Carlos Fuentes
Overview
 
Carlos Fuentes Macías is a Mexican writer and one of the best-known living novelists and essayists in the Spanish-speaking world. He has influenced contemporary Latin American literature
Latin American literature
Latin American literature consists of the oral and written literature of Latin America in several languages, particularly in Spanish, Portuguese, and indigenous languages of the Americas. It rose to particular prominence globally during the second half of the 20th century, largely due to the...

, and his works have been widely translated into English and other languages.
Fuentes was born in Panama City
Panama City
Panama is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Panama. It has a population of 880,691, with a total metro population of 1,272,672, and it is located at the Pacific entrance of the Panama Canal, in the province of the same name. The city is the political and administrative center of the...

 to Mexican parents. His father was a diplomat, and Carlos spent his childhood in various capital cities in America: Montevideo
Montevideo
Montevideo is the largest city, the capital, and the chief port of Uruguay. The settlement was established in 1726 by Bruno Mauricio de Zabala, as a strategic move amidst a Spanish-Portuguese dispute over the platine region, and as a counter to the Portuguese colony at Colonia del Sacramento...

, Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro , commonly referred to simply as Rio, is the capital city of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the third largest metropolitan area and agglomeration in South America, boasting approximately 6.3 million people within the city proper, making it the 6th...

, Washington
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

, Santiago
Santiago, Chile
Santiago , also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital and largest city of Chile, and the center of its largest conurbation . It is located in the country's central valley, at an elevation of above mean sea level...

, Quito
Quito
San Francisco de Quito, most often called Quito , is the capital city of Ecuador in northwestern South America. It is located in north-central Ecuador in the Guayllabamba river basin, on the eastern slopes of Pichincha, an active stratovolcano in the Andes mountains...

, and Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina, and the second-largest metropolitan area in South America, after São Paulo. It is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of the South American continent...

.
Encyclopedia
Carlos Fuentes Macías is a Mexican writer and one of the best-known living novelists and essayists in the Spanish-speaking world. He has influenced contemporary Latin American literature
Latin American literature
Latin American literature consists of the oral and written literature of Latin America in several languages, particularly in Spanish, Portuguese, and indigenous languages of the Americas. It rose to particular prominence globally during the second half of the 20th century, largely due to the...

, and his works have been widely translated into English and other languages.

Biography

Fuentes was born in Panama City
Panama City
Panama is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Panama. It has a population of 880,691, with a total metro population of 1,272,672, and it is located at the Pacific entrance of the Panama Canal, in the province of the same name. The city is the political and administrative center of the...

 to Mexican parents. His father was a diplomat, and Carlos spent his childhood in various capital cities in America: Montevideo
Montevideo
Montevideo is the largest city, the capital, and the chief port of Uruguay. The settlement was established in 1726 by Bruno Mauricio de Zabala, as a strategic move amidst a Spanish-Portuguese dispute over the platine region, and as a counter to the Portuguese colony at Colonia del Sacramento...

, Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro , commonly referred to simply as Rio, is the capital city of the State of Rio de Janeiro, the second largest city of Brazil, and the third largest metropolitan area and agglomeration in South America, boasting approximately 6.3 million people within the city proper, making it the 6th...

, Washington
Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, "the District", or simply D.C., is the capital of the United States. On July 16, 1790, the United States Congress approved the creation of a permanent national capital as permitted by the U.S. Constitution....

, Santiago
Santiago, Chile
Santiago , also known as Santiago de Chile, is the capital and largest city of Chile, and the center of its largest conurbation . It is located in the country's central valley, at an elevation of above mean sea level...

, Quito
Quito
San Francisco de Quito, most often called Quito , is the capital city of Ecuador in northwestern South America. It is located in north-central Ecuador in the Guayllabamba river basin, on the eastern slopes of Pichincha, an active stratovolcano in the Andes mountains...

, and Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina, and the second-largest metropolitan area in South America, after São Paulo. It is located on the western shore of the estuary of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern coast of the South American continent...

