Colegio Nacional
The National College is a Mexican
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

 honorary academy
An academy is an institution of higher learning, research, or honorary membership.The name traces back to Plato's school of philosophy, founded approximately 385 BC at Akademia, a sanctuary of Athena, the goddess of wisdom and skill, north of Athens, Greece. In the western world academia is the...

 with a strictly limited membership created by presidential decree
President of Mexico
The President of the United Mexican States is the head of state and government of Mexico. Under the Constitution, the president is also the Supreme Commander of the Mexican armed forces...

 in 1943 in order to bring together the country's foremost artists and scientists, who are periodically invited to deliver lectures and seminars in their respective area of speciality. Membership is generally a lifelong commitment, although it could be forfeited under certain conditions. It should not be confused with El Colegio de México
El Colegio de México
El Colegio de México, A.C. is a prestigious Mexican institute of higher education, specializing in teaching and research in the social sciences and the humanities...

, a public institution of higher education and research.


The College was founded on 8 April 1943. with the purpose of promoting Mexican culture and scholarship in a number of different fields. Its motto is "Libertad por saber" (Freedom through knowing) and its emblem is a eagle taking off (symbolizing freedom of thought) above a flaming sun (representing wisdom).The College's foundation decree, signed by General Manuel Ávila Camacho
Manuel Ávila Camacho
Manuel Ávila Camacho served as the President of Mexico from 1940 to 1946.Manuel Ávila was born in the city of Teziutlán, a small town in Puebla, to middle-class parents, Manuel Ávila Castillo and Eufrosina Camacho Bello. He had several siblings, among them sister María Jovita Ávila Camacho and...

, limited membership to twenty Mexican-born citizens, who were supposed to deliver their lectures and or seminars in its official premises at Mexico City
Mexico City
Mexico City is the Federal District , capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Mexican Union. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole...

. A subsequent amendment signed by President Luis Echeverría
Luis Echeverría
Luis Echeverría Álvarez served as President of Mexico from 1970 to 1976.-Early history:Echeverría joined the faculty of the National Autonomous University of Mexico in 1947 and taught political theory...

 in 1971 increased the limit to forty and members were given the choice of delivering both their lectures or seminars in places other than the capital. Those aged 70 and over were released, at their discretion, from that obligation. Naturalized Mexicans could also been appointed, provided that at least ten years had passed since they acquired citizenship.

In 1995, President Ernesto Zedillo
Ernesto Zedillo
Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León is a Mexican economist and politician. He served as President of Mexico from December 1, 1994 to November 30, 2000, as the last of the uninterrupted seventy year line of Mexican presidents from the Institutional Revolutionary Party...

 amended the rules so that naturalized Mexicans could be admitted to the College irrespective of the date on which they acquired citizenship.


The property on which the Colegio sits used to belong to the Convent of La Enseñanza
La Enseñanza Church
La Enseñanza Church is located on 104 Donceles Street in the historic center of Mexico City. It has been argued that the Mexican Churrigueresque style of this church, especially that of its altarpieces, represents the pinnacle of the Baroque period in Mexico, as this style soon gave way to the...

. When the convent was closed in 1863, due to the Reform Laws
Reform War
The Reform War in Mexico is one of the episodes of the long struggle between Liberal and Conservative forces that dominated the country’s history in the 19th century. The Liberals wanted a federalist government, limiting traditional Catholic Church and military influence in the country...

, this site first became the Palace of Justice. Later, the property was split to house the General Notary Archives and the Colegio. The building took on its present appearance in 1871. During the presidency of Lazaro Cardenas
Lázaro Cárdenas
Lázaro Cárdenas del Río was President of Mexico from 1934 to 1940.-Early life:Lázaro Cárdenas was born on May 21, 1895 in a lower-middle class family in the village of Jiquilpan, Michoacán. He supported his family from age 16 after the death of his father...

, the building used by the Unified Socialist Youth Movement.

