Lublin
Overview
Lublin AUD is the ninth largest city in Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

. It is the capital of Lublin Voivodeship
Lublin Voivodeship
- Administrative division :Lublin Voivodeship is divided into 24 counties : 4 city counties and 20 land counties. These are further divided into 213 gminas....

 (province) with a population of 350,392 (June 2009). Lublin is also the largest Polish city east of the Vistula
Vistula
The Vistula is the longest and the most important river in Poland, at 1,047 km in length. The watershed area of the Vistula is , of which lies within Poland ....

 river. Lublin was a candidate for the title of European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by theEuropean Union for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong European dimension....

 in 2016.
The first permanent settlements on the Lublin site were established in the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

, though archeological finds indicate a long, earlier presence of various cultures in the general area.
Encyclopedia
Lublin AUD is the ninth largest city in Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

. It is the capital of Lublin Voivodeship
Lublin Voivodeship
- Administrative division :Lublin Voivodeship is divided into 24 counties : 4 city counties and 20 land counties. These are further divided into 213 gminas....

 (province) with a population of 350,392 (June 2009). Lublin is also the largest Polish city east of the Vistula
Vistula
The Vistula is the longest and the most important river in Poland, at 1,047 km in length. The watershed area of the Vistula is , of which lies within Poland ....

 river. Lublin was a candidate for the title of European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by theEuropean Union for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong European dimension....

 in 2016.

History

The first permanent settlements on the Lublin site were established in the early Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

, though archeological finds indicate a long, earlier presence of various cultures in the general area. The earliest, most significant settlement began in the 6th century, on a hill located in the suburb of Czwartek (in Polish Thursday, most likely in reference to the market day of the settlement). It is likely that the surrounding hills, notably the site of the present day Old Town
Lublin Old Town
Lublin Old Town - constitutes one of the most precious Polish complexes of historic buildings. The Crown Tribunal alongside with the 14th-century Kraków Gate leading from the Old Town to the city center are commonly considered symbols of the city....

, were also settled at around this time. In the 10th and 11th centuries the Czwartek settlement developed into an important trade centre. The location of Lublin at the eastern borders of the Polish lands gave it a military significance. The first fortification on the site may have been built as early as the 8th century, possibly on the Castle Hill. Certainly at the end of the 10th century a significant fortification existed there. As the castle grew, the Old Town hill adjacent to it became the main focus of settlement, and the Czwartek settlement declined in relative importance. The castle became the seat of a Castellan
Castellan
A castellan was the governor or captain of a castle. The word stems from the Latin Castellanus, derived from castellum "castle". Also known as a constable.-Duties:...

, first mentioned in historical sources from 1224, but quite possibly present from the start of the 12th, or even 10th century. The oldest historical document mentioning Lublin dates from 1198, so the name must have come into general use some time earlier.

The city was a target of attacks by Tatars
Tatars
Tatars are a Turkic speaking ethnic group , numbering roughly 7 million.The majority of Tatars live in the Russian Federation, with a population of around 5.5 million, about 2 million of which in the republic of Tatarstan.Significant minority populations are found in Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan,...

, Ruthenes, Yotvingians
Yotvingians
Yotvingians or Sudovians were a Baltic people with close cultural ties to the Lithuanians and Prussians...

 and Lithuanians
Lithuanians
Lithuanians are the Baltic ethnic group native to Lithuania, where they number around 2,765,600 people. Another million or more make up the Lithuanian diaspora, largely found in countries such as the United States, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Russia, United Kingdom and Ireland. Their native language...

 and was destroyed a number of times. It received a city charter in 1317. Casimir the Great
Casimir III of Poland
Casimir III the Great , last King of Poland from the Piast dynasty , was the son of King Władysław I the Elbow-high and Hedwig of Kalisz.-Biography:...

, appreciating the strategic importance of the site, built a masonry castle in 1341 and encircled the city with defensive walls.

In 1392, the city received an important trade privilege from king Władysław Jagiełło
Jogaila
Jogaila, later 'He is known under a number of names: ; ; . See also: Jogaila : names and titles. was Grand Duke of Lithuania , king consort of Kingdom of Poland , and sole King of Poland . He ruled in Lithuania from 1377, at first with his uncle Kęstutis...

, and with the coming of the peace between Poland and Lithuania developed into a great trade centre carrying a large portion of commerce between the two countries. In 1474 the area around Lublin was combined to form the Lublin Voivodeship
Lublin Voivodeship
- Administrative division :Lublin Voivodeship is divided into 24 counties : 4 city counties and 20 land counties. These are further divided into 213 gminas....

. In the 15th century and 16th century the town grew rapidly. The largest trade fairs of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth was a dualistic state of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch. It was the largest and one of the most populous countries of 16th- and 17th‑century Europe with some and a multi-ethnic population of 11 million at its peak in the early 17th century...

 were held in Lublin. During the 16th century the noble parliaments (sejm
Sejm
The Sejm is the lower house of the Polish parliament. The Sejm is made up of 460 deputies, or Poseł in Polish . It is elected by universal ballot and is presided over by a speaker called the Marshal of the Sejm ....

) were held in Lublin a number of times. On June 26, 1569, one of the most important ones proclaimed the Union of Lublin
Union of Lublin
The Union of Lublin replaced the personal union of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with a real union and an elective monarchy, since Sigismund II Augustus, the last of the Jagiellons, remained childless after three marriages. In addition, the autonomy of Royal Prussia was...

, which united Poland and Lithuania
Lithuania
Lithuania , officially the Republic of Lithuania is a country in Northern Europe, the biggest of the three Baltic states. It is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, whereby to the west lie Sweden and Denmark...

. The Lithuanian name for the city is Liublinas.
Some of the artists and writers of the Polish renaissance lived and worked in Lublin, including Sebastian Klonowic
Sebastian Klonowic
Sebastian Fabian Klonowic was a Polish poet writer and composer.-Biography:He studied at the University of Krakow. He was also known by his Latin name, Acernus, and wrote in both Polish and Latin. He first lived in Lviv, in Ukraine, then he settled in Lublin. While in Lublin, he became mayor.He...

 and Jan Kochanowski
Jan Kochanowski
Jan Kochanowski was a Polish Renaissance poet who established poetic patterns that would become integral to Polish literary language.He is commonly regarded as the greatest Polish poet before Adam Mickiewicz, and the greatest Slavic poet, prior to the 19th century.-Life:Kochanowski was born at...

, who died in the city in 1584. In 1578 the Crown Tribunal
Crown Tribunal
Crown Tribunal – was the highest appeal court in the Crown of the Polish Kingdom for most cases, exceptions being the cases were a noble landowner was threatened with loss of life and/or property - then he could appeal to the Sejm court .In 1578 king Stefan Batory created the...

 was established in the city, this being the highest court of the Lesser Poland
Lesser Poland
Lesser Poland is one of the historical regions of Poland, with its capital in the city of Kraków. It forms the southeastern corner of the country, and should not be confused with the modern Lesser Poland Voivodeship, which covers only a small, southern part of Lesser Poland...

 region.

