Kyprian Zochovskyj
Kyprian Zochovskyj (1635—1693) was the Metropolitan of Kiev, Galicia and Russia of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church
Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church
The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church , Ukrainska Hreko-Katolytska Tserkva), is the largest Eastern Rite Catholic sui juris particular church in full communion with the Holy See, and is directly subject to the Pope...

 from 1674 to his death in 1693.


Kyprian Zochovskyj was born on about 1635 from a noble
Nobility is a social class which possesses more acknowledged privileges or eminence than members of most other classes in a society, membership therein typically being hereditary. The privileges associated with nobility may constitute substantial advantages over or relative to non-nobles, or may be...

 family in the Polotsk Voivodeship. When young he entered in the monastery of Byten of the Order of Saint Basil the Great
Order of Saint Basil the Great
The Order of St. Basil the Great also known as the Basilian Order of Saint Josaphat is an monastic religious order of the Greek Catholic Churches that is present in many countries and that has its Mother House in Rome. The order received approbation on August 20, 1631...

. At 23, he went to study in the Greek College in Rome where he studied from March 1658 to August 1664. On 29 April 1663 he was ordained a priest
Priesthood (Catholic Church)
The ministerial orders of the Catholic Church include the orders of bishops, deacons and presbyters, which in Latin is sacerdos. The ordained priesthood and common priesthood are different in function and essence....

 in the Roman Greek Rite
Byzantine Rite
The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called the Rite of Constantinople or Constantinopolitan Rite is the liturgical rite used currently by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches, by the Greek Catholic Churches , and by the Protestant Ukrainian Lutheran Church...

 church of Sant'Atanasio
The Church of Saint Athanasius is a Roman Catholic titular church in Rome, built for use of a Greek College for the formation of Catholic clergy in the Eastern Rite, upon the formation of the Congregation of the Greeks by Pope Gregory XIII. In 1872 the church was entrusted to the Congregation for...

. After having got the doctorates in theology
Theology is the systematic and rational study of religion and its influences and of the nature of religious truths, or the learned profession acquired by completing specialized training in religious studies, usually at a university or school of divinity or seminary.-Definition:Augustine of Hippo...

 and metaphysic, he remained in Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

 serving in the Greek Rite church of Santi Sergio e Bacco
Santi Sergio e Bacco
Santi Sergio e Bacco is a Catholic church of the Byzantine Rite in the rione of Monti in Rome, Italy, located in Piazza Madonna dei Monti. Saints Sergius and Bacchus are said to have been early fourth century Roman military officers and Christian martyrs buried in Syria...

 and as secretary of the bishop of Chełm, Jacob Souza, who dwelt in Rome for some years.

Upon returning to his country he was appointed Archimandrite
The title Archimandrite , primarily used in the Eastern Orthodox and the Eastern Catholic churches, originally referred to a superior abbot whom a bishop appointed to supervise...

 of the monastery in Dubno
Dubno is a city located on the Ikva River in the Rivne Oblast of western Ukraine. Serving as the administrative center of Dubno Raion , the city itself is also designated as a separate raion within the oblast...

, and from 1668 Archimandrite of the monastery of Leszczynen. Since 1667 he was at the side of Metropolitan Havryil Kolenda. Zochovskyj proved to be a good administrator: he restored churches and monasteries and he was distinguished for his sermons.

The Metropolitan of Kiev, Havryil Kolenda
Havryil Kolenda
Yuri Havryil Kolenda was the Administrator of Kiev–Galicia from 1655 and Metropolitan of Kiev, Galicia and Russia of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church from 1665 to his death in 1674.-Early Life:...

, chose him as coadjutor bishop
Coadjutor bishop
A coadjutor bishop is a bishop in the Roman Catholic or Anglican churches who is designated to assist the diocesan bishop in the administration of the diocese, almost as co-bishop of the diocese...

 with right of succession and with the titular title of Vitebsk and Mstyslav, and so he was confirmed by the king on 12 November 1670. Kolenda consecrated him as bishop
Bishop (Catholic Church)
In the Catholic Church, a bishop is an ordained minister who holds the fullness of the sacrament of Holy Orders and is responsible for teaching the Catholic faith and ruling the Church....

 on 15 March 1671. His appointment was anyway objected mainly by the bishop of Pinsk
Pinsk , a town in Belarus, in the Polesia region, traversed by the river Pripyat, at the confluence of the Strumen and Pina rivers. The region was known as the Marsh of Pinsk. It is a fertile agricultural center. It lies south-west of Minsk. The population is about 130,000...

, Marcianus Bilozor, who was the nephew of Metropolitan Kolenda and hoped to be himself appointed as successor. Other bishops sided with bishop Bilozor, as bishop Benedict Glynskij of Volodymyr
Volodymyr-Volynsky is a city located in Volyn Oblast, in north-western Ukraine. Serving as the administrative centre of the Volodymyr-Volynsky District, the city itself is also designated as a separate raion within the oblast...