The main access to the building is on Luis Gonzalez Obregon between Rep. de Argentina and Rep. de Brazil Streets. This used to be the back entrance to the convent. The facade of the building has three levels and is covered in tezontle, a blood-red, porous, volcanic stone. The doors, windows and balconies are framed in chiluca, a greyish-white stone. The windows and balconies have ironwork railings and window guards.The main entrance leads to an entrance hall, which leads to a central patio. The ground floor of the patio is marked with pilaster
A pilaster is a slightly-projecting column built into or applied to the face of a wall. Most commonly flattened or rectangular in form, pilasters can also take a half-round form or the shape of any type of column, including tortile....

s while the upper level has columns. The most important room in this building is the assembly hall, where debates take place, new members are initiated and congresses in the College's various specialities are conducted.

The building houses a collection of nine gilded altarpieces that date from the end of the 17th century, with the largest of these dedicated to the Our Lady of the Pillar. Among the paintings on display are "The Assumption of Mary
Assumption of Mary
According to the belief of Christians of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, and parts of the Anglican Communion and Continuing Anglicanism, the Assumption of Mary was the bodily taking up of the Virgin Mary into Heaven at the end of her life...

" and "The Virgin of the Book of Revelation
Book of Revelation
The Book of Revelation is the final book of the New Testament. The title came into usage from the first word of the book in Koine Greek: apokalupsis, meaning "unveiling" or "revelation"...

 Apocalypse", both done by Andres Lopez in 1779.


The first date is the admission date to The National College; the second is the date of death or resignation/expulsion.


  • Alfonso Reyes
    Alfonso Reyes
    Alfonso Reyes Ochoa was a Mexican writer, philosopher and diplomat.-Early life:Alfonso Reyes parents were Bernardo Reyes and Aurelia Ochoa...

    , writer and diplomat
  • Diego Rivera
    Diego Rivera
    Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez was a prominent Mexican painter born in Guanajuato, Guanajuato, an active communist, and husband of Frida Kahlo . His large wall works in fresco helped establish the Mexican Mural Movement in...

    , painter and muralist
  • José Vasconcelos
    José Vasconcelos
    José Vasconcelos Calderón was a Mexican writer, philosopher and politician. He is one of the most influential and controversial personalities in the development of modern Mexico. His philosophy of "indigenismo" affected all aspects of Mexican sociocultural, political, and economic...

    , writer and philosopher
  • José Clemente Orozco
    José Clemente Orozco
    José Clemente Orozco was a Mexican social realist painter, who specialized in bold murals that established the Mexican Mural Renaissance together with murals by Diego Rivera, David Alfaro Siqueiros, and others...

    , painter and muralist
  • Enrique González Martínez
    Enrique González Martínez
    Enrique González Martínez was a Mexican poet, diplomat, surgeon and obstetrician. His poetry is considered to be primarily Modernist in nature, with elements of French symbolism....

    , poet and diplomat
  • Ezequiel A. Chávez,
  • Antonio Caso, philosopher
  • Ignacio Chávez
    Ignacio Chávez Sánchez
    Dr. Ignacio Chávez Sánchez was a prominent Mexican physician.-Education and professional career:...

    , cardiologist
  • Isaac Ochoterena
  • Manuel Uribe y Troncoso
    Manuel Uribe y Troncoso
    Manuel Uribe y Troncoso was a Mexican ophthalmologist. A joint founder of the Mexican Ophthalmology Society, he was a renowned expert on the physiology and diseases of the eye...

    , ophthalmologist
  • Carlos Chávez
    Carlos Chávez
    Carlos Antonio de Padua Chávez y Ramírez was a Mexican composer, conductor, music theorist, educator, journalist, and founder and director of the Mexican Symphonic Orchestra. He was influenced by native Mexican cultures. Of his six Symphonies, his Symphony No...

    , composer
  • Mariano Azuela
    Mariano Azuela
    Mariano Azuela González was a Mexican author and physician, best known for his fictional stories of the Mexican Revolution of 1910...

    , novelist of the Mexican Revolution
    Mexican Revolution
    The Mexican Revolution was a major armed struggle that started in 1910, with an uprising led by Francisco I. Madero against longtime autocrat Porfirio Díaz. The Revolution was characterized by several socialist, liberal, anarchist, populist, and agrarianist movements. Over time the Revolution...