Since the second half of the 16th century, Reformation
Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation was a 16th-century split within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants. The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to the doctrines, rituals and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church, led...

 movements developed in Lublin, and a large congregation of Polish Brethren
Polish Brethren
The Polish Brethren were members of the Minor Reformed Church of Poland, a Nontrinitarian Protestant church that existed in Poland from 1565 to 1658...

 was present in the city. One of Poland's most important Jewish communities was also established in Lublin around this time. It continued to be a vital part of the city's life until the community ceased to exist during the Nazi
Nazism
Nazism, the common short form name of National Socialism was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany...

 Holocaust
The Holocaust
The Holocaust , also known as the Shoah , was the genocide of approximately six million European Jews and millions of others during World War II, a programme of systematic state-sponsored murder by Nazi...

. Between 1580 and 1764 the Jewish Council of Four Lands Arba Aracot (Sejm
Sejm
The Sejm is the lower house of the Polish parliament. The Sejm is made up of 460 deputies, or Poseł in Polish . It is elected by universal ballot and is presided over by a speaker called the Marshal of the Sejm ....

 of 4 countries) was held in Lublin. 70 delegates of Jewish local kahals met to discuss issue of taxations and other important for Jewish communities issues.

Students came to Lublin from all over Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 to study at the yeshiva
Yeshiva
Yeshiva is a Jewish educational institution that focuses on the study of traditional religious texts, primarily the Talmud and Torah study. Study is usually done through daily shiurim and in study pairs called chavrutas...

 there. The yeshiva became a centre of learning of both Talmud
Talmud
The Talmud is a central text of mainstream Judaism. It takes the form of a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, philosophy, customs and history....

 and Kabbalah
Kabbalah
Kabbalah/Kabala is a discipline and school of thought concerned with the esoteric aspect of Rabbinic Judaism. It was systematized in 11th-13th century Hachmei Provence and Spain, and again after the Expulsion from Spain, in 16th century Ottoman Palestine...

. The great scholarship of those who studied there led to the city being named the "Jewish Oxford"; the Rosh yeshiva
Rosh yeshiva
Rosh yeshiva, , , is the title given to the dean of a Talmudical academy . It is made up of the Hebrew words rosh — meaning head, and yeshiva — a school of religious Jewish education...

 received the title of rector and equal rights to those in Polish universities with the permission of the King in 1567.

In the 17th century, the town suffered a decline due to a Russo
Tsardom of Russia
The Tsardom of Russia was the name of the centralized Russian state from Ivan IV's assumption of the title of Tsar in 1547 till Peter the Great's foundation of the Russian Empire in 1721.From 1550 to 1700, Russia grew 35,000 km2 a year...

-Ukrainian
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

 invasion in 1655 and a Swedish invasion during the Northern Wars
Northern Wars
Northern Wars is a term used for a series of wars fought in northern and northeastern Europe in the 16th and 17th century. An internationally agreed nomenclature for these wars has not yet been devised...

. After the Third of the Partitions of Poland
Partitions of Poland
The Partitions of Poland or Partitions of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth took place in the second half of the 18th century and ended the existence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland for 123 years...

 in 1795 Lublin was located in the Austrian empire
Habsburg Monarchy
The Habsburg Monarchy covered the territories ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg , and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine , between 1526 and 1867/1918. The Imperial capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague...

, then since 1809 in the Duchy of Warsaw
Duchy of Warsaw
The Duchy of Warsaw was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit. The duchy was held in personal union by one of Napoleon's allies, King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony...

, and then since 1815 in the Congress Poland
Congress Poland
The Kingdom of Poland , informally known as Congress Poland , created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna, was a personal union of the Russian parcel of Poland with the Russian Empire...

 under Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

n rule. At the beginning of the 19th century a number of modern urban developments took place, with new squares, streets, and public buildings coming into existence. In 1877 a railway connection to Warsaw
Warsaw
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

 and Kovel
Kovel
Kovel is a city located in the Volyn Oblast , in northwestern Ukraine. Serving as the administrative center of the Kovelskyi Raion , the city itself is also designated as a separate raion within the oblast. The current estimated population is around 65,777.Kovel gives its name to one of the...

 was built, together with Lublin Station
Lublin Station
Lublin Station is the most important railway station in Lublin, Poland. It is sometimes referred to as Lublin Główny , to distinguish it from two other stations located in Lublin. The main station building was opened in 1877, together with the Vistula River Railroad, which connected Warsaw with...

, which spurred industrial development in the city. Lublin's population grew from 28,900 in 1873 to 50,150 in 1897 (including 24,000 Jews).

The Russian rule ended in 1915, when the city was occupied by German and Austro-Hungarian armies. After the defeat of the Central Powers
Central Powers
The Central Powers were one of the two warring factions in World War I , composed of the German Empire, the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Bulgaria...

 in 1918, the first government of independent Poland operated in Lublin for a short time. In the inter war years, the city continued to develop, its population grew, and important industrial enterprises were established, including the first aviation factory in Poland, the Plage i Laśkiewicz
Plage i Laskiewicz
Plage i Laśkiewicz was the first Polish aerospace manufacturer, located in Lublin and manufacturing aircraft under Lublin name. Full name was: Zakłady Mechaniczne E. Plage i T. Laśkiewicz - Mechanical Works E. Plage & T. Laśkiewicz...

 works, later nationalized as the LWS
LWS (aircraft manufacturer)
LWS - Lubelska Wytwórnia Samolotów was the Polish aerospace manufacturer, located in Lublin, created in 1936 of Plage i Laśkiewicz works and producing aircraft between 1936 and 1939.-History:...

 factory. The Catholic University of Lublin was founded in 1918. The city contained a vibrant Jewish community which formed around 40% of Lublin's population.

After the 1939 German invasion of Poland
Invasion of Poland (1939)
The Invasion of Poland, also known as the September Campaign or 1939 Defensive War in Poland and the Poland Campaign in Germany, was an invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the start of World War II in Europe...

 the city found itself in the General Government
General Government
The General Government was an area of Second Republic of Poland under Nazi German rule during World War II; designated as a separate region of the Third Reich between 1939–1945...

. During the German occupation the city's population was a target of severe oppression by the occupiers, with a particularly grim fate reserved for the Jewish inhabitants. German plans were aimed towards turning Lublin into Germanised city with its population of Ethnic Germans growing towards 20-25 %, compared with 10-15% in 1939. Near Lublin, a reservation was set up for Jews according to the Nisko Plan
Nisko Plan
The Nisko Plan, also Lublin Plan or Nisko-Lublin Plan , was developed in September 1939 by the Nazi German Schutzstaffel as a "territorial solution to the Jewish Question"...

, also known as "Lublin Plan".

The city served as a German headquarters for Operation Reinhardt, the main German effort to exterminate the Jews in occupied Poland. Lublin's Jewish population was forced into the Lublin Ghetto
Lublin Ghetto
The Lublin Ghetto was a World War II ghetto created by Nazi Germany in the city of Lublin in occupied Poland, on the Nazi-administered territory of the General Government. Its inhabitants were mostly Polish Jews, although a number of Roma were also present. The Lublin Ghetto, set up in March 1941,...

 established around the area of Podzamcze
Podzamcze, Lublin County
Podzamcze is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Bychawa, within Lublin County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland. It lies approximately north of Bychawa and south of the regional capital Lublin.-References:...

