Model (person)
A model sometimes called a mannequin, is a person who is employed to display, advertise and promote
Promotion (marketing)
Promotion is one of the four elements of marketing mix . It is the communication link between sellers and buyers for the purpose of influencing, informing, or persuading a potential buyer's purchasing decision....

 commercial products
Product (business)
In general, the product is defined as a "thing produced by labor or effort" or the "result of an act or a process", and stems from the verb produce, from the Latin prōdūce ' lead or bring forth'. Since 1575, the word "product" has referred to anything produced...

 (notably fashion
Fashion, a general term for a currently popular style or practice, especially in clothing, foot wear, or accessories. Fashion references to anything that is the current trend in look and dress up of a person...

Clothing refers to any covering for the human body that is worn. The wearing of clothing is exclusively a human characteristic and is a feature of nearly all human societies...

) or to serve as a subject of works of art.

Modelling (doubled "l" in British spelling, single "l" in American spelling) is distinguished from other types of public performance
A performance, in performing arts, generally comprises an event in which a performer or group of performers behave in a particular way for another group of people, the audience. Choral music and ballet are examples. Usually the performers participate in rehearsals beforehand. Afterwards audience...

, such as an acting, dancing or mime artist
Mime artist
A mime artist is someone who uses mime as a theatrical medium or as a performance art, involving miming, or the acting out a story through body motions, without use of speech. In earlier times, in English, such a performer was referred to as a mummer...

, although the boundary is not well defined. Appearing in a movie or a play is not considered modelling.

Types of modelling include fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, and body-part models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including books, magazines, movies, newspapers, and TV. Models sometimes are featured in movies (Looker
Looker is a 1981 science fiction film written and directed by Michael Crichton. It starred Albert Finney, Susan Dey, and James Coburn. Former NFL linebacker Tim Rossovich was featured as the villain's main henchman....

, Tattoo), reality television
Reality television
Reality television is a genre of television programming that presents purportedly unscripted dramatic or humorous situations, documents actual events, and usually features ordinary people instead of professional actors, sometimes in a contest or other situation where a prize is awarded...

 shows (America's Next Top Model
America's Next Top Model
America's Next Top Model is a reality television show in which a number of women compete for the title of America's Next Top Model and a chance to start their career in the modeling industry....

, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency
The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency
The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency is a reality television series that debuted on Oxygen on June 6, 2006. The show has completed four seasons...

), or music video
Music video
A music video or song video is a short film integrating a song and imagery, produced for promotional or artistic purposes. Modern music videos are primarily made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings...

s ("Freedom! '90
Freedom! '90
"Freedom '90" is a song written and performed by George Michael, and released on Columbia Records in 1990. The "'90" added to the end of the title is to prevent confusion with an international hit by Michael's former band, Wham!, also titled "Freedom".It was the third single taken from Listen...

", "Wicked Game
Wicked Game
"Wicked Game" is a 1989 song by Chris Isaak from his third studio album Heart Shaped World. Despite being released as a single in 1989, it did not become a hit until it was later featured in the David Lynch film Wild at Heart...

", "Daughters").

Modeling agency

A modeling agency is a company that represents a group of models which they call their model board. Model bookers (also called "bookers" or "agents") manage a model's career. Agents help a model find jobs, book jobs, give advice, and email or give copy books and comp cards to various clients they work with (a comp card is a selection of pictures printed on a card, a copy book is a scanned version of a models portfolio). Agents may send models to various clients and schedule modelling interviews (also called go and see or castings).

A model could work without an agent but it is highly recommended for fashion/runway models.


The first person described as a fashion model is Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

ian shopgirl, Marie Vernet Worth. She was a house model
House model
A house model is a fashion model who works exclusively or near-exclusively for a particular fashion brand, house or label...

 in 1852, to her fashion design
Fashion design
Fashion design is the art of the application of design and aesthetics or natural beauty to clothing and accessories. Fashion design is influenced by cultural and social latitudes, and has varied over time and place. Fashion designers work in a number of ways in designing clothing and accessories....

er husband, Charles Frederick Worth
Charles Frederick Worth
Charles Frederick Worth , widely considered the Father of Haute couture, was an English fashion designer of the 19th century, whose works were produced in Paris.-Career:...