  • Manuel Sandoval Vallarta, MIT cosmic ray
    Cosmic ray
    Cosmic rays are energetic charged subatomic particles, originating from outer space. They may produce secondary particles that penetrate the Earth's atmosphere and surface. The term ray is historical as cosmic rays were thought to be electromagnetic radiation...

     physicist, former mentor of Richard Feynman
    Richard Feynman
    Richard Phillips Feynman was an American physicist known for his work in the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics, the theory of quantum electrodynamics and the physics of the superfluidity of supercooled liquid helium, as well as in particle physics...

     and Julius Stratton.
  • Alfonso Caso
    Alfonso Caso
    Alfonso Caso y Andrade was an archaeologist who made important contributions to pre-Columbian studies in his native Mexico. Caso believed that the systematic study of ancient Mexican civilizations was an important way to understand Mexican cultural roots...

    , archaeologist
  • Ezequiel Ordóñez

Members admitted in the 20th century

  • Ignacio González Guzmán (22 November 1943; † 2 December 1946) Haemotology and cytology
  • Manuel Toussaint (21 January 1946; † 2 December 1946) Art history and criticism
  • Silvio Zavala
    Silvio Zavala
    Silvio Arturo Zavala Vallado is a pioneer in law history studies and Mexico’s institutions. Born in Mérida, Yucatán, he studied at the National University of Mexico and at the University of Madrid, obtaining a Ph.D. in law from the latter...

     (6 January 1947) History
  • Arturo Rosenblueth
    Arturo Rosenblueth
    Arturo Rosenblueth Stearns was a Mexican researcher, physician and physiologist, who is known as one of the pioneers of cybernetics.- Biography:...

     (6 October 1947; † 20 September 1970) Physiology
  • Antonio Castro Leal
    Antonio Castro Leal
    Antonio Castro Leal was a Mexican diplomat and intellectual.-Biography:Antonio Castro Leal was born on March 2, 1896 in San Luis Potosí. He received his licenciate and doctor of law degrees from the National Autonomous University of Mexico and his PhD from Georgetown University in Washington, D.C...

     (9 August 1948; † 7 January 1981) Humanities
  • Jesús Silva Herzog
    Jesús Silva Herzog
    Jesús Silva Herzog Flores is a Mexican economist and politician affiliated to the Institutional Revolutionary Party...

     (16 November 1948; † 13 March 1985) Economics
  • Gerardo Murillo "Dr. Atl"
    Dr. Atl
    Gerardo Murillo was a Mexican painter and writer who signed his works "Dr. Atl". He was born in Guadalajara, Jalisco, where he began the study of painting at an early age, under Felipe Castro...

     (6 November 1950; resigned 7 May 1951) Painting
  • Daniel Cosío Villegas
    Daniel Cosío Villegas
    Daniel Cosío Villegas was a prominent Mexican economist, essayist, historian and diplomat.Cosío Villegas was born in Mexico City. After studying one year in engineering and two years of philosophy, he received a B.A. in Law from the National University and took several courses in economics at...

     (2 April 1951; † 10 March 1976) History
  • Samuel Ramos
    Samuel Ramos
    Dr. Samuel Ramos was a Mexican philosopher and writer.Ramos was born in Zitácuaro, Michoacán, and in 1909 entered the Colegio de San Nicolás in Hidalgo. He published his first works in the school's student publication Flor de Loto...

     (8 July 1952; † 20 June 1959) Philosophy
  • Agustín Yáñez
    Agustín Yáñez
    Agustín Yáñez Delgadillo was a notable Mexican writer and politician who served as Governor of Jalisco and Secretary of Public Education during Gustavo Díaz Ordaz's presidency...

     (8 July 1952; † 17 January 1980) Literature
  • Guillermo Haro
    Guillermo Haro
    Professor Guillermo Haro was born in Mexico City where he grew during the time of the Mexican Revolution. He studied philosophy at the National Autonomous University of Mexico...