. As an adolescent he returned to Mexico, where he lived until 1965. He was married to film star Rita Macedo from 1959 until 1973, although he was an habitual philanderer and allegedly, his affairs — which he has claimed included film actresses such as Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau
Jeanne Moreau is a French actress, singer, screenwriter and director.She made her theatrical debut in 1947, and established herself as one of the leading actresses of the Comédie-Française...

 and Jean Seberg
Jean Seberg
Jean Dorothy Seberg was an American actress. She starred in 37 films in Hollywood and in France, including Breathless , the musical Paint Your Wagon and the disaster film Airport ....

 — brought her to despair. The couple ended their relationship amid scandal and Fuentes then married journalist and interviewer Silvia Lemus
Silvia Lemus
Her Excellency Doña Silvia Lemus de Fuentes is a journalist and host of the interview television programme Tratos y Retratos. She is married to Carlos Fuentes...

. Following in the footsteps of his parents, he became a diplomat in 1965 and served in London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

, Paris
Paris
Paris is the capital and largest city in France, situated on the river Seine, in northern France, at the heart of the Île-de-France region...

 (as ambassador), and other capitals. In 1978 he resigned as ambassador to France in protest over the appointment of Gustavo Diaz Ordaz
Gustavo Díaz Ordaz
Gustavo Díaz Ordaz Bolaños served as the President of Mexico from 1964 to 1970.- Political career :Díaz Ordaz was born in San Andrés Chalchícomula . His father, Ramón Díaz Ordaz Redonet, worked as an accountant, while his mother, Sabina Bolaños Cacho de Díaz Ordaz, worked as a school teacher...

, former president of Mexico, as ambassador to Spain. He has also taught courses at Brown
Brown University
Brown University is a private, Ivy League university located in Providence, Rhode Island, United States. Founded in 1764 prior to American independence from the British Empire as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations early in the reign of King George III ,...

, Princeton
Princeton University
Princeton University is a private research university located in Princeton, New Jersey, United States. The school is one of the eight universities of the Ivy League, and is one of the nine Colonial Colleges founded before the American Revolution....

, Harvard
Harvard University
Harvard University is a private Ivy League university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, established in 1636 by the Massachusetts legislature. Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and the first corporation chartered in the country...

, the University of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private, Ivy League university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Penn is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States,Penn is the fourth-oldest using the founding dates claimed by each institution...

, Columbia
Columbia University
Columbia University in the City of New York is a private, Ivy League university in Manhattan, New York City. Columbia is the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York, the fifth oldest in the United States, and one of the country's nine Colonial Colleges founded before the...

, Cambridge
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a public research university located in Cambridge, United Kingdom. It is the second-oldest university in both the United Kingdom and the English-speaking world , and the seventh-oldest globally...

, and George Mason University
George Mason University
George Mason University is a public university based in unincorporated Fairfax County, Virginia, United States, south of and adjacent to the city of Fairfax. Additional campuses are located nearby in Arlington County, Prince William County, and Loudoun County...

. He is currently teaching at Brown University
Brown University
Brown University is a private, Ivy League university located in Providence, Rhode Island, United States. Founded in 1764 prior to American independence from the British Empire as the College in the English Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations early in the reign of King George III ,...

. He was also a friend of the U.S. sociologist C. Wright Mills
C. Wright Mills
Charles Wright Mills was an American sociologist. Mills is best remembered for his 1959 book The Sociological Imagination in which he lays out a view of the proper relationship between biography and history, theory and method in sociological scholarship...

, to whom he dedicated his book The Death of Artemio Cruz
The Death of Artemio Cruz
The Death of Artemio Cruz is a novel written in 1962 by Mexican writer Carlos Fuentes and is considered to be a contributor to the Latin American literary movement known as the Latin American "Boom".-Plot summary:...

.

Fuentes has fathered three children. Only one of them survived: Cecilia Fuentes Macedo, born in 1962, now working in television production. A son, Carlos Fuentes Lemus, died from complications associated with hemophilia in 1999 at the age of 25. A daughter, Natasha Fuentes Lemus (born 31 August 1974), died of an apparent drug overdose in Mexico City 22 August 2005, at the age of 30.