. Even after fashion photography
Fashion photography
Fashion photography is a genre of photography devoted to displaying clothing and other fashion items. Fashion photography is most often conducted for advertisements or fashion magazines such as Vogue, Vanity Fair, or Elle...

 became important, fashion models generally remained fairly anonymous and relatively poorly paid until the late 1950s, though often marrying well. The first model widely considered to have paved the way for what would become the supermodel was Lisa Fonssagrives
Lisa Fonssagrives
Lisa Fonssagrives , born Lisa Birgitta Bernstone was a Swedish fashion model widely credited as the first supermodel.-Biography:...

, from the 1930s onwards, in America. The relationship between her image on over 200 Vogue
Vogue (magazine)
Vogue is a fashion and lifestyle magazine that is published monthly in 18 national and one regional edition by Condé Nast.-History:In 1892 Arthur Turnure founded Vogue as a weekly publication in the United States. When he died in 1909, Condé Montrose Nast picked up the magazine and slowly began...

covers and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping future supermodels. Her image appeared on the cover of fashion magazines during the 1930s, 1940s and 1950s from Town & Country
Town & Country (magazine)
Town & Country, formerly the Home Journal and The National Press, is a monthly American lifestyle magazine. It is the oldest continually published general interest magazine in the United States.-Early history:...

, Life
Life (magazine)
Life generally refers to three American magazines:*A humor and general interest magazine published from 1883 to 1936. Time founder Henry Luce bought the magazine in 1936 solely so that he could acquire the rights to its name....

and Vogue to the original Vanity Fair
Vanity Fair (magazine)
Vanity Fair is a magazine of pop culture, fashion, and current affairs published by Condé Nast. The present Vanity Fair has been published since 1983 and there have been editions for four European countries as well as the U.S. edition. This revived the title which had ceased publication in 1935...

. Dorian Leigh
Dorian Leigh
Dorian Leigh was an American model and one of the earliest modelling icons of the fashion industry. She is considered one of the first supermodels and was well known in the United States and Europe.-Biography:Dorian Leigh Parker was born in San Antonio, Texas, to George and Elizabeth Parker...

 was also very well-known after Word War II. The rise of model as consistent media personalities perhaps began in the Swinging Sixties with figures like Jean Shrimpton
Jean Shrimpton
Jean Rosemary Shrimpton is an English model and actress. She was an icon of Swinging London and is considered to be one of the world's first supermodels....

, Twiggy
Lesley Lawson née Hornby known as Twiggy is an English model, actress, and singer. In the early-1960s she became a prominent British teenage model of swinging sixties London with others such as Penelope Tree....

, and Penelope Tree
Penelope Tree
Penelope Tree is an Anglo-American former fashion model prominent in swinging sixties London.-Life and career:She was the only child of Marietta Peabody Tree, a socialite and Democratic political activist, and Ronald Tree, a bisexual journalist, investor and MP. Tree is a great-granddaughter of...

, and has continued ever since.

To model clothing for all people, all types of model shapes and sizes are required. The job ranking for modern fashion models are: print (part time), print modelling (full time), runway modelling, and supermodel.

Runway modelling

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self employed. Runway models work in different locations, constantly traveling between those cities where fashion is well known - London
London Fashion Week
London Fashion Week is an apparel trade show held in London, England twice each year, in February and September. It is one of the "Big Four" fashion weeks, along with New York Fashion Week, Milan Fashion Week and Paris Fashion Week.-Organization:...

, Milan
Milan Fashion Week
Milan Fashion Week is a famous fashion week held semi-annually in Milan, Italy Spring/Summer event held in February - March of each year and Autumn/Winter event held in September - October of each year....

, New York City
New York Fashion Week
The semi-annual New York Fashion Week, branded Mercedes-Benz FashionWeek in 2009, is held in February and September of each year in New York City. It is one of four major fashion weeks held around the world .-History:The first New York Fashion Week, then called Press Week, was the world's first...

, and Paris
Paris Fashion Week
Paris Fashion Week is a famous fashion week held semi-annually in Paris, France with Spring/Summer and Autumn/Winter events held each year. Dates are determined by the French Fashion Federation...


The demands for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. The models turn and stand to demonstrate the garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") and must keep a portfolio of their work. They go to modelling interviews to find more work. The more experience a model has, the more likely she is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, creating product lines, acting etc.

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34-24-34 in and at least 5 in 9 in (1.75 m) tall. The average model is slender and in shape. Those who do not meet the weight requirement often try for becoming a Plus-size model
Plus-size model
Plus-size model is a term applied to a person who is engaged primarily in modeling plus-size clothing. Plus-size models also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical...

