generated smoke, and ate food in greater abundance, changing peoples' diets. These activities were speculated to result in high blood pressure
Hypertension or high blood pressure is a cardiac chronic medical condition in which the systemic arterial blood pressure is elevated. What that means is that the heart is having to work harder than it should to pump the blood around the body. Blood pressure involves two measurements, systolic and...

, obesity
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems...

 and "nervous strain."

Although modern conveniences have resulted in greater ease for our lives, there are some harmful impacts to some modern conveniences:
Processed food and food preparation
Processed foods
Convenience food
Convenience food, or tertiary processed food, is commercially prepared food designed for ease of consumption. Products designated as convenience foods are often prepared food stuffs that can be sold as hot, ready-to-eat dishes; as room-temperature, shelf-stable products; or as refrigerated or...

, High-fructose corn syrup and increased fat - the greater reliance on processed, packaged, microwaveable food has resulted in a rise in Type 2 Diabetes, obesity
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health, leading to reduced life expectancy and/or increased health problems...

 and other health concerns. Margarine
Margarine , as a generic term, can indicate any of a wide range of butter substitutes, typically composed of vegetable oils. In many parts of the world, the market share of margarine and spreads has overtaken that of butter...

, once seen as a great alternative to butter, does not help with absorption of nutrient
A nutrient is a chemical that an organism needs to live and grow or a substance used in an organism's metabolism which must be taken in from its environment. They are used to build and repair tissues, regulate body processes and are converted to and used as energy...

s and may contribute to heart disease
Heart disease
Heart disease, cardiac disease or cardiopathy is an umbrella term for a variety of diseases affecting the heart. , it is the leading cause of death in the United States, England, Canada and Wales, accounting for 25.4% of the total deaths in the United States.-Types:-Coronary heart disease:Coronary...

. Microwave oven
Microwave oven
A microwave oven is a kitchen appliance that heats food by dielectric heating, using microwave radiation to heat polarized molecules within the food...

s used for cooking food for several minutes can kill off much of the nutrient
A nutrient is a chemical that an organism needs to live and grow or a substance used in an organism's metabolism which must be taken in from its environment. They are used to build and repair tissues, regulate body processes and are converted to and used as energy...

s. For better health, it is recommended that microwaves are used just to re-heat food.

Meat is animal flesh that is used as food. Most often, this means the skeletal muscle and associated fat and other tissues, but it may also describe other edible tissues such as organs and offal...

 and eggs
Egg (food)
Eggs are laid by females of many different species, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, and fish, and have probably been eaten by mankind for millennia. Bird and reptile eggs consist of a protective eggshell, albumen , and vitellus , contained within various thin membranes...

 from animals that received growth hormones negatively impacts ones health. Cage-free eggs and grass-fed beef
Cattle feeding
Different cattle feeding production systems have separate advantages and disadvantages. Most cows have a diet that is composed of at least some forage . In fact most beef cattle are raised on pasture from birth in the spring until autumn...

 are healthy alternatives. Partially hydrogenated oils
Hydrogenation, to treat with hydrogen, also a form of chemical reduction, is a chemical reaction between molecular hydrogen and another compound or element, usually in the presence of a catalyst. The process is commonly employed to reduce or saturate organic compounds. Hydrogenation typically...

 contain a chemical which extends the shelf-life of the oil, but because it does not deliver the necessary oxygen with it and it is harmful to the cells and blood vessels in our body. Genetically modified food
Genetically modified food controversies
The genetically modified foods controversy is a dispute over the relative advantages and disadvantages of genetically modified food crops and other uses of genetically-modified organisms in food production. The dispute involves biotechnology companies, governmental regulators, non-governmental...

, such as corn and soy, have not been adequately tested to ensure they are healthy.

Silver fillings
Amalgam (dentistry)
Amalgam is an alloy containing mercury. The term is commonly used for the amalgam employed as material for dental fillings, which consists of mercury , silver , tin , copper , and other trace metals...

 were made with 50% mercury
Mercury (element)
Mercury is a chemical element with the symbol Hg and atomic number 80. It is also known as quicksilver or hydrargyrum...

, a significant health hazard
Health is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living being. In humans, it is the general condition of a person's mind, body and spirit, usually meaning to be free from illness, injury or pain...

. Fortunately, there are safe alternatives available now. Chemicals in Flame retardant
Flame retardant
Flame retardants are chemicals used in thermoplastics, thermosets, textiles and coatings that inhibit or resist the spread of fire. These can be separated into several different classes of chemicals:...

 bedding are very hazardous. Teflon
Polytetrafluoroethylene is a synthetic fluoropolymer of tetrafluoroethylene that finds numerous applications. PTFE is most well known by the DuPont brand name Teflon....

 non-stick cookware, plastic
A plastic material is any of a wide range of synthetic or semi-synthetic organic solids used in the manufacture of industrial products. Plastics are typically polymers of high molecular mass, and may contain other substances to improve performance and/or reduce production costs...

s and styrofoam
Styrofoam is a trademark of The Dow Chemical Company for closed-cell currently made for thermal insulation and craft applications. In 1941, researchers in Dow's Chemical Physics Lab found a way to make foamed polystyrene...

 cups are generally considered to contain carcinogen
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that is an agent directly involved in causing cancer. This may be due to the ability to damage the genome or to the disruption of cellular metabolic processes...

s. Styrofoam cups release styrene as the food or drink is consumed. Leaded fuel is another hazardous chemical. Although it has been outlawed in the United States, its use in third world countries impacts the health of local people and the global environmental. Cell phones
Mobile phone
A mobile phone is a device which can make and receive telephone calls over a radio link whilst moving around a wide geographic area. It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile network operator...

 and cell towers generate a significant amount of electromagnetic frequencies
Electromagnetic radiation
Electromagnetic radiation is a form of energy that exhibits wave-like behavior as it travels through space...

, which may be harmful to our health.

See also

  • Amish life in the modern world
    Amish life in the modern world
    As time has passed, the Amish have felt pressures from the modern world. Their traditional rural way of life was becoming more and more different from modern society. Isolated groups of Amish population may have genetic disorders and other problems of closed communities. Amish make decisions on...

  • Appropriate technology
    Appropriate technology
    Appropriate technology is an ideological movement originally articulated as "intermediate technology" by the economist Dr...

  • Critique of technology
    Critique of technology
    Critique of technology is an analysis of the negative impacts of technologies. It is argued that, in all advanced industrial societies , technology becomes a means of domination, control and exploitation, or more generally something which threatens the survival of humanity.Prominent authors...

  • Modern technology
  • Social construction of technology
    Social construction of technology
    Social construction of technology is a theory within the field of Science and Technology Studies. Advocates of SCOT -- that is, social constructivists -- argue that technology does not determine human action, but that rather, human action shapes technology...

  • Technology and society
    Technology and society
    Technology and society or technology and culture refers to cyclical co-dependence, co-influence, co-production of technology and society upon the other . This synergistic relationship occurred from the dawn of humankind, with the invention of simple tools and continues into modern technologies such...

Further reading

  • Morse, Dan. "Still Called by Faith to the Booth: As Pay Phones Vanish, Amish and Mennonites Build Their Own", The Washington Post, September 3, 2006, p. C1.
  • Zimmerman Umble, Diane. Work on the subject of the Amish and telephones.
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