     (6 July 1953; † 27 April 1988) Astronomy
  • Jaime Torres Bodet
    Jaime Torres Bodet
    Jaime Torres Bodet was a prominent Mexican politician and writer who served in the executive cabinet of three Presidents of Mexico....

     (6 July 1953; † 15 May 1974) Poetry and literary criticism
  • Manuel Martínez Báez (7 March 1955; † 19 January 1987) Preventive medicine
  • Eduardo García Máynez
    Eduardo García Máynez
    Eduardo García Máynez was a Mexican jurist....

     (4 November 1957; † 2 September 1993) Philosophy of law
  • José Ádem
    José Ádem
    José Ádem Chaín was a Mexican mathematician who worked inalgebraic topology, and proved the Ádem relations between Steenrod squares....

     (4 April 1960; † 14 February 1991) Mathematics
  • José Villagrán García
    José Villagrán García
    José Villagrán García was a Mexican architect. His is known for having developed several theories of modern architecture, and designing the master plan for the National Autonomous University of Mexico...

     (4 April 1960; † 10 June 1982) Architecture
  • Antonio Gómez Robledo (7 October 1960; † 3 October 1994) Law and philosophy
  • Victor L. Urquidi (18 October 1960; resigned 1 January 1968) Economics
  • Octavio Paz
    Octavio Paz
    Octavio Paz Lozano was a Mexican writer, poet, and diplomat, and the winner of the 1990 Nobel Prize for Literature.-Early life and writings:...

     (1 August 1967; † 19 April 1998) Poetry and literature, recipient of the 1995 Nobel Prize in Literature.
  • Miguel León-Portilla
    Miguel León-Portilla
    Miguel León-Portilla is a Mexican anthropologist and historian, and a prime authority on Nahuatl thought and literature.He wrote a doctoral thesis on Nahua philosophy under the tutelage of Fr...

     (23 March 1971) Ancient Mexican history
  • Ignacio Bernal
    Ignacio Bernal
    Ignacio Bernal was an eminent Mexican anthropologist and archaeologist.Bernal excavated much of Monte Albán, originally starting as a student of Alfonso Caso, and later led major archeological projects at Teotihuacan. In 1965 he excavated Dainzú...

     (4 April 1972; † 24 January 1992) Anthropology
  • Rubén Bonifaz Nuño
    Rubén Bonifaz Nuño
    Rubén Bonifaz Nuño is a Mexican poet and classical scholar.Born in Córdoba, Veracruz, he studied law at the National Autonomous University of Mexico from 1934 to 1947. In 1960, he began lecturing in Latin at the UNAM's Faculty of Philosophy and Literature and received a doctorate in Classics in...

     (4 April 1972) Poetry and literature
  • Antonio Carrillo Flores
    Antonio Carrillo Flores
    Antonio Carrillo Flores was a Mexican statesman, born in Mexico City. He was the second son of composer Julián Carrillo Trujillo....

     (4 April 1972; † 20 March 1987) Law
  • Ramón de la Fuente
    Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz
    Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz was a Mexican psychiatrist who chaired the National Academy of Medicine of Mexico , served as vice-president of World Psychiatric Association and founded the Mexican Institute of Psychiatry in 1979.De la Fuente graduated with a degree in Medicine from the National...

     (4 April 1972; † 31 March 2006) Psychiatrist; chaired the National Academy of Medicine, served as vice-president of World Psychiatric Association
    World Psychiatric Association
    The World Psychiatric Association is an international umbrella organisation of psychiatric societies.-Objectives and goals:Originally created to produce world psychiatric congresses, it has evolved to hold regional meetings, to promote professional education and to set ethical, scientific and...

     and founded the Mexican Institute of Psychiatry.
  • Carlos Fuentes
    Carlos Fuentes
    Carlos Fuentes Macías is a Mexican writer and one of the best-known living novelists and essayists in the Spanish-speaking world. He has influenced contemporary Latin American literature, and his works have been widely translated into English and other languages.-Biography:Fuentes was born in...