. The preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (188 cm), a waist of 30–35 in (76.2–88.9 cm) and a chest measurement of 36–40 in (91.4–101.6 cm). Male runway models have been noted as being skinny and well toned.

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features.

The former requirement measurements for models used to be 35.5-23.5-35.5 in (90-60-90 cm), which were the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe
Marilyn Monroe
Marilyn Monroe was an American actress, singer, model and showgirl who became a major sex symbol, starring in a number of commercially successful motion pictures during the 1950s....

. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA recommended shape. Although in some fashion industries, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image
Body image
Body image refers to a person's perception of the aesthetics and sexual attractiveness of their own body. The phrase body image was first coined by the Austrian neurologist and psychoanalyst Paul Schilder in his masterpiece The Image and Appearance of the Human Body...

 and encouraging eating disorder
Eating disorder
Eating disorders refer to a group of conditions defined by abnormal eating habits that may involve either insufficient or excessive food intake to the detriment of an individual's physical and mental health. Bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa, and binge eating disorder are the most common specific...

s. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid
Cibeles Madrid Fashion Week
right|170px|backstage at Cibeles Madrid Fashion Week.thumb|left|170px|Make-up artists backstage at Cibeles Madrid Fashion Week.Cibeles Madrid Fashion Week, was known as Pasarela Cibeles up until 2008, is the principal platform to promote fashion in Spain. Based in Madrid and often takes place twice...

 in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight
The term underweight refers to a human who is considered to be under a healthy weight. "Underweight" means weighing less than what is expected to be a healthy person . The definition is usually made with reference to the body mass index . A BMI of under 18.5 is usually referred to as underweight...

 by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos
Luisel Ramos
Luisel Ramos was a Uruguayan model.On August 2, 2006, at 9:15 p.m., Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa while participating in a fashion show during Fashion Week in Montevideo, Uruguay. Ramos had felt ill after walking the runway and subsequently fainted on her way back to the...

 - also a model - died, Uruguay
Uruguay ,officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay,sometimes the Eastern Republic of Uruguay; ) is a country in the southeastern part of South America. It is home to some 3.5 million people, of whom 1.8 million live in the capital Montevideo and its metropolitan area...

an model Eliana Ramos
Eliana Ramos
Eliana "Elle" Ramos was a Uruguayan fashion model.-Modeling:Ramos was a fashion model in Latin America and was signed to Dotto Models, a prestigious modeling agency based in Argentina...

 became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition
Malnutrition is the condition that results from taking an unbalanced diet in which certain nutrients are lacking, in excess , or in the wrong proportions....

 in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston
Ana Carolina Reston
Ana Carolina Reston Macan was a Brazilian fashion model.Reston was born to a middle-class family in Jundiaí, on the outskirts of São Paulo, Brazil. At the age of 13, she began her modeling career after winning a local beauty contest in her hometown...

. Luisel Ramos
Luisel Ramos
Luisel Ramos was a Uruguayan model.On August 2, 2006, at 9:15 p.m., Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa while participating in a fashion show during Fashion Week in Montevideo, Uruguay. Ramos had felt ill after walking the runway and subsequently fainted on her way back to the...

 died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa
Anorexia nervosa
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by refusal to maintain a healthy body weight and an obsessive fear of gaining weight. Although commonly called "anorexia", that term on its own denotes any symptomatic loss of appetite and is not strictly accurate...

 just after stepping off the catwalk.

In the early 21st century, runway walks became less flamboyant compared to the late 20th century, when Naomi Campbell
Naomi Campbell
Naomi Campbell is a British model. Scouted at the age of 15, she established herself among the top three most recognisable and in-demand models of the late 1980s and early 1990s, and she was one of six models of her generation declared "supermodels" by the fashion world...

 and other supermodels were known for their distinct struts. Instead, most designers preferred a natural stroll.


Supermodels are highly paid, high profile fashion models. These (usually female) celebrities appear on top fashion magazine covers and in fashion show
Fashion show
A fashion show is an event put on by a fashion designer to showcase his or her upcoming line of clothing during Fashion Week. Fashion shows debut every season, particularly the Spring/Summer and Fall/Winter seasons. This is where the latest fashion trends are made...

s. Much more importantly, in financial terms, their appearance in advertising can amount to an endorsement
In promotion and of advertising, a testimonial or show consists of a written or spoken statement, sometimes from a person figure, sometimes from a private citizen, extolling the virtue of some product. The term "testimonial" most commonly applies to the sales-pitches attributed to ordinary...