. The majority of the ghetto's inhabitants, about 26,000 people, was deported to the Bełżec extermination camp between 17 March and 11 April 1942. The remainder were moved to facilities around Majdanek
Majdanek
Majdanek was a German Nazi concentration camp on the outskirts of Lublin, Poland, established during the German Nazi occupation of Poland. The camp operated from October 1, 1941 until July 22, 1944, when it was captured nearly intact by the advancing Soviet Red Army...

, a large concentration camp established at the outskirts of the city. Most of them were killed by the war's end. After the war the few Jews who survived in hiding or by escaping to Soviet territory reestablished a small Jewish community in the city, but it quickly shrank to insignificance as most Jews left Poland for Israel and the West in the immediate postwar years. The Majdanek
Majdanek
Majdanek was a German Nazi concentration camp on the outskirts of Lublin, Poland, established during the German Nazi occupation of Poland. The camp operated from October 1, 1941 until July 22, 1944, when it was captured nearly intact by the advancing Soviet Red Army...

 camp, together with the prison established in the Lublin castle, also served as a major centre of terror measures aimed at the non-Jewish population of Lublin and the surrounding district.
On 24 July 1944, the city was taken by the Soviet Army
Soviet Army
The Soviet Army is the name given to the main part of the Armed Forces of the Soviet Union between 1946 and 1992. Previously, it had been known as the Red Army. Informally, Армия referred to all the MOD armed forces, except, in some cases, the Soviet Navy.This article covers the Soviet Ground...

 and became the temporary capital of a Soviet-controlled communist Polish Committee of National Liberation
Polish Committee of National Liberation
The Polish Committee of National Liberation , also known as the Lublin Committee, was a provisional government of Poland, officially proclaimed 21 July 1944 in Chełm under the direction of State National Council in opposition to the Polish government in exile...

 established in the city, which was to serve as basis for a puppet government. The capital was moved to Warsaw
Warsaw
Warsaw is the capital and largest city of Poland. It is located on the Vistula River, roughly from the Baltic Sea and from the Carpathian Mountains. Its population in 2010 was estimated at 1,716,855 residents with a greater metropolitan area of 2,631,902 residents, making Warsaw the 10th most...

 in January 1945. In the postwar years Lublin continued to grow, tripling its population and greatly expanding in area. A considerable scientific and research base was established around the newly founded Maria Curie-Sklodowska University
Maria Curie-Sklodowska University
Maria Curie-Skłodowska University was founded October 23, 1944 in Lublin. It is named in honour of Marie Curie-Sklodowska....

. A large automobile factory (FSC
Fabryka Samochodów Ciezarowych
FSC is a large automotive factory established in Poland while it was part of the Soviet bloc. It was founded in 1950 and the first vehicle left its assembly line on November 7, 1951...

) was established in the city.

In July 1980, the workers of Lublin and nearby Świdnik
Swidnik
Świdnik is a town in eastern Poland with 42,797 inhabitants , situated in the Lublin Voivodeship, very near the city of Lublin. It is the capital of Świdnik County.-History:The village of Świdnik is first mentioned in historical records from 1392...

 began the first in the wave of mass strikes
Lublin 1980 strikes
The Lublin 1980 strikes were the series of workers’ strikes in the area of the eastern city of Lublin , demanding better salaries and lower prices of food products. They began on July 8, 1980, at the State Aviation Works in Świdnik, a town located on the outskirts of Lublin...

 aimed against the Communist regime, which eventually led to the emergence of the Solidarity movement. The first strike began on July 8 in the WSK factory in Świdnik
Swidnik
Świdnik is a town in eastern Poland with 42,797 inhabitants , situated in the Lublin Voivodeship, very near the city of Lublin. It is the capital of Świdnik County.-History:The village of Świdnik is first mentioned in historical records from 1392...

. It then quickly spread to other factories in Lublin and the surrounding region. The railroad network and city transit came to a standstill. Ultimately, 150 factories employing 50,000 workers joined the strike. The strikers used a novel tactic of staying inside their factories and occupying them, instead of marching in the streets where the authorities would have found it easy to use force against them. The workers made demands for their economic situation to be improved. They also made political demands, such as: new elections for the leadership of the trade unions, liquidation of privileges for the Communist party governing class, and the reduction of the bureaucracy in the factories.

The July strikes lasted two weeks. The Communist authorities eventually managed to bring them to an end peacefully, mainly by granting economic concessions to the workers. However, the momentum generated by the Lublin strikes quickly gave rise to a new wave of strikes in the Gdańsk
Gdansk
Gdańsk is a Polish city on the Baltic coast, at the centre of the country's fourth-largest metropolitan area.The city lies on the southern edge of Gdańsk Bay , in a conurbation with the city of Gdynia, spa town of Sopot, and suburban communities, which together form a metropolitan area called the...

 region in August 1980. The workers there used similar tactics as the Lublin workers used a month before, and this time the Communist authorities had to agree to the strikers' demand to set up an independent trade union, which soon became the Solidarity.

Economy

The Lublin region had the lowest per capita GDP
Gross domestic product
Gross domestic product refers to the market value of all final goods and services produced within a country in a given period. GDP per capita is often considered an indicator of a country's standard of living....

 in the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

 until Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

 and Romania
Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

 joined in 2007 (it was 32% of EU average in 2002). It is a part of eastern Poland, which has benefited less from the economic transformation after 1989 than other regions of Poland located closer to Western Europe
Western Europe
Western Europe is a loose term for the collection of countries in the western most region of the European continents, though this definition is context-dependent and carries cultural and political connotations. One definition describes Western Europe as a geographic entity—the region lying in the...

. While the standard of living in the city of Lublin is considerably higher than in the surrounding countryside, the city's relatively poor economic performance is tied to the poverty of its surrounding region.

Factories built under the Communist regime in the city have performed poorly in the new market economy. The large car factory FSC
Fabryka Samochodów Ciezarowych
FSC is a large automotive factory established in Poland while it was part of the Soviet bloc. It was founded in 1950 and the first vehicle left its assembly line on November 7, 1951...

 (Fabryka Samochodów Ciężarowych) seemed to have a brighter future when acquired by the South Korea
South Korea
The Republic of Korea , , is a sovereign state in East Asia, located on the southern portion of the Korean Peninsula. It is neighbored by the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east, North Korea to the north, and the East China Sea and Republic of China to the south...

n Daewoo
Daewoo
Daewoo or the Daewoo Group was a major South Korean chaebol . It was founded on 22 March 1967 as Daewoo Industrial and was dismantled by the Korean government in 1999...

 conglomerate in the early 1990s. With Daewoo's financial troubles in 1998, the production at FSC practically collapsed and the factory entered bankruptcy. Efforts to restart its van production succeeded when the engine supplier bought the company in order not to lose its prime market. With the decline of Lublin as a regional industrial centre, the city's economy is being reoriented towards the service industries. Currently, the largest employer is the Maria Curie-Sklodowska University
Maria Curie-Sklodowska University
Maria Curie-Skłodowska University was founded October 23, 1944 in Lublin. It is named in honour of Marie Curie-Sklodowska....

 (UMCS).