Brest, Belarus
Brest , formerly also Brest-on-the-Bug and Brest-Litovsk , is a city in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the city of Terespol, where the Bug River and Mukhavets rivers meet...

 and even bishop Jacob Souza. They asked Rome
Holy See
The Holy See is the episcopal jurisdiction of the Catholic Church in Rome, in which its Bishop is commonly known as the Pope. It is the preeminent episcopal see of the Catholic Church, forming the central government of the Church. As such, diplomatically, and in other spheres the Holy See acts and...

 to intervene and to made void the appointment of Zochovskyj because of his young age (he was only 35). However in May 1673 Rome confirmed the Zochovskyj's right of succesion. At the death of Kolenda, on 11 February 1674, Zochovskyj became the new Metropolitan of Kiev.


Together with the bishop of Chełm, Jacob Souza, he convened in Lublin
Lublin is the ninth largest city in Poland. It is the capital of Lublin Voivodeship with a population of 350,392 . Lublin is also the largest Polish city east of the Vistula river...

 a synod in 1680 to try to reconcile the Orthodox and the Greek-Catholics, but because of obstruction by the king and by the Nuncio
Nuncio is an ecclesiastical diplomatic title, derived from the ancient Latin word, Nuntius, meaning "envoy." This article addresses this title as well as derived similar titles, all within the structure of the Roman Catholic Church...

, the debate never took place.

Concerning his Basilian Order
Order of Saint Basil the Great
The Order of St. Basil the Great also known as the Basilian Order of Saint Josaphat is an monastic religious order of the Greek Catholic Churches that is present in many countries and that has its Mother House in Rome. The order received approbation on August 20, 1631...

, Zochovskyj tried at first to win favour with the monks and so in 1675 he abdicated his right in governing the Order, leaving the General Chapter of the Order to elect as own Proto-Archimandrite (i.e. Superior general
Superior general
A Superior General, or General Superior, is the Superior at the head of a whole religious order or congregation.The term is mainly used as a generic term, while many orders and congregations use other specific titles, notably:* Abbot general...

) a simple monk. However, years later, on he tried to take the full control on the Order, and so he tried to be elected Proto-Archimandrite in 1683 and in 1684. In both the cases the monks objected and appealed to Rome, that took the side of the monks, cancelling the elections of Zochovskyj as Proto-Archimandrite, and in August 1686 clearly defining the limited power of the Metropolitan in the life of the Order.

Zochovskyj opposed to passage of any faithful of Greek Rite to the Latin rite and he opposed the latinization
Liturgical Latinisation
Liturgical Latinisation, also known as Latinisation, is the process by which liturgical and other aspects of the Churches of Eastern Christianity were altered to resemble more closely the practices of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church...

 of his rite, carried on with the Polonization
Polonization was the acquisition or imposition of elements of Polish culture, in particular, Polish language, as experienced in some historic periods by non-Polish populations of territories controlled or substantially influenced by Poland...

 of his country: pleaded by a petition of Zochovskyj, the Pope
The Pope is the Bishop of Rome, a position that makes him the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church . In the Catholic Church, the Pope is regarded as the successor of Saint Peter, the Apostle...

 confirmed the ban of any liturgical latinizated ceremony. In the early 1690's founded in Supraśl
Supraśl is a town in north-eastern Poland. It is the home of the Supraśl Lavra, one of only six Eastern Orthodox monasteries for males in Poland. Situated in the Podlaskie Voivodeship , previously in Białystok Voivodeship . It is located in Białystok County, about 15 km northeast of...

 a Printing press
Printing press
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium , thereby transferring the ink...

 and thus he stopped the influx of liturgical books from Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

 and he arrested the process of latinization.

He was concerned about improving the education of the clergy and the development of a network of schools: for this aim he restored the seminary
A seminary, theological college, or divinity school is an institution of secondary or post-secondary education for educating students in theology, generally to prepare them for ordination as clergy or for other ministry...

 in Minsk
- Ecological situation :The ecological situation is monitored by Republican Center of Radioactive and Environmental Control .During 2003–2008 the overall weight of contaminants increased from 186,000 to 247,400 tons. The change of gas as industrial fuel to mazut for financial reasons has worsened...

 founded by Metropolitan Rutsky. He donated funds to repair the churches in Vilnius
Vilnius is the capital of Lithuania, and its largest city, with a population of 560,190 as of 2010. It is the seat of the Vilnius city municipality and of the Vilnius district municipality. It is also the capital of Vilnius County...

, Navahrudak and Polotsk and he founded a confraternity
A confraternity is normally a Roman Catholic or Orthodox organization of lay people created for the purpose of promoting special works of Christian charity or piety, and approved by the Church hierarchy...

 by the Saint Sophia Cathedral in Polotsk
Saint Sophia Cathedral in Polotsk
The Cathedral of Holy Wisdom in Polotsk was built by Prince Vseslav Briacheslavich between 1044 and 1066...


Zochovskyj expanded the veneration of the Josaphat Kuntsevych, a Greek-Catholic bishop martyred in 1623 by the Orthodox, and moved his feast day from November 12 to September 26. To support his Church, he obtained that the King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, Jan Sobieski, confirmed all the rights and privileges of the Greek Catholic Church.

Kyprian Zochovskyj died on 26 October 1693 and was buried in Polotsk.
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