Carlos Fuentes received the Four Freedoms Award for Freedom of Speech and Expression in 2006, in Middelburg, the Netherlands. www.fourfreedoms.nl

Works

When he was 30 years old Fuentes published his first novel, La región más transparente, which became a classic contemporary novel. It was innovative not only for its prose, but also by having a metropolis, Mexico City
Mexico City
Mexico City is the Federal District , capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the Mexican Union. It is a federal entity within Mexico which is not part of any one of the 31 Mexican states but belongs to the federation as a whole...

, as its main setting. This novel provides insight into Mexican culture, which is made up of a mixture with the Spanish, the indigenous and the mestizo
Mestizo
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Latin America, Philippines and Spain for people of mixed European and Native American heritage or descent...

, all cohabiting in the same geographical area but with different cultures.

The author describes himself as a pre-modern writer, using only pens, ink and paper. He asks, "Do words need anything else?" Fuentes mentioned that he detests those authors who from the beginning claim to have a recipe for success. In a speech on his writing process he mentioned that when he starts the writing process he begins by asking, "Who am I writing for?"

He published Las Buenas Conciencias in 1959. This is probably his most accessible novel depicting the privileged middle classes of a medium-sized town, probably modelled on Guanajuato.

His 1960s novels, Aura
Aura (Fuentes)
Aura is a novel by Carlos Fuentes, first published in 1962 in Mexico. The first English translation by Lysander Kemp, was published in 1965 by Farrar, Straus and Giroux.-Plot:...

(1962) and La muerte de Artemio Cruz
The Death of Artemio Cruz
The Death of Artemio Cruz is a novel written in 1962 by Mexican writer Carlos Fuentes and is considered to be a contributor to the Latin American literary movement known as the Latin American "Boom".-Plot summary:...

(1962) are acclaimed for using experimental modern narrative styles (including the second person
Second-person narrative
The second-person narrative is a narrative mode in which the protagonist or another main character is referred to by employment of second-person personal pronouns and other kinds of addressing forms, for example the English second-person pronoun "you"....

 form) to discuss history, society and identity.

In 1967, during a meeting with Alejo Carpentier
Alejo Carpentier
Alejo Carpentier y Valmont was a Cuban novelist, essayist, and musicologist who greatly influenced Latin American literature during its famous "boom" period. Born in Lausanne, Switzerland, Carpentier grew up in Havana, Cuba; and despite his European birthplace, Carpentier strongly self-identified...

, Julio Cortázar
Julio Cortázar
Julio Cortázar, born Jules Florencio Cortázar, was an Argentine writer. Cortázar, known as one of the founders of the Latin American Boom, influenced an entire generation of Spanish speaking readers and writers in the Americas and Europe.-Early life:Cortázar's parents, Julio José Cortázar and...

 and Miguel Otero Silva
Miguel Otero Silva
Miguel Otero Silva , was a Venezuelan writer, journalist, humorist and politician. Remaining a figure of great reference in Venezuelan literature, his literary and journalistic works were strictly related to the social and political history of Venezuela.-Life:Born in Barcelona, Anzoátegui State,...

, Carlos Fuentes launched the project of a series of biographies
Biography
A biography is a detailed description or account of someone's life. More than a list of basic facts , biography also portrays the subject's experience of those events...

 depicting Latin American caudillos, which would be called Los Padres de la Patria. Although the project was never completed, it provided the base for Alejo Carpentier's Reasons of State (El recurso del método, 1974) and various other Dictator Novels (novelas del dictador).

1975's Terra Nostra
Terra Nostra (novel)
Terra Nostra is a 1975 novel by the Mexican writer Carlos Fuentes. The narrative covers 20 centuries of European and American culture, and prominently features the construction of El Escorial by Philip II. The title is Latin for "Our earth"...

won the Venezuelan Rómulo Gallegos Prize
Rómulo Gallegos Prize
The Rómulo Gallegos International Novel Prize was created on 6 August 1964 by a presidential decree enacted by Venezuelan President Raúl Leoni, in honor of the Venezuelan politician and President Rómulo Gallegos, the author of Doña Bárbara....

.