     (4 April 1972) Novels and literature
  • Alfonso García Robles
    Alfonso García Robles
    Alfonso García Robles was a Mexican diplomat and politician who, in conjunction with Sweden's Alva Myrdal, received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1982....

     (4 April 1972; † 2 September 1991) International law
  • Marcos Moshinsky
    Marcos Moshinsky
    Marcos Moshinsky was a Mexican physicist of Ukrainian origin whose work in the field of elementary particles won him the Prince of Asturias Prize for Scientific and Technical Investigation in 1988 and the UNESCO Science Prize in 1997....

     (4 April 1972) Theoretical physicist; winner of the UNESCO Science Prize
    UNESCO Science Prize
    The UNESCO Science Prize is a biennial scientific prize awarded by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization to "a person or group of persons for an outstanding contribution they have made to the technological development of a developing member state or region through...

  • Jesús Romo Armeria (4 April 1972; † 14 May 1977) Applied chemistry
  • Emilio Rosenblueth (4 April 1972; † 11 January 1994) Seismic engineering
  • Fernando Salmerón (4 April 1972) Philosophy
  • Ramón Xirau
    Ramón Xirau
    Ramon Xirau Subias is a Mexican poet, philosopher and literary critic. In 1939, shortly after the outbreak of the Spanish civil war, he emigrated to Mexico where he obtained Mexican citizenship in 1955...

     (1 October 1973) Philosophy
  • Julián Ádem (23 October 1974) Geophysics
  • Carlos Casas Campillo (23 October 1974; † 6 October 1994) Microbiology
  • Héctor Fix-Zamudio
    Héctor Fix-Zamudio
    Héctor Fix-Zamudio is a Mexican jurist.-Professional career:Fix-Zamudio studied law at the National Autonomous University of Mexico , earning his bachelor's degree in 1956 and his doctorate in 1972...

     (23 October 1974) Legal procedure and comparative law
  • Jesús Kumate (23 October 1974) Immunology
  • Jaime García Terrés (23 October 1974; † 29 April 1996) Poetry and literature
  • Bernardo Sepúlveda Gutiérrez (24 October 1975; † 17 March 1985) Gastroenterology
  • Leopoldo Solís (13 October 1976) Economics
  • Leopoldo García-Colín
    Leopoldo García-Colín
    Leopoldo García-Colín Scherer is a Mexican scientist specialized in Thermodynamics who has been recognized with the National Prize for Arts and Sciences of Mexico ....

     (12 September 1977) Physicist; winner of the 1988 National Prize for Arts and Sciences and former chair of the Mexican Society of Physics (1972-1973).
  • Luis González y González (8 November 1978) History of Mexico
  • Luis Villoro (14 November 1978) Philosophy
  • Ruy Pérez Tamayo (27 November 1980) Pathology
  • Salvador Elizondo
    Salvador Elizondo
    Salvador Elizondo Alcalde was a Mexican writer of the 60s Generation of Mexican literature.Regarded as one of the creators of the most influential cult noirè, experimental, intelligent style literature in Latin America, he wrote as a novelist, poet, critic, playwright, and journalist...

     (28 April 1981; † 29 March 2006) Literature and literary criticism
  • Antonio Alatorre
    Antonio Alatorre
    Antonio Alatorre Chávez was a Mexican writer, philologist and translator, famous due to his influential academic essays about Spanish literature, and because of his book Los 1001 años de la lengua española -Early years:Antonio Alatorre was born in Autlán de la Grana, Jalisco...

     (26 June 1981) Philology
  • Guillermo Soberón Acevedo (5 November 1981) Biochemistry and higher education
  • Gustavo Cabrera (19 November 1981) demographer; winner of the 1981 National Prize for Demography.
  • Marcos Mazari Menzer (11 November 1982) Nuclear physics
  • Eduardo Mata
    Eduardo Mata
    Eduardo Mata was a Mexican conductor and composer.Mata was born in Mexico City. He studied guitar privately for three years before enrolling in the National Conservatory of Music. From 1960 to 1963 he studied composition under Carlos Chávez, Héctor Quintanar and Julián Orbón. In 1964 he received a...