The prices of land and investing costs are lower than in western Poland. However, the Lublin area is one of main beneficiaries of the EU development funds- Mr. Jerzy Kwiecinski, the Deputy Secretary of State in the Ministry for Regional Development at the Conference of the Ministry for Regional Development (Poland in the European Union – new possibilities for foreign investors) said: -

“In the immediate financial outlook, between 2007 and 2013, we will be the largest beneficiaries of the EU - every fifth Euro will be spent in Poland. In total, we will have at our disposal 120 billion EUR, assigned exclusively for post development activities. This sum will be an enormous boost for our country”.

In September 2007, the Prime Minister signed a bill creating a special economic investment zone in Lublin that offers tax incentives. It is part of “Park Mielec” – the European Economic Development area. At least 13 large companies had declared their wish to invest here e.g. Carrefour, Comarch, Safo, Asseco, Aliplast, Herbapol and Perła Browary Lubelskie -. At the same time the energy giant Polska Grupa Energetyczna, which will build Poland's first nuclear power station, is to have its main offices in Lublin.

New shopping centres built in Lublin are Lublin Plaza and Galeria Gala, the largest shopping centre in the city, covering 33500 square metres. Similar investments are planned for the near future such as Park Felin (Felicity) and a new gallery ("Alchemy") between Świętoduska and Lubartowska streets.


Lublin will take an active part in the upcoming EURO 2012 championships, with several preliminary matches being held in the city. This will bring associated investment in infrastructure.

Television

"TVP Lublin" is a TV Station in Lublin which owns a 104-metre-tall concrete TV Tower. It put its first program on the air in 1985. In recent years it contributed programming to TVP3
TVP3
TVP3 was a Polish TV channel, run by the public broadcaster, TVP and dedicated to the country's regions...

 channel, and later TVP Info
TVP Info
TVP Info is a Polish news channel, which replaced TVP3. It is run by the public broadcaster, TVP and dedicated to the country's regions. It had regional branches in most of the major Polish cities and, similarly to the France 3 in France or Rai Tre in Italy, for couple of hours every day it...

.

Radio

  • Radio stations airing from Lublin:

    • Radio eR - 87.9 FM,
    • Radio Eska Lublin - 103.6 FM,
    • Radio Lublin (regional station of the Polish Radio) - 89.9 FM / 102.2 FM,
    • Radio Centrum (University radio) - 98.2 FM,
    • Radio Złote Przeboje Lublin - 95.6 FM,

  • Airing not from Lublin:

    • Radio RMF FM
      RMF FM
      RMF FM - the most popular and the first commercial radio station in Poland. RMF FM started broadcasting on 15 January 1990 in Kraków. The current director is Tadeusz Sołtys. The radio is wholly owned by the German Bauer Verlagsgruppe.-Frequency FM in Poland:-External links:*...

       - 89.3 FM,
    • Polskie Radio 1 (national station of the Polish Radio) - 90.8 FM,
    • Polskie Radio 2 (national station of the Polish Radio) - 91.8 FM,
    • Radio Maryja - 97 FM,
    • Radio Euro (national station of the Polish Radio) - 99 FM,
    • Polskie Radio 3 (national station of the Polish Radio) - 104.2 FM,
    • Radio Eska Rock - 106.1 FM,
    • Radio Zet
      Radio Zet
      Radio ZET – Polish commercial radio station. The current owner of the station is Eurozet. The editor-in-chief of Radio ZET is Mateusz Kirstein. The Radio started broadcasting on 28 September 1990, being the first private radio station in Warsaw.-History:...

       - 107 FM,
    • Radio RMF Classic - 107.6 MHz

Newspapers

  • Kurier Lubelski (daily, regional partner of the national newspaper "Polska. The Times") http://www.kurierlubelski.pl/Kurier
  • Dziennik Wschodni (daily)
  • Gazeta Wyborcza Lublin Edition (daily, regional supplement to the national newspaper Gazeta Wyborcza
    Gazeta Wyborcza
    Gazeta Wyborcza is a leading Polish newspaper. It covers the gamut of political, international and general news. Like all the Polish newspapers, it is printed on compact-sized paper, and is published by the multimedia corporation Agora SA...

    )
  • Metro (daily, free)
  • Nasze Miasto Lublin
    Nasze Miasto Lublin
    Nasze Miasto Lublin is a free polish language local newspaper about Lublin....

     (weekly, free)

Transport

From Lublin Station
Lublin Station
Lublin Station is the most important railway station in Lublin, Poland. It is sometimes referred to as Lublin Główny , to distinguish it from two other stations located in Lublin. The main station building was opened in 1877, together with the Vistula River Railroad, which connected Warsaw with...

, trains run ten times a day to Warsaw and three times to Kraków as well as all other major cities in Poland. Buses also run from below the castle in the Old Town and serve most of the same destinations as the rail network. The fast train to Warsaw takes around two and half hours and public transport is available from there to Frédéric Chopin Airport, which is only 10 km outside the centre and has flights worldwide. The Polski Express bus service runs seven daily buses from the airport direct to Lublin and the journey takes around three and a half hours .

Airport

Construction of a new airport at Świdnik
Lublin Airport
Lublin Airport, provisionally so named as no official name has yet been selected, is an airport currently under construction in Poland and will serve Lublin and the surrounding region. The site is located about 10 km east of downtown Lublin, adjacent to the town of Świdnik...

, about 10 km SE of Lublin, has been approved and will receive EU funding. Construction has started in the Fall of 2010 and according to current plans should finish in 2012. The runway will be 2500 m long, able to handle large airliners. The airport will be able to handle 2 mln passengers per year.

Roads

As of 2009 no motorways or expressways connect the city with the rest of Poland. In the coming decade the construction of expressways S12
Expressway S12 (Poland)
Expressway S12 or express road S12 is a major road in Poland which has been planned to run from Piotrków Trybunalski, through Radom, Lublin and Chełm, to the border crossing with Ukraine at Dorohusk. The completed road should be about long...

, S17
Expressway S17 (Poland)
Expressway S17 or Express Road S17 is an important road in Poland which, when completed, will run from Warsaw, through Lublin, to the border crossing with Ukraine at Hrebenne/Rava-Ruska. As of May 2009, out of planned have been completed. These are three separate sections forming the bypasses...

 and S19
Expressway S19 (Poland)
Expressway S19 or express road S19 is a major road in Poland which is planned to run from the border crossing to Belarus in Kuźnica through Białystok, Lublin and Rzeszów, to the border with Slovakia at Barwinek, where it will connect with future R4 expressway .The total planned length is...

 will improve road access to the city. On December 17, 2009 the bidding process for the construction of S17 expressway around Lublin was started. The construction should begin in 2010 and finish in 2012. The project will include building a high capacity bypass road around Lublin, removing most the transit traffic from the city streets and decreasing congestion.

Culture and Tourism

Lublin is not only the biggest city in eastern Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

, but an important culture core city also. Since accession of Poland into the EU, Lublin has been called "Gate to the East." Since then, many important international events have taken place here, involving Ukrainian
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

, Lithuania
Lithuania
Lithuania , officially the Republic of Lithuania is a country in Northern Europe, the biggest of the three Baltic states. It is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, whereby to the west lie Sweden and Denmark...

n, Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

n and Belorussian artists, researchers and politicians. Lublin connects the West with the East. Even frescos at the Holy Trinity Chapel in Lublin are a mixture of Catholic motifs with eastern Russian-Byzantine styles.

