Map (mathematics)

Encyclopedia

In most of mathematics

and in some related technical fields, the term

for

In graph theory

, a

on a surface without overlapping edges (a planar graph

), similar to a political map.

, a

, etc.

In contrast, in category theory

, "map" is often used as a synonym for morphism

or arrow, thus for something more general than a function.

Some authors, such as Serge Lang

, use "map" as a general term for an association of an element in the range with each element in the domain, and "function" only to refer to maps in which the range is a field

.

Sets of maps of special kinds are the subjects of many important theories: see for instance Lie group

, mapping class group

, permutation group

.

In formal logic

, the term is sometimes used for a

.

In the theory of dynamical system

s, a map denotes an evolution function used to create discrete dynamical systems. See also Poincaré map

.

A

Mathematics

Mathematics is the study of quantity, space, structure, and change. Mathematicians seek out patterns and formulate new conjectures. Mathematicians resolve the truth or falsity of conjectures by mathematical proofs, which are arguments sufficient to convince other mathematicians of their validity...

and in some related technical fields, the term

**mapping**, usually shortened to**map**, is either a synonymSynonym

Synonyms are different words with almost identical or similar meanings. Words that are synonyms are said to be synonymous, and the state of being a synonym is called synonymy. The word comes from Ancient Greek syn and onoma . The words car and automobile are synonyms...

for

*function*

, or denotes a particular kind of function which is important in that branch, or denotes something conceptually similar to a function.Function (mathematics)

In mathematics, a function associates one quantity, the argument of the function, also known as the input, with another quantity, the value of the function, also known as the output. A function assigns exactly one output to each input. The argument and the value may be real numbers, but they can...

In graph theory

Graph theory

In mathematics and computer science, graph theory is the study of graphs, mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects from a certain collection. A "graph" in this context refers to a collection of vertices or 'nodes' and a collection of edges that connect pairs of...

, a

**map**is a drawing of a graphGraph (mathematics)

In mathematics, a graph is an abstract representation of a set of objects where some pairs of the objects are connected by links. The interconnected objects are represented by mathematical abstractions called vertices, and the links that connect some pairs of vertices are called edges...

on a surface without overlapping edges (a planar graph

Planar graph

In graph theory, a planar graph is a graph that can be embedded in the plane, i.e., it can be drawn on the plane in such a way that its edges intersect only at their endpoints...

), similar to a political map.

## Maps as functions

In many branches of mathematics, the term is used to mean a function with a specific property of particular importance to that branch. For instance, a "map" is a*continuous function*

in topologyContinuous function

In mathematics, a continuous function is a function for which, intuitively, "small" changes in the input result in "small" changes in the output. Otherwise, a function is said to be "discontinuous". A continuous function with a continuous inverse function is called "bicontinuous".Continuity of...

Topology

Topology is a major area of mathematics concerned with properties that are preserved under continuous deformations of objects, such as deformations that involve stretching, but no tearing or gluing...

, a

*linear transformation*in linear algebraLinear algebra

Linear algebra is a branch of mathematics that studies vector spaces, also called linear spaces, along with linear functions that input one vector and output another. Such functions are called linear maps and can be represented by matrices if a basis is given. Thus matrix theory is often...

, etc.

In contrast, in category theory

Category theory

Category theory is an area of study in mathematics that examines in an abstract way the properties of particular mathematical concepts, by formalising them as collections of objects and arrows , where these collections satisfy certain basic conditions...

, "map" is often used as a synonym for morphism

Morphism

In mathematics, a morphism is an abstraction derived from structure-preserving mappings between two mathematical structures. The notion of morphism recurs in much of contemporary mathematics...

or arrow, thus for something more general than a function.

Some authors, such as Serge Lang

Serge Lang

Serge Lang was a French-born American mathematician. He was known for his work in number theory and for his mathematics textbooks, including the influential Algebra...

, use "map" as a general term for an association of an element in the range with each element in the domain, and "function" only to refer to maps in which the range is a field

Field (mathematics)

In abstract algebra, a field is a commutative ring whose nonzero elements form a group under multiplication. As such it is an algebraic structure with notions of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, satisfying certain axioms...

.

Sets of maps of special kinds are the subjects of many important theories: see for instance Lie group

Lie group

In mathematics, a Lie group is a group which is also a differentiable manifold, with the property that the group operations are compatible with the smooth structure...

, mapping class group

Mapping class group

In mathematics, in the sub-field of geometric topology, the mapping class groupis an important algebraic invariant of a topological space. Briefly, the mapping class group is a discrete group of 'symmetries' of the space.-Motivation:...