, attracting far greater rewards, especially when they conclude deals to advertise a brand exclusively, as "the face" of that brand.

Glamour models

Glamour photography
Glamour photography
Glamour photography is a genre of photography whereby the subjects, usually female, are portrayed in a romantic or sexually alluring way. The subjects may be fully clothed or seminude, but glamour photography stops short of deliberately arousing the viewer and being pornographic photography.Glamour...

 emphasizes the model and the model's sexuality rather than products, fashion or the environment. Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and its ability to enhance a product's attractiveness. Glamour models are used for mass-produced calendar
A calendar is a system of organizing days for social, religious, commercial, or administrative purposes. This is done by giving names to periods of time, typically days, weeks, months, and years. The name given to each day is known as a date. Periods in a calendar are usually, though not...

s, pinup
Pin-up girl
A pin-up girl, also known as a pin-up model, is a model whose mass-produced pictures see wide appeal as popular culture. Pin-ups are intended for informal display, e.g. meant to be "pinned-up" on a wall...

 and for men's magazines, such as Playboy magazine. Famous glamour models include Pamela Anderson
Pamela Anderson
Pamela Denise Anderson is a Canadian-American actress, model, producer, author, activist, and former showgirl, known for her roles on the television series Home Improvement, Baywatch, and V.I.P. She was chosen as a Playmate of the Month for Playboy magazine in February 1990...

, Jordan
Jordan (Katie Price)
Katie Price , previously known under the pseudonym Jordan, is an English media personality, author, former glamour model, occasional singer and businesswoman....

, Jodie Marsh
Jodie Marsh
Jodie Marsh is an English media personality, former glamour model and bodybuilder. She has appeared topless in many tabloid newspapers and has appeared in her own reality show, Totally Jodie Marsh.-Early life:...

, Lucy Pinder
Lucy Pinder
Lucy Katherine Pinder is an English glamour model, from Winchester, Hampshire.-Modelling career:In the summer of 2003, Pinder was spotted by a freelance photographer while sunbathing on Bournemouth beach...

, and Louise Glover
Louise Glover
Louise Glover is an English model and photographer. She is well known for her work as a glamour model, with appearances in British lad mags, including FHM, Bizarre, Maxim, Loaded, and tabloids such as the News of the World, The Sun and Daily Star...


Fitness models

Fitness modelling centres on displaying an athletic physique. Fitness models usually have the defined muscles of bodybuilders
Bodybuilding is a form of body modification involving intensive muscle hypertrophy. An individual who engages in this activity is referred to as a bodybuilder. In competitive and professional bodybuilding, bodybuilders display their physiques to a panel of judges, who assign points based on their...

, but with less emphasis on muscle size. Their body weight is usually similar to (or heavier than) fashion models, but they have a lower body fat percentage
Body fat percentage
A person's body mass percentage is the total weight of the person's fat divided by the person's weight and consists of essential body fat and storage body fat. Essential body fat is necessary to maintain life and reproductive functions. The percentage of essential body fat for women is greater than...

 due to increased muscle mass and reduced fat mass.

Bikini models

The bikini is typically a women's two-piece swimsuit. One part of the attire covers the breasts and the other part covers the crotch and part of or the entire buttocks, leaving an uncovered area between the two. Merriam–Webster describes the bikini as "a woman's scanty two-piece bathing suit" or "a...

 models are also usually required to be physically fit and with an appealing body shape
Female body shape
Female body shape or figure is the cumulative product of a woman's skeletal structure and the quantity and distribution of muscle and fat on the body. There are, and have been, wide differences on what should be considered an ideal or preferred body shape, both for attractiveness and for health...

. Bikini models can usually be shorter, around 5 in 5 in (1.65 m) to 5 in 8 in (1.73 m).

Art models

Art models are models who pose for photographers, painter
Painting is the practice of applying paint, pigment, color or other medium to a surface . The application of the medium is commonly applied to the base with a brush but other objects can be used. In art, the term painting describes both the act and the result of the action. However, painting is...

s, sculptors, and other artists as part of their work of art
Work of art
A work of art, artwork, art piece, or art object is an aesthetic item or artistic creation.The term "a work of art" can apply to:*an example of fine art, such as a painting or sculpture*a fine work of architecture or landscape design...