Cinema

Lublin is a city with film-making past. A few important films were recorded here. e.g. Oscar-winning, "The Reader
The Reader
The Reader is a novel by German law professor and judge Bernhard Schlink, published in Germany in 1995 and in the United States in 1997...

", was partially filmed at the German Majdanek concentration camp, located in Lublin.

In 2008, Lublin in cooperation with Ukrainian Lviv
Lviv
Lviv is a city in western Ukraine. The city is regarded as one of the main cultural centres of today's Ukraine and historically has also been a major Polish and Jewish cultural center, as Poles and Jews were the two main ethnicities of the city until the outbreak of World War II and the following...

, filmed promotional materials, to promote them as cinematic cities. Films were handed out between film-makers present at Cannes Festival. Action, was sponsored by European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

.

In Lublin, there are currently a few cinemas:
  • Cinema City
    Cinema City Poland
    Cinema City is a brand of multiplex cinemas in eastern and central Europe, run by the Israeli company Cinema City International . In Europe it has cinemas in Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic. In Poland Cinema City has almost 40% of the multiplex market, with Multikino its major competitor...

     (multiplex)
  • Cinema Bajka
  • Cinema Chatka Żaka
  • Cinema Medyk

Theatres

There are many cultural organisations, both municipal, governmental and non-governmental, in Lublin.
  • Municipal Theatres, with casual playhouses:

    • Musical Theatre in Lublin - Teatr Muzyczny w Lublinie, opera, operetta, musical, ballet
    • Henryk Wieniawski
      Henryk Wieniawski
      Henryk Wieniawski was a Polish violinist and composer.-Biography:Henryk Wieniawski was born in Lublin, Congress Poland, Russian Empire. His father, Tobiasz Pietruszka, had converted to Catholicism. His talent for playing the violin was recognized early, and in 1843 he entered the Paris...

       Lublin Philharmonic - Filharmonia Lubelska
    • Juliusz Osterwa Theatre in Lublin - Teatr im. Juliusza Osterwy w Lublinie
    • Hans Christian Andersen Theatre - with puppet programme for Children

  • Fringe Theatres:
    • Centrum Projekt Pracovnia Maat
    • Centrum Kultury w Lublinie
    • Ośrodek Praktyk Teatralnych – Gardzienice
    • Ośrodek „Brama Grodzka - Theatre NN”
    • Theatre "Provisorium"

  • Scenes:
    • InVitro Pre-première Scene - Scena Prapremier "InVitro"
    • Scena Plastyczna KUL – created by Leszek Mądzik
    • Theatre Panopticum
    • Teatr ITP
    • Teatr Pierwszego Kontaktu

  • Cabaret
    • Pantomimic group MIMIKA
    • Ani Mru-Mru
    • PoMimochodem

  • Barnstormers"
    • Lublin Dance Theatre - Lubelski Teatr Tańca
    • Company "Theatre" - Kompania "Teatr"
    • Teatr Widzenie
    • Teatr Jasny
    • Theatrical Group "Collective" - Grupa Teatralna "Kolektyw"
    • Enigmatic Theatre of KUL

Galleries

There are lots of Art-Galleries in Lublin, some of them are run by Private owners, some of them are Municipal, Governmental, NGO's, Associations property.
Here are only few most popular:
  • "BWA" - Artistic Exhibitions Office - Biuro Wystaw Artystycznych
  • "Atu" Gallery
  • "Postal Gallery" - Galeria na poczcie
  • "Fot-Press" Gallery
  • "Galeria Biała"
  • Art-Gallery Sceny Plastycznej KUL
  • "Pod podłogą" (Under the Floor Gallery)
  • Galeria Sztuki "Wirydarz"
  • "KONT" Academic Culture Centre Gallery "Chatka Żaka" UMCS
  • "Labirynt 2"

  • Galeria Grodzka
  • Galeria "Po schodach"
  • Galeria "Gardzienice"
  • Galeria Autorska Michałowski
  • Galeria Fotografii "Prospero"
  • Galeria "Gala Dom i Wnętrze"
  • Galeria Michałowscy
  • Galeria Sztuki Współczesnej "Andzelm Gallery"
  • Galeria ART
  • "31'st Gallery"
  • Galeria "Pomost"
  • Galeria Sztuki Nieprofesjonalnej "U Lekarzy" (Amateur art-gallery "At doctor's")
  • Galeria Przy Bramie (Bramma Cafe)
  • Lubelskie Towarzystwo Zachęty Sztuk Pięknych

Old Town

Lublin, by some tourists called "little Krakow", has historic architecture and a unique ambiance, especially in the Old Town. Catering to students, who account for 35% of the population, the city offers a vibrant music and nightclub scene Lublin has many theatres, philharmonic orchestras and museums. Old buildings, even ruins, creates magic and unique atmosphere of the city. Lublin’s Old Town has cobbled streets and traditional architecture.

Pubs and Restaurants

The Old Town Hall and Tribunal in the Market Square is surrounded by burgher houses and winding lanes.

City of Festivals

Lublin could be called "The Capital of Festivals", as every year another new one appears. These are just a few of the most significant:
  • Karnawał Sztuk-Mistrzów - Carnival Arts-Masters.
  • Noc Kultury - Culture Night - usually the first Saturday night of June, hundreds of events whole the city, cultural manifestation of city's potential, admission is totally free - http://www.nockultury.pl.
  • OpenCity Festival - outdoor performances festival, international artists and performers, make art installations in public places in Lublin. - http://www.opencity.pl
  • Museum Night - like in whole world, Lublin's museums, are opened for visitors.
  • Jarmark Jagielloński - Jagiellonian Trades - every year, about 100k of tourists, arriving in Lublin, only to feel middle-age atmosphere.
  • Lubelskie Dni Kultury Studenckiej - an annual students' holiday, usually celebrated for about three weeks between May and June, students holiday in Lublin, are the longest in whole Poland. There's usually bunch of student parties, concerts, cultural events, and every year, Main Concert, usually, British artists are invited.
  • Słowo daję - Festiwal Opowiadaczy - I give you my word. Storytellers Festival
  • Rozstaje Europy - International Festival of Document Film
  • Mikołajki Folkowe - International Folk Music Festival ("St. Nicholas Folk Day") - organised by Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin.
  • Strefa Inne Brzmienia ("Different Sounds Area" International Music Festival, which connects Lublin and Lviv
    Lviv
    Lviv is a city in western Ukraine. The city is regarded as one of the main cultural centres of today's Ukraine and historically has also been a major Polish and Jewish cultural center, as Poles and Jews were the two main ethnicities of the city until the outbreak of World War II and the following...

     citizens together.
  • Lublin. Miasto Poezji - Poetry Festival organised by Ośrodek "Brama Grodzka - Teatr NN" and Polish Literature Institute of Catholic University in Lublin
    KUL
    KUL:* KUL is the IATA airport code for Kuala Lumpur International Airport*Katholieke Universiteit Leuven the Dutch speaking Belgian University issued from the splitting of the bilingual Catholic University of Leuven...