     (9 August 1984; † 4 January 1995) Music
  • Gabriel Zaid
    Gabriel Zaid
    Gabriel Zaid is a Mexican writer, poet and intellectual.He was born in the city of Monterrey, Nuevo León, in 1934. He studied Engineering at the Tecnológico de Monterrey....

     (26 September 1984) Poetry and literature
  • Beatriz de la Fuente (7 May 1985) Art history
  • Adolfo Martínez Palomo (6 June 1985) Pathology and cellular biology
  • José Emilio Pacheco
    José Emilio Pacheco
    José Emilio Pacheco Berny is a Mexican essayist, novelist and short story writer. He is regarded as one of the major Mexican poets of the second half of the 20th century....

     (9 October 1986) Novels and literature
  • Samuel Gitler (9 October 1986) Mathematics
  • José Sarukhán Kérmez (26 June 1987) Biology
  • Arcadio Poveda Ricalde (1 March 1989) Astronomy
  • Teodoro González de León
    Teodoro González de León
    Teodoro González de León is a Mexican architect.- Biography :Gonzales de León studied at the Escuela Nacional de Arquitectura of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México from 1942 to 1947. Thanks to a scholarship by the French government, he worked in France for 18 months with Le Corbusier,...

     (28 October 1989) Architecture
  • Rufino Tamayo
    Rufino Tamayo
    Rufino Tamayo was a Mexican painter of Zapotec heritage, born in Oaxaca de Juárez, Mexico. Tamayo was active in the mid-20th century in Mexico and New York, painting figurative abstraction with surrealist influences....

     (21 May 1991; † 24 June 1991) Painting
  • Pablo Rudomín
    Pablo Rudomin
    Pablo Rudomin Zevnovaty, PhD is a Mexican neuroscientist.Born to Russian parents he is a graduate of the biology program of the National School of Biological Sciences of the National Polytechnic Institute . He has been the director of the program of bioph neuroscience at the CINVESTAV of the IPN...

      (25 February 1993) Physiology
  • Manuel Peimbert (24 May 1993) Astronomy
  • Eduardo Matos Moctezuma
    Eduardo Matos Moctezuma
    Eduardo Matos Moctezuma   is a prominent Mexican archaeologist. Since 1978 he has directed excavations at the Templo Mayor, the remains of a major Aztec pyramid in central Mexico City....

     (24 June 1993) Archaeology
  • Donato Alarcón Segovia (9 November 1994) Medicine
  • Vicente Rojo (16 November 1994) artist; recipient of the National Prize for Arts and Sciences.
  • Francisco Bolívar Zapata
    Francisco Bolívar Zapata
    Francisco Gonzalo Bolívar Zapata is a Mexican biochemist and professor.After getting his PhD in biochemistry by the National Autonomous University of Mexico , he joined the Research Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in the same university, undertaking studies on Molecular Biology and...

     (8 December 1994) Biotechnology
  • Octavio Novaro
    Octavio Novaro
    Octavio Augusto Novaro Peñalosa is a prominent theoretical physicist specialized in theoretical catalysis, physical chemistry, biophysics and geophysics. He received the National Prize for Arts and Sciences in 1983 and became the first Mexican researcher to receive the UNESCO Science Prize...

     (27 October 1995) theoretical physicist; winner of the 1993 UNESCO Science Prize
    UNESCO Science Prize
    The UNESCO Science Prize is a biennial scientific prize awarded by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization to "a person or group of persons for an outstanding contribution they have made to the technological development of a developing member state or region through...

  • Fernando del Paso
    Fernando del Paso
    Fernando del Paso Morante is a Mexican novelist, essayist and poet.Del Paso was born in Mexico City and took two years in economics at the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México...

     (12 February 1996) Literature
  • Alejandro Rossi
    Alejandro Rossi
    Alejandro Rossi was a Mexican writer....

     (22 February 1996) Philosophy
  • Mario Lavista
    Mario Lavista
    Mario Lavista is a Mexican composer and writer. He has had numerous pieces published, especially chamber music, but also incidental music for plays, film scores, orchestral pieces, and vocal music....