His 1985 novel Gringo viejo, the first United States bestseller written by a Mexican author, was filmed as Old Gringo
Old Gringo
Old Gringo is a 1989 film directed by Luis Puenzo and co-written with Aída Bortnik, based on the novel Gringo Viejo by Mexican novelist Carlos Fuentes.The film stars Jane Fonda, Gregory Peck, and Jimmy Smits....

(1989) starring Gregory Peck
Gregory Peck
Eldred Gregory Peck was an American actor.One of 20th Century Fox's most popular film stars from the 1940s to the 1960s, Peck continued to play important roles well into the 1980s. His notable performances include that of Atticus Finch in the 1962 film To Kill a Mockingbird, for which he won an...

 and Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda
Jane Fonda is an American actress, writer, political activist, former fashion model, and fitness guru. She rose to fame in the 1960s with films such as Barbarella and Cat Ballou. She has won two Academy Awards and received several other movie awards and nominations during more than 50 years as an...

.

In 1994, he published Diana, The Goddess Who Hunts Alone, a fictionalized account of his alleged affair with Jean Seberg
Jean Seberg
Jean Dorothy Seberg was an American actress. She starred in 37 films in Hollywood and in France, including Breathless , the musical Paint Your Wagon and the disaster film Airport ....

. However, his account has been questioned several times.

Fuentes regularly contributes essays on politics and culture to the Spanish newspaper El País and the Mexican Reforma
Reforma
Reforma is a Mexican newspaper based in Mexico City. It has 276,700 readers in Mexico City. The paper shares content with other papers in parent newsgroup Grupo Reforma. The cumulative readership of the newsgroup is above 400,000...

. He is a observer of Mexico-U.S. relations and critic of the United States' policies in Latin America. He also wrote Las Dos Elenas.

Novels

  • La Región Más Transparente (Where the Air Is Clear) (1958) ISBN 978-9705800146
  • Las Buenas Conciencias (The Good Conscience) (1961) ISBN 978-9707100046
  • Aura
    Aura (Fuentes)
    Aura is a novel by Carlos Fuentes, first published in 1962 in Mexico. The first English translation by Lysander Kemp, was published in 1965 by Farrar, Straus and Giroux.-Plot:...

    (1961) ISBN 978-9684111813
  • The Death of Artemio Cruz
    The Death of Artemio Cruz
    The Death of Artemio Cruz is a novel written in 1962 by Mexican writer Carlos Fuentes and is considered to be a contributor to the Latin American literary movement known as the Latin American "Boom".-Plot summary:...

    (1962) ISBN 978-0374522834
  • Cambio de piel (A Change of Skin) (1967)
  • Zona sagrada (Holy Place) (1967)
  • Cumpleaños (Birthday) (1969)
  • Terra Nostra
    Terra Nostra (novel)
    Terra Nostra is a 1975 novel by the Mexican writer Carlos Fuentes. The narrative covers 20 centuries of European and American culture, and prominently features the construction of El Escorial by Philip II. The title is Latin for "Our earth"...

    (1975)
  • La cabeza de la hidra (The Hydra Head) (1978)
  • Agua quemada (Burnt Water) (1980)
  • Una familia lejana (Distant Relations) (1980)
  • Orquídeas a la luz de la luna (1982)
  • Gringo viejo (The Old Gringo) (1985)
  • Cristóbal Nonato (Christopher Unborn) (1987)
  • Ceremonias del alba (1991)
  • The Campaign (1992)
  • El naranjo (The Orange Tree) (1994)
  • Diana o la cazadora solitaria (Diana: the Goddess Who Hunts Alone) (1995)
  • La frontera de cristal (The Crystal Frontier
    The Crystal Frontier
    The Crystal Frontier is a 1995 novel written by Mexican writer Carlos Fuentes. The title can also be translated as "The glass border".-Plot:A series of stories which explores relationships between people of Mexico and the United States...