    .
  • Noc z Czechowiczem - A Night with Czechowicz - walking the trace, from "Poem about The City of Lublin" written by Józef Czechowicz at first full moon at July, organised by Ośrodek "Brama Grodzka - Teatr NN"
  • Najstarsze Pieśni Europy - The oldest songs of Europe - Festival of Muzyka Kresów Foundation.
  • Future Shorts - World Short Film Label
  • Międzynarodowe Spotkania Teatrów Tańca - International Lublin Dance Festival
  • Międzynarodowy Festiwal Teatralny "Konfrontacje" - International Theatre Festival "Confrontations"
  • Festiwal Kultury Alternatywnej "ZdaErzenia" - Festival of Alternative Culture in Lublin
  • Sąsiedzi - Festiwal Teatrów Europy Środkowej - Neighbours - Central European Theatres Festival
  • Festiwal "Prowokacje" - Young Polish Fashion Creators Festival
  • Studencki Ogólnopolski Festiwal Teatralny Kontestacje - Polish Students Theatre Festival
  • Międzynarodowe Spotkania Folklorystyczne im. Ignacego Wachowiaka - International Folk Dance Festival

  • Lubelska Scena Rockowa - Lublin Rock Scene
  • Taniec Znaku - first in Poland Internet Theatre, project of Lublin Maat Theatre,
  • Scena Młodych - Youth Scene, music festival
  • Zwierciadła - Mirrors - High School Theatres Revision
  • Zaduszki Jazzowe - Jazz All Souls' Day - it takes place in Dominican Order
    Dominican Order
    The Order of Preachers , after the 15th century more commonly known as the Dominican Order or Dominicans, is a Catholic religious order founded by Saint Dominic and approved by Pope Honorius III on 22 December 1216 in France...

     Monastery
  • "Invitro" Scena Prapremier - "Invitro" Pre-première Scene
  • Solo życia - Classical Music Festival - creator of this festival is composer Mieczysław Jurecki
  • Letnia Strefa Muzyki - Summer Music Area - Young polish musicians, promotion, on the small scene, organisators: Akwarela Cafe and Lublins' President Council

European capital of culture

Since 2007, Lublin has joined the group of Polish cities which are candidates for the title of European Capital of Culture
European Capital of Culture
The European Capital of Culture is a city designated by theEuropean Union for a period of one calendar year during which it organises a series of cultural events with a strong European dimension....

, as the one and only city from the eastern half of Poland. Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 will participate in this title with Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 in 2016 although the exact cities from these countries have yet to be chosen.


"Lublin is the city that symbolises European idea of integration, universal heritage of democracy and tolerance and the idea of dialogue between the cultures of the West and East. Lublin is a unique place where the cultures and religions meet. Here the East meets West, and the European Union meets Belarus and Ukraine. It is the perfect place of cooperation for European artists living within and outside the European Union. Lublin is a city open to artists, a place where unique initiatives and activities take place. Lublin means the experience of hundreds of years of rich history and cultural heritage which constitutes endless source of inspiration for new generations.
European Culture is not only modern museums and enormous festivals, but first of all people and their activities, aims, aspirations, possibilities, potential and the desire for development.The development of culture and being granted the title of European Capital of Culture is a chance for development of one the poorest regions of the European Union.
Mr. Adam Wasilewski, President of Lublin

Since 2007, there are special meetings, enter2016, which anyone could take part in. The City's Marketing Office have created a web page: Lublin2016.eu, available in Polish
Polish language
Polish is a language of the Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages, used throughout Poland and by Polish minorities in other countries...

, English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

, Ukrainian
Ukrainian language
Ukrainian is a language of the East Slavic subgroup of the Slavic languages. It is the official state language of Ukraine. Written Ukrainian uses a variant of the Cyrillic alphabet....

, Spanish
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

 and Portuguese
Portuguese language
Portuguese is a Romance language that arose in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia, nowadays Galicia and Northern Portugal. The southern part of the Kingdom of Galicia became independent as the County of Portugal in 1095...

.

Lublin is also a pilot city of the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
The Council of Europe is an international organisation promoting co-operation between all countries of Europe in the areas of legal standards, human rights, democratic development, the rule of law and cultural co-operation...

 and the European Commission
European Commission
The European Commission is the executive body of the European Union. The body is responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the Union's treaties and the general day-to-day running of the Union....

 Intercultural cities
Intercultural cities
The Intercultural City programme is a joint project of the Council of Europe and the European Commission. It aims at stimulating new ideas and practice in relation to the integration of migrants and minorities....

 programme.

Education

There are six schools of higher education, including Maria Curie-Sklodowska University
Maria Curie-Sklodowska University
Maria Curie-Skłodowska University was founded October 23, 1944 in Lublin. It is named in honour of Marie Curie-Sklodowska....

 (UMCS) and John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin
John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin
John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin is located in Lublin, Poland. Presently it has an enrollment of over 19,000 students...

 (JPII CUL).


Lublin also hosts a number of private higher education establishments.
The Polish Government has plans to establish a new University in Lublin in cooperation with the Ukraine Government, which promises to be one of the most innovative international ventures of recent years. The Polish-Ukrainian Academy will support multicultural exchange, and will highlight Polish and Ukrainian heritage and history. It promises to be a milestone in the rapprochement between Poland and Ukraine, and between Ukraine and the European Union
European Union
The European Union is an economic and political union of 27 independent member states which are located primarily in Europe. The EU traces its origins from the European Coal and Steel Community and the European Economic Community , formed by six countries in 1958...

.

Sports

  • Start Lublin
    Start Lublin
    Start Lublin is a Polish basketball team, based in Lublin, playing in Era Basket Liga....

     - men's basketball team, 12th in Era Basket Liga in 2003–2004 season.
  • SPR Safo iCom Lublin (formerly Bystrzyca Lublin) - women's handball
    Handball in Poland
    Handball is a popular team sport in Poland.* Polish Seria A Handball League* Polish Seria B Handball League* Polish Seria A Women's Handball League* Polish Seria B Women's Handball League* Polish Cup in men handball* Polish Cup in women handball...

     team playing in Polish Ekstraklasa Women's Handball League
    Polish Ekstraklasa Women's Handball League
    -History:* 1939 - Znicz Łódź* 1946 - Zryw Łódź* 1947 - Zryw Łódź* 1948 - SKS Warszawa* 1949 - Unia Łódź* 1950 - Spójnia Warszawa* 1951 - Unia Łódź* 1952 - Unia Łódź* 1953 - not held* 1954 - not held* 1955 - Stal Chorzów* 1956 - Stal Chorzów...

    : 2nd place in 2003–2004 season: also a winner of Women's EHF Cup
    Women's EHF Cup
    The Women's EHF Cup is an official competition for women's handball clubs of Europe. It takes place every year, from September to May. It was first organized by the European Handball Federation in 1993...

     in season 2000/2001.
  • Motor Lublin
    Motor Lublin
    Motor Lublin is a Polish professional football team based in Lublin. The club was founded in December 1950 with their nickname The Yellow, White and Blues reflecting their official colours...