     (14 October 1998) Music
  • Luis Felipe Rodríguez Jorge (24 February 2000), radioastronomer, discoverer of double-sided radio jets from the galactic sources 1E1740.7-2942 and GRS 1758-258 and superluminal motion of radio knots in the galactic source GRS 1915+105. Winner of the 1996 Bruno Rossi Prize
    Bruno Rossi Prize
    The Bruno Rossi Prize is awarded annually by the High Energy Astrophysics division of the American Astronomical Society "for a significant contribution to High Energy Astrophysics, with particular emphasis on recent, original work". Named after astrophysicist Bruno Rossi, the prize is awarded with...

     of the American Astronomical Society
    American Astronomical Society
    The American Astronomical Society is an American society of professional astronomers and other interested individuals, headquartered in Washington, DC...

     and the Mexican National Prize of Science.

Members admitted in the 21st century

  • Mario J. Molina
    Mario J. Molina
    Mario José Molina-Pasquel Henríquez is a Mexican chemist and one of the most prominent precursors to the discovering of the Antarctic ozone hole. He was a co-recipient Mario José Molina-Pasquel Henríquez (born March 19, 1943 in Mexico City) is a Mexican chemist and one of the most prominent...

     (24 April 2003), co-recipient of the 1995 Nobel Prize in Chemistry
    Nobel Prize in Chemistry
    The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences to scientists in the various fields of chemistry. It is one of the five Nobel Prizes established by the will of Alfred Nobel in 1895, awarded for outstanding contributions in chemistry, physics, literature,...

     for elucidating the threat to the Earth's ozone layer
    Ozone layer
    The ozone layer is a layer in Earth's atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone . This layer absorbs 97–99% of the Sun's high frequency ultraviolet light, which is potentially damaging to the life forms on Earth...

     by chlorofluorocarbon
    A chlorofluorocarbon is an organic compound that contains carbon, chlorine, and fluorine, produced as a volatile derivative of methane and ethane. A common subclass are the hydrochlorofluorocarbons , which contain hydrogen, as well. They are also commonly known by the DuPont trade name Freon...

     gases (CFCs).
  • Enrique Krauze
    Enrique Krauze
    Enrique Krauze Kleinbort is a Mexican historian, essayist and publisher. He is president of the publisher Editorial Clío and director of the cultural magazine ....

     (27 April 2005), historian and cultural promoter, member of the board of Instituto Cervantes
    Instituto Cervantes
    The Cervantes Institute is a worldwide non-profit organization created by the Spanish government in 1991. It is named after Miguel de Cervantes , the author of Don Quixote and perhaps the most important figure in the history of Spanish literature...

     and the Mexican Academy of History.
  • Eusebio Juaristi (13 February 2006), researcher on Physical chemistry, winner of the 1998 National Prize of Arts and Sciences.
  • María Elena Medina-Mora Icaza (6 April 2006), researcher at the National Institute of Psychiatry, winner of the 1986 Gerardo Varela National Prize of Public Health.
  • Diego Valadés (13 February 2007), former Attorney General
    Attorney General (Mexico)
    The Attorney General of Mexico is the head of the Office of the General Prosecutor and the Federal Public Ministry , an institution belonging to the Federal executive branch that is responsible for the investigation and prosecution of...

     and researcher at the National Autonomous University of Mexico
    National Autonomous University of Mexico
    The Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México is a university in Mexico. UNAM was founded on 22 September 1910 by Justo Sierra as a liberal alternative to the Roman Catholic-sponsored Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico The Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) (National Autonomous...

  • Luis Fernando Lara (5 March 2007), linguist, member of UNESCO
    The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations...

    's Permanent International Committee of Linguists.
  • Linda Rosa Manzanilla (9 April 2007), archaeologist specialized in domestic archaeology in early urban developments, first Mexican woman ever admitted to the United States National Academy of Sciences
    United States National Academy of Sciences
    The National Academy of Sciences is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as "advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine." As a national academy, new members of the organization are elected annually by current members, based on their distinguished and...


External links

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