Models are frequently used for training art students, but are also employed by accomplished artists. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing
Figure drawing
In art, a figure drawing is a study of the human form in its various shapes and body postures - sitting, standing or even sleeping. It is a study or stylized depiction of the human form, with the line and form of the human figure as the primary objective, rather than the subject person. It is a...

, figure painting
Figure painting
Figure painting is a form of the visual arts in which the artist uses a live model as the subject of a two-dimensional piece of artwork using paint as the medium. The live model can be either nude or partly or fully clothed and the painting is a representation of the full body of the model...

, sculpture
Sculpture is three-dimensional artwork created by shaping or combining hard materials—typically stone such as marble—or metal, glass, or wood. Softer materials can also be used, such as clay, textiles, plastics, polymers and softer metals...

 and photography
Photography is the art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film...

. Although commercial motives dominate over the esthetics in advertising
Advertising is a form of communication used to persuade an audience to take some action with respect to products, ideas, or services. Most commonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common...

, its 'artwork
Commercial art
Commercial art is historically a subsector of creative services, referring to art created for commercial purposes, primarily advertising. The term has become increasingly anachronistic in favor of more contemporary terms such as graphic design and advertising art.Commercial art traditionally...

' commonly employs models.

Throughout the history of Western art, drawing the human figure from living models was considered the most useful tool in developing the skill of draftsmanship. In some cases, the model may pose with various props, other models, props, against real or artificial background, and under various lighting conditions.

Models for life drawing classes are often entirely nude
Nudity is the state of wearing no clothing. The wearing of clothing is exclusively a human characteristic. The amount of clothing worn depends on functional considerations and social considerations...

 apart from visually non-obstructive personal items such as small jewelry or eyeglasses. Job advertisements seeking nude models use various terms such as "undraped" or "disrobed". Models may wear a cache-sexe
A cache-sexe is an item, often a small garment, that covers its user's genitals. The most common style, seen in Western G-strings and Japanese Fundoshis, has a triangle of material attached at the corners to straps or strings around the waist and between the legs, that fasten the triangle over the...

 to hide the genitals. Eadward Muybridge's historic scientific studies of the male and female form in motion, for example, has examples of both usages.

In Western
Western world
The Western world, also known as the West and the Occident , is a term referring to the countries of Western Europe , the countries of the Americas, as well all countries of Northern and Central Europe, Australia and New Zealand...

 countries, there is generally no objection to either sex posing nude for or drawing members of the opposite sex. However, this was not always so in the past, particularly prior to the 20th century. In 1886 Thomas Eakins
Thomas Eakins
Thomas Cowperthwait Eakins was an American realist painter, photographer, sculptor, and fine arts educator...

 was famously dismissed from the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Art for removing the loincloth
A loincloth is a one-piece male garment, sometimes kept in place by a belt, which covers the genitals and, at least partially, the buttocks.-History and types:Loincloths are being and have been worn:*in societies where no other clothing is needed or wanted...

 from a male model in a mixed classroom. Similarly, Victorian
Victorian morality
Victorian morality is a distillation of the moral views of people living at the time of Queen Victoria's reign and of the moral climate of the United Kingdom throughout the 19th century in general, which contrasted greatly with the morality of the previous Georgian period...

 modesty required the female model to pose nude with her face draped (illustration). European arts academies did not allow women to study the nude at all until the end of the nineteenth century. Up into the present day some rare art classes prefer male
Male refers to the biological sex of an organism, or part of an organism, which produces small mobile gametes, called spermatozoa. Each spermatozoon can fuse with a larger female gamete or ovum, in the process of fertilization...

 models to wear a jockstrap
A jockstrap is an undergarment designed for supporting the male genitalia during sports or other vigorous physical activity...


Policies vary regarding male models having an erection
Penile erection is a physiological phenomenon where the penis becomes enlarged and firm. Penile erection is the result of a complex interaction of psychological, neural, vascular and endocrine factors, and is usually, though not exclusively, associated with sexual arousal...

. Some instructors don't mind at all (especially with younger or inexperienced models), while others, including the Register of Artists' Models (RAM) in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, this is cause for termination.