     - professional football team competing in the Polish second division.
  • Lublinianka - men's football team competing in the Polish league (fourth division as of 2006–07).
  • Budowlani Lublin - a local Rugby Union
    Rugby union
    Rugby union, often simply referred to as rugby, is a full contact team sport which originated in England in the early 19th century. One of the two codes of rugby football, it is based on running with the ball in hand...

     team competing in the Polish, and surrounding district league.
  • TŻ Lublin speedway
    Motorcycle speedway
    Motorcycle speedway, usually referred to as speedway, is a motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise laps of an oval circuit. Speedway motorcycles use only one gear and have no brakes and racing takes place on a flat oval track usually...

     club competing in the Polish league (second division).
  • LSKT - Lublin's taekwon-do sport club.

Notable residents

  • Jacek Bąk
    Jacek Bak
    Jacek Bąk is a retired Polish footballer. He had made 96 appearances for the Poland national football team.-Club career:He made his footballing debut with Motor Lublin aged just 16, before moving to Lech Poznań two years later....

     (Polish footballer, captain of Poland on World Cup 2006)
  • Katarzyna Dolinska (of America's Next Top Model, Cycle 10
    America's Next Top Model, Cycle 10
    America's Next Top Model, Cycle 10 was the tenth cycle of America's Next Top Model and the fourth season to be aired on The CW network...

    , came in 5th place, but successful post-show)
  • Albert Kitmacher (1920–2000) (Holocaust survivor)
  • Janusz Lewandowski
    Janusz Lewandowski
    Janusz Antoni Lewandowski is a Polish politician and economist belonging to the Gdansk liberals group, and a member of the Europea n Parliament , Chairman of the Committee on Budgets...

     (1951—), MEP
    Member of the European Parliament
    A Member of the European Parliament is a person who has been elected to the European Parliament. The name of MEPs differ in different languages, with terms such as europarliamentarian or eurodeputy being common in Romance language-speaking areas.When the European Parliament was first established,...

    , former minister of privatization; born in Lublin
  • Wincenty Pol
    Wincenty Pol
    Wincenty Pol was a Polish poet and geographer.-Life:Pol was born in Lublin , to Franz Pohl , a German in the Austrian service, and his wife Eleonora Longchamps de Berier, from a French family living in Poland. Pol fought in the Polish army in the November 1830 Uprising and participated in the 1848...

     (1807–72) poet and geographer
  • Stanisław Kostka Potocki (1755–1821)
  • Yitzhak Sadeh
    Yitzhak Sadeh
    Yitzhak Sadeh , was the commander of the Palmach, one of the founders of the Israel Defense Forces at the time of the establishment of the State of Israel and a cousin of British philosopher Isaiah Berlin.-Biography:...

     (born Isaac Landsberg; 1890-1952), a founder of the Israel Defense Forces
    Israel Defense Forces
    The Israel Defense Forces , commonly known in Israel by the Hebrew acronym Tzahal , are the military forces of the State of Israel. They consist of the ground forces, air force and navy. It is the sole military wing of the Israeli security forces, and has no civilian jurisdiction within Israel...

  • Henryk Wieniawski
    Henryk Wieniawski
    Henryk Wieniawski was a Polish violinist and composer.-Biography:Henryk Wieniawski was born in Lublin, Congress Poland, Russian Empire. His father, Tobiasz Pietruszka, had converted to Catholicism. His talent for playing the violin was recognized early, and in 1843 he entered the Paris...

     (1835–80), violin
    Violin
    The violin is a string instrument, usually with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. It is the smallest, highest-pitched member of the violin family of string instruments, which includes the viola and cello....

     virtuoso
    Virtuoso
    A virtuoso is an individual who possesses outstanding technical ability in the fine arts, at singing or playing a musical instrument. The plural form is either virtuosi or the Anglicisation, virtuosos, and the feminine form sometimes used is virtuosa...

    ; born in Lublin
  • Rabbi
    Rabbi
    In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah. This title derives from the Hebrew word רבי , meaning "My Master" , which is the way a student would address a master of Torah...

     Yaakov Yitzchak of Lublin
    Yaakov Yitzchak of Lublin
    Yaakov Yitzchak of Lublin, also Jacob Isaac of Lublin, or Y. Y. Horowitz , known as "The Chozeh of Lublin" , or simply as the "Chozeh", was a Hasidic rebbe from Poland....

     (1745–1815) - "The Seer of Lublin"
  • Wladyslaw Zmuda
    Wladyslaw Zmuda
    Władysław Antoni Żmuda is a former Polish footballer, who played as a defender for Śląsk Wrocław, Widzew Łódź, Hellas Verona, New York Cosmos and US Cremonese...

     (Polish footballer and four-time World Cup participant)

Lublin constituency

Members of Parliament (Sejm
Sejm
The Sejm is the lower house of the Polish parliament. The Sejm is made up of 460 deputies, or Poseł in Polish . It is elected by universal ballot and is presided over by a speaker called the Marshal of the Sejm ....

) elected from Lublin constituency:
  • Zyta Gilowska
    Zyta Gilowska
    Zyta Gilowska is a Polish economist and politician. From 7 January until 23 June 2006 she was Deputy Prime Minister of Poland and Finance Minister in the Law and Justice government under Kazimierz Marcinkiewicz and then Jaroslaw Kaczynski.Gilowska is a former vice-chairman of the Citizens...

    , PIS
  • Stanisław Głębocki, Samoobrona
  • Arkadiusz Kasznia, SLD
    Democratic Left Alliance
    Democratic Left Alliance is a social-democratic political party in Poland. Formed in 1991 as a coalition of centre-left parties, it was formally established as a single party on 15 April 1999. It is currently the third largest opposition party in Poland....

    -UP
    Labour Union (Poland)
    The Labour Union is a social-democratic political party in Poland. It is a member of the Party of European Socialists and Socialist International....

  • Elżbieta Kruk
    Elzbieta Kruk
    Elżbieta Kruk is a Polish politician, a member of Prawo i Sprawiedliwość . She was elected to Sejm on September 25, 2005.-External links:*...

    , PiS
  • Grzegorz Kurczuk
    Grzegorz Kurczuk
    Grzegorz Kurczuk is a Polish politician. He was elected to Sejm on September 25, 2005 getting 9683 votes in 6 Lublin district, candidating from Democratic Left Alliance list.He was also a member of Senate 1993-1997, Sejm 1997-2001, and Sejm 2001-2005....

    , SLD-UP
  • Robert Luśnia, LPR
  • Andrzej Mańka
    Andrzej Manka
    Andrzej Mańka is a Polish politician. He was elected to Sejm on September 25, 2005 getting 10646 votes in 6 Lublin district, candidating from Liga Polskich Rodzin list....

    , PiS
  • Gabriela Masłowska, LPR
  • Wiktor Osik, SLD-UP
  • Zdzisław Podkański, PSL
  • Tadeusz Polański, PSL
  • Izabella Sierakowska
    Izabella Sierakowska
    Izabella Antonina Sierakowska is a Polish politician and one of the leading and the most popular persons of the Polish left.She was born in Góra Śląska. Her parents, Krystyna and Zbigniew Kruszyńskis were a refugees from Vilnius. Zbigniew was a soldier, who fought in the Polish resistance during...