, permutation group

Permutation group

In mathematics, a permutation group is a group G whose elements are permutations of a given set M, and whose group operation is the composition of permutations in G ; the relationship is often written as...

.

In formal logic

Formal logic

Classical or traditional system of determining the validity or invalidity of a conclusion deduced from two or more statements...

, the term is sometimes used for a

*functional predicate*

, whereas a function is a model of such a predicate in set theoryFunctional predicate

In formal logic and related branches of mathematics, a functional predicate, or function symbol, is a logical symbol that may be applied to an object term to produce another object term....

Set theory

Set theory is the branch of mathematics that studies sets, which are collections of objects. Although any type of object can be collected into a set, set theory is applied most often to objects that are relevant to mathematics...

.

In the theory of dynamical system

Dynamical system

A dynamical system is a concept in mathematics where a fixed rule describes the time dependence of a point in a geometrical space. Examples include the mathematical models that describe the swinging of a clock pendulum, the flow of water in a pipe, and the number of fish each springtime in a...

s, a map denotes an evolution function used to create discrete dynamical systems. See also Poincaré map

Poincaré map

In mathematics, particularly in dynamical systems, a first recurrence map or Poincaré map, named after Henri Poincaré, is the intersection of a periodic orbit in the state space of a continuous dynamical system with a certain lower dimensional subspace, called the Poincaré section, transversal to...

.

A

*partial map*is a*partial function*

, and aPartial function

In mathematics, a partial function from X to Y is a function ƒ: X' → Y, where X' is a subset of X. It generalizes the concept of a function by not forcing f to map every element of X to an element of Y . If X' = X, then ƒ is called a total function and is equivalent to a function...

*total map*is a*total function*. Related terms like*domain*

,Domain (mathematics)

In mathematics, the domain of definition or simply the domain of a function is the set of "input" or argument values for which the function is defined...

*codomain*

,Codomain

In mathematics, the codomain or target set of a function is the set into which all of the output of the function is constrained to fall. It is the set in the notation...

*injective*

,Injective function

In mathematics, an injective function is a function that preserves distinctness: it never maps distinct elements of its domain to the same element of its codomain. In other words, every element of the function's codomain is mapped to by at most one element of its domain...

*continuous*

, etc. can be applied equally to maps and functions, with the same meaning. All these usages can be applied to "maps" as general functions or as functions with special properties.Continuous function

In mathematics, a continuous function is a function for which, intuitively, "small" changes in the input result in "small" changes in the output. Otherwise, a function is said to be "discontinuous". A continuous function with a continuous inverse function is called "bicontinuous".Continuity of...

## See also

- Bijection, injection and surjectionBijection, injection and surjectionIn mathematics, injections, surjections and bijections are classes of functions distinguished by the manner in which arguments and images are related or mapped to each other.A function maps elements from its domain to elements in its codomain.*A function f: \; A \to B is injective...
- Category theoryCategory theoryCategory theory is an area of study in mathematics that examines in an abstract way the properties of particular mathematical concepts, by formalising them as collections of objects and arrows , where these collections satisfy certain basic conditions...
- Correspondence (mathematics)Correspondence (mathematics)In mathematics and mathematical economics, correspondence is a term with several related but not identical meanings.* In general mathematics, correspondence is an alternative term for a relation between two sets...
- HomeomorphismHomeomorphismIn the mathematical field of topology, a homeomorphism or topological isomorphism or bicontinuous function is a continuous function between topological spaces that has a continuous inverse function. Homeomorphisms are the isomorphisms in the category of topological spaces—that is, they are...
- HomomorphismHomomorphismIn abstract algebra, a homomorphism is a structure-preserving map between two algebraic structures . The word homomorphism comes from the Greek language: ὁμός meaning "same" and μορφή meaning "shape".- Definition :The definition of homomorphism depends on the type of algebraic structure under...
- List of chaotic maps
- Mapping class groupMapping class groupIn mathematics, in the sub-field of geometric topology, the mapping class groupis an important algebraic invariant of a topological space. Briefly, the mapping class group is a discrete group of 'symmetries' of the space.-Motivation:...
- MorphismMorphismIn mathematics, a morphism is an abstraction derived from structure-preserving mappings between two mathematical structures. The notion of morphism recurs in much of contemporary mathematics...
- Projection (mathematics)Projection (mathematics)Generally speaking, in mathematics, a projection is a mapping of a set which is idempotent, which means that a projection is equal to its composition with itself. A projection may also refer to a mapping which has a left inverse. Bot notions are strongly related, as follows...
- TopologyTopologyTopology is a major area of mathematics concerned with properties that are preserved under continuous deformations of objects, such as deformations that involve stretching, but no tearing or gluing...