Gravure idols

A , often abbreviated to , is a Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

ese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobook
A photo-book or photobook is a book in which photographs make a significant contribution to the overall content. The most critically acclaimed photo-books celebrate the creative work of an individual photographer, but can also result from the collaboration between a photographer and a writer, an...

s or DVD
A DVD is an optical disc storage media format, invented and developed by Philips, Sony, Toshiba, and Panasonic in 1995. DVDs offer higher storage capacity than Compact Discs while having the same dimensions....

s. Gravure idols, in most cases, emphasize their sexual attractiveness and often model in swimsuits or lingerie
Lingerie are fashionable and possibly alluring undergarments.Lingerie usually incorporates one or more flexible, stretchy materials like Lycra, nylon , polyester, satin, lace, silk and sheer fabric which are not typically used in more functional, basic cotton undergarments.The term in the French...


"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo
are Japanese pseudo-Anglicisms: English constructions not used in the English-speaking world or by native English speakers, but that appear in Japanese. This should not be confused for foreign words gairaigo, which generally refer to words from European languages, especially American English...

 term derived from "Rotogravure
Rotogravure is a type of intaglio printing process; that is, it involves engraving the image onto an image carrier...

", which is a type of intaglio
Intaglio (printmaking)
Intaglio is a family of printmaking techniques in which the image is incised into a surface, known as the matrix or plate, and the incised line or area holds the ink. Normally, copper or zinc plates are used as a surface, and the incisions are created by etching, engraving, drypoint, aquatint or...

Printing is a process for reproducing text and image, typically with ink on paper using a printing press. It is often carried out as a large-scale industrial process, and is an essential part of publishing and transaction printing....

 process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcard
A postcard or post card is a rectangular piece of thick paper or thin cardboard intended for writing and mailing without an envelope....

s, and cardboard
Corrugated fiberboard is a paper-based material consisting of a fluted corrugated sheet and one or two flat linerboards. It is widely used in the manufacture of corrugated boxes and shipping containers....

 product packaging.

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities often intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Though gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, their nipples and genitals are generally covered and they seldom appear fully nude. It is also common for gravure idols to have very large breasts and in their videos models are often shown performing activities specifically intended to cause their breasts to bounce or shake such as jogging or doing jumping jacks
Jumping Jacks
Jumping Jacks is a 1952 film starring the comedy team of Martin and Lewis. The movie was released by Paramount Pictures.-Plot:Chick Allen is a paratrooper. He invites his former partner, Hap Smith , to help out with a show that he and the other soldiers are preparing...


Gravure models may be of any age but usually range from their late teens to their mid-twenties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

Gravure models are commonly photographed wearing bikinis or lingerie but may also appear wearing schoolgirl uniforms, Japanese street fashion
Japanese street fashion
Japan began to emulate Western fashion during the middle of the 19th century. By the beginning of the 21st century it had altered into what is known today as 'street fashion'. The term 'street fashion' is used to describe fashion where the wearer customizes outfits by adopting a mixture of current...

, and kimonos.
Since 2008, zakzak magazine has awarded a Gravure Idol Award.

Alternative models

An alternative model
Alternative model
Alternative modelling is a branch of the modelling industry that features models who do not conform to mainstream ideals of beauty. Alternative models are often niche-specific, with a personal style that represents subcultures like goth, burlesque, latex and fetishism...

 is any model that does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk
Punk subculture
The punk subculture includes a diverse array of ideologies, and forms of expression, including fashion, visual art, dance, literature, and film, which grew out of punk rock.-History:...

, goth
Goth subculture
The goth subculture is a contemporary subculture found in many countries. It began in England during the early 1980s in the gothic rock scene, an offshoot of the post-punk genre. The goth subculture has survived much longer than others of the same era, and has continued to diversify...

, fetish
Fetish model
A fetish model is a model who models fetish clothing or devices that augment his or her body in a fetish manner or in fetishistic situations, though he or she may not work exclusively in that form of modeling....

, tattoo
A tattoo is made by inserting indelible ink into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment. Tattoos on humans are a type of body modification, and tattoos on other animals are most commonly used for identification purposes...

ed models or models with distinctive attributes. These mix with high fashion and art models. Publishers such as Goliath in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences.

Body-parts models

Some models are employed for their particularly attractive body parts. For example, hand model
Hand model
A hand model is a person who models their hand or hands for the purposes of art, fashion or other products or advertising. Hand models are used in advertising where advertisers want close ups of the product being handled...

s may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail
Nail may refer to:* Nail , toughened keratin at the end of an animal digit* Nail , a plate of hard horny tissue at the tip of some bird beaks* Nail , the pin-shaped fastener used in engineering, woodworking and construction...