    , SLD-UP
  • Zygmunt Jerzy Szymański, SLD-UP
  • Leszek Świętochowski, PSL
  • Marian Widz, Samoobrona
  • Józef Żywiec, Samoobrona
  • Janusz Palikot
    Janusz Palikot
    Janusz Marian Palikot is a Polish politician, activist and businessman best known for waving around a pistol and a dildo at a press conference. Palikot studied philosophy and became wealthy as a businessman who dealt with crates and distilled beverages...

    , PO


Members of the European Parliament elected from the Lublin constituency:
  • Lena Kolarska-Bobinska
    Lena Kolarska-Bobinska
    Professor Lena Barbara Kolarska-Bobińska is a Member of the European Parliament from Poland representing the Lublin region from the Civic Platform Party list. She is a graduate of the Sociology Department of the University of Warsaw, as well as a post-doctoral fellow at Stanford University and...

    , PO


International relations

  • Lublin is a pilot city of the Council of Europe
    Council of Europe
    The Council of Europe is an international organisation promoting co-operation between all countries of Europe in the areas of legal standards, human rights, democratic development, the rule of law and cultural co-operation...

     and the EU Intercultural cities
    Intercultural cities
    The Intercultural City programme is a joint project of the Council of Europe and the European Commission. It aims at stimulating new ideas and practice in relation to the integration of migrants and minorities....

     programme.

Twin towns — Sister cities


Lublin is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with:
Alcalá de Henares
Alcalá de Henares
Alcalá de Henares , meaning Citadel on the river Henares, is a Spanish city, whose historical centre is one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites, and one of the first bishoprics founded in Spain...

, Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

 Brest
Brest, Belarus
Brest , formerly also Brest-on-the-Bug and Brest-Litovsk , is a city in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the city of Terespol, where the Bug River and Mukhavets rivers meet...

, Belarus
Belarus
Belarus , officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered clockwise by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Its capital is Minsk; other major cities include Brest, Grodno , Gomel ,...

 Debrecen
Debrecen
Debrecen , is the second largest city in Hungary after Budapest. Debrecen is the regional centre of the Northern Great Plain region and the seat of Hajdú-Bihar county.- Name :...

, Hungary
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

 Delmenhorst
Delmenhorst
Delmenhorst is an urban district in Lower Saxony, Germany. It has a population of 74,500 and is located 10 km/6 miles west of downtown Bremen with which it forms a contiguous urban area, whereas the city of Oldenburg is 25 km/15 miles to the northwest. The city has a total area of 62.36 km²...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 Erie
Erie, Pennsylvania
Erie is a city located in northwestern Pennsylvania in the United States. Named for the lake and the Native American tribe that resided along its southern shore, Erie is the state's fourth-largest city , with a population of 102,000...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 Ivano-Frankivsk
Ivano-Frankivsk
Ivano-Frankivsk is a historic city located in the western Ukraine. It is the administrative centre of the Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast , and is designated as its own separate raion within the oblast, municipality....

, Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

 Lancaster
Lancaster, Lancashire
Lancaster is the county town of Lancashire, England. It is situated on the River Lune and has a population of 45,952. Lancaster is a constituent settlement of the wider City of Lancaster, local government district which has a population of 133,914 and encompasses several outlying towns, including...

, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

Luhansk
Luhansk
Luhansk also known as Lugansk is a city in southeastern Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Luhansk Oblast . The city itself is also designated as its own separate municipality within the oblast...

, Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

 Lutsk
Lutsk
Lutsk is a city located by the Styr River in northwestern Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Volyn Oblast and the administrative center of the surrounding Lutskyi Raion within the oblast...

, Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

 L'viv
Lviv
Lviv is a city in western Ukraine. The city is regarded as one of the main cultural centres of today's Ukraine and historically has also been a major Polish and Jewish cultural center, as Poles and Jews were the two main ethnicities of the city until the outbreak of World War II and the following...

, Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

 Münster
Münster
Münster is an independent city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in the northern part of the state and is considered to be the cultural centre of the Westphalia region. It is also capital of the local government region Münsterland...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 Nancy, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 Nykøbing Falster
Nykøbing Falster
Nykøbing Falster is a southern Danish city, seat of the Guldborgsund kommune. It belongs to Region Sjælland. The city lies on Falster, connected by the 295-meter-long Frederick IX Bridge over the Guldborgsund waterway to the island of Lolland. The town has a population of 16,464...

, Denmark
Denmark
Denmark is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. The countries of Denmark and Greenland, as well as the Faroe Islands, constitute the Kingdom of Denmark . It is the southernmost of the Nordic countries, southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, and bordered to the south by Germany. Denmark...

 Panevėžys
Panevežys
Panevėžys see also other names, is the fifth largest city in Lithuania. As of 2008, it occupied 50 square kilometers with 113,653 inhabitants. The largest multifunctional arena in Panevėžys is the Cido Arena...

, Lithuania
Lithuania
Lithuania , officially the Republic of Lithuania is a country in Northern Europe, the biggest of the three Baltic states. It is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, whereby to the west lie Sweden and Denmark...

Pernik
Pernik
Pernik is a city in western Bulgaria with a population of 81,052 . It is the main city of Pernik Province and lies on both banks of the Struma River in the Pernik Valley between the Viskyar, Vitosha and Golo Bardo mountains.Originally the site of a Thracian fortress founded in the 4th century BC,...

, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

 Rishon LeZion, Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 Trabzon
Trabzon
Trabzon is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. Trabzon, located on the historical Silk Road, became a melting pot of religions, languages and culture for centuries and a trade gateway to Iran in the southeast and the Caucasus to the northeast...

, Turkey
Turkey
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...

 Starobilsk
Starobilsk
Starobilsk is a town near Luhansk in Ukraine. The settlement has been known since 1686. The city status was given in 1938. Population is 22,040 ....

, Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

 Tilburg
Tilburg
Tilburg is a landlocked municipality and a city in the Netherlands, located in the southern province of Noord-Brabant.Tilburg municipality also includes the villages of Berkel-Enschot and Udenhout....

, Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

 Viseu
Viseu
Viseu is both a city and a municipality in the Dão-Lafões Subregion of Centro Region, Portugal. The municipality, with an area of 507.1 km², has a population of 99,593 , and the city proper has 47,250...

, Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

 Windsor
Windsor, Ontario
Windsor is the southernmost city in Canada and is located in Southwestern Ontario at the western end of the heavily populated Quebec City – Windsor Corridor. It is within Essex County, Ontario, although administratively separated from the county government. Separated by the Detroit River, Windsor...

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...


See also

  • Lublin Department
    Lublin Department
    Lublin Department was a unit of administrative division and local government in Polish Duchy of Warsaw in years 1810-1815.Capital city: Lublin.Administrative division: 10 counties....

     (Polish: Departament Lubelski): a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland's Duchy of Warsaw
    Duchy of Warsaw
    The Duchy of Warsaw was a Polish state established by Napoleon I in 1807 from the Polish lands ceded by the Kingdom of Prussia under the terms of the Treaties of Tilsit. The duchy was held in personal union by one of Napoleon's allies, King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony...

    , 1806–1815
  • Intercultural cities
    Intercultural cities
    The Intercultural City programme is a joint project of the Council of Europe and the European Commission. It aims at stimulating new ideas and practice in relation to the integration of migrants and minorities....


External links


External files

City Council has produced information materials:
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