-related products. They are frequently part of television commercials. Hand model, Ashly Covington has worked on television commercials that are shown around the world. Another hand model, Kimbra Hickey, found fame after being featured on the cover of Twilight
Twilight (novel)
Twilight is a young-adult vampire-romance novel by author Stephenie Meyer. It is the first book of the Twilight series, and introduces seventeen-year-old Isabella "Bella" Swan, who moves from Phoenix, Arizona to Forks, Washington and finds her life in danger when she falls in love with a vampire,...


Leg models showcase tights, stockings, socks and leg grooming products. Wrist models display watches or bracelets. Petite models (females under 5 inch and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in body part modelling.


Despite the stereotype
A stereotype is a popular belief about specific social groups or types of individuals. The concepts of "stereotype" and "prejudice" are often confused with many other different meanings...

 of modelling as a lucrative and glamorous profession, according to the US
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 Bureau of Labor Statistics
Bureau of Labor Statistics
The Bureau of Labor Statistics is a unit of the United States Department of Labor. It is the principal fact-finding agency for the U.S. government in the broad field of labor economics and statistics. The BLS is a governmental statistical agency that collects, processes, analyzes, and...

 the median wage for commercial and print models was only $11.22 per hour in 2006. MarketWatch
MarketWatch operates a financial information website that provides business news, analysis and stock market data to some 6 million people. MarketWatch offers personal finance news and advice, tools for investors and access to industry research. Along with its flagship website, the company operates...

listed modelling as one of the ten worst jobs in America. Print models earn little or nothing working for low-budget clients such as manufacturers or stores. Experienced print models make $200 to $500 per hour. Print models that work with an agent give 15% to 20% of earnings to the agent. The most famous print models make thousands of dollars an hour.

Beginner female runway models make less money than models that have experience. The average wage for a female runway model can range from $ 250 -$1,000 an hour per runway walk. The annual salary of a top runway model can exceed $500,000. Costs of travel, transportation, food, hotels, etc. are deducted from the model's pay. Fashion models under contract after discovery by editors, cosmetic companies, photographers, and fashion industry professionals can make from $300,000 to $2 million per year.

Male runway models make less than female runway models. Beginner male models can earn up to $150 per shoot. Famous male models make at least $500,000 per year. Designer clothing and fragrance ads pay the most money. A male runway model can earn from $8,000-$15,000 per day for high-end catalogues.

See also

  • Child modeling
    Child modeling
    A child model refers to a child who is employed to display, advertise and promote commercial products or to serve as a subject of works of art, such as photography, painting and sculpture.-Practice:...

  • Hip hop model
    Hip hop model
    Hip hop models are female models who appear in hip-hop-oriented music videos and related men's magazines, calendars, award shows, beauty pageants, or live performances. Many video models are aspiring actors, singers, dancers, or professional models...

  • House model
    House model
    A house model is a fashion model who works exclusively or near-exclusively for a particular fashion brand, house or label...

  • Internet modeling
    Internet modeling
    The Internet has changed the face of the modelling industry significantly by increasing accessibility. Aspiring models are drawn to online modeling sites, where they have an opportunity to post biographies and photos in hopes of being discovered by a top modelling agency, as well as increase their...

  • List of black fashion models
  • Modeling agency
    Modeling agency
    A modeling agency is a company that represents fashion models, to work for the fashion industry. These agencies earn their income via commission, usually from the deal they make with the model and or the head agency....

  • Plus-size model
    Plus-size model
    Plus-size model is a term applied to a person who is engaged primarily in modeling plus-size clothing. Plus-size models also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical...

  • Promotional model
    Promotional model
    A promotional model is a person hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. A promotional model can be female or male, and typically is intended to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information...

  • Spokesmodel
  • Supermodel
    The term supermodel refers to a highly-paid fashion model who usually has a worldwide reputation and often a background in haute couture and commercial modeling. The term became prominent in the popular culture of the 1980s. Supermodels usually work for top fashion designers and labels...

  • Time for print
    Time for print
    Time for Print is a term used in many online photography communities describing an arrangement between a model and a photographer, whereby the photographer agrees to provide the model with an agreed number...

The source of this article is wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.  The text of this article is licensed under the GFDL.