    : A Novel of Nine Stories
    ) (1996)
  • Los años con Laura Díaz (The Years With Laura Diaz) (1999)
  • Instinto de Inez (Inez) (2001)
  • La Silla del Águila (The Eagle's Throne) (2003)
  • Todas las Familias Felices (Happy Families) (2006), ISBN 987-04-0557-6
  • La Voluntad y la Fortuna (Destiny and Desire) (2008), ISBN 970-58-0446-5

Short stories

  • Los días enmascarados (1954)
  • Cantar de ciegos (1964)
  • Chac Mool
    Chac Mool
    Chac-Mool is the name given to a type of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican stone statue.The Chac-Mool depicts a human figure in a position of reclining with the head up and turned to one side, holding a tray over the stomach...

     y otros cuentos
    (1973)
  • Agua quemada (1983) ISBN 968-16-1577-8
  • Dos educaciones. (1991) ISBN 84-397-1728-8
  • Los hijos del conquistador (1994)
  • Inquieta compañía (2004)
  • Las Dos Elenas
  • "EL hijo de Andres Aparicio"

Essays

  • La nueva novela hispanoamericana (1969) ISBN 9682701422
  • El mundo de José Luis Cuevas
    Jose Luis Cuevas
    José Luis Cuevas is a modernist painter and sculptor from Mexico. Born in 1934, Cuevas derived most of his training outside of the academies. He is considered to be one of the artists from the 1950s in the Rupture Generation that was departing from the politicized and stylized mural school of...

    (1969)
  • Casa con dos puertas (1970)
  • Tiempo mexicano (1971)
  • Miguel de Cervantes
    Miguel de Cervantes
    Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra was a Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright. His magnum opus, Don Quixote, considered the first modern novel, is a classic of Western literature, and is regarded amongst the best works of fiction ever written...

     o la crítica de la lectura
    (1976)
  • Myself With Others (1988)
  • El Espejo Enterrado (The Buried Mirror: Reflections on Spain and the New World) (1992) ISBN 8430602658
  • Geografía de la novela (1993) ISBN 9681640446
  • Tres discursos para dos aldeas ISBN 950-557-195-X
  • Nuevo tiempo mexicano (A New Time for Mexico) (1995) ISBN 9681902319
  • Retratos en el tiempo, with Carlos Fuentes Lemus (2000)
  • Los cinco soles de México: memoria de un milenio (2000) ISBN 84-322-1063-3
  • En esto creo (2002) ISBN 9705800871
  • Contra Bush (2004) ISBN 9681914503
  • Los 68 (2005) ISBN 030727415

Theater

  • Todos los gatos son pardos (1970)
  • El tuerto es rey (1970).
  • Los reinos originarios (1971)
  • Orquídeas a la luz de la luna. Comedia mexicana. (1982)
  • Ceremonias del alba (1990)

English

  • Magic Lens. The Transformation of the Visual Arts in the Narrative World of Carlos Fuentes. Lanin A Gyurko (New Orleans: University Press of the South, 2010).
  • The Shattered Screen. Myth and Demythification in the Art of Carlos Fuentes and Billy Wilder. Lanin A Gyurko (New Orleans: University Press of the South, 2009).
  • Lifting the obsidian mask : the artistic vision of Carlos Fuentes. Lanin A Gyurko, 2007
  • Mexican Writers on Writing. Margaret Sayers Peden
    Margaret Sayers Peden
    Margaret Sayers Peden is an American translator and Professor, being a Missouri native and born in about 1920.-Career and Achievements:She returned to college to obtain her graduate degrees in later life...

     (Trinity University Press, 2007).
  • Carlos Fuentes' The death of Artemio Cruz (Modern Critical Interpretations). Harold Bloom, 2006
  • Fuentes, Terra nostra, and the reconfiguration of Latin American culture. Michael Abeyta, 2006
  • Carlos Fuentes's Terra nostra and the Kabbalah: the recreation of the Hispanic world. Sheldon Penn, 2003
  • The narrative of Carlos Fuentes : family, text, nation. Steven Boldy, 2002
  • Carlos Fuentes, Mexico and modernity. Van Delden, Maarten, 1998
  • The postmodern Fuentes. Helmuth, Chalene, 1997
  • Specular narratives : critical perspectives on Carlos Fuentes, Juan Goytisolo, Mario Vargas Llosa. Roy Boland, 1997
  • The writings of Carlos Fuentes. Williams, Raymond L, 1996
  • A Marxist reading of Fuentes, Vargas Llosa, and Puig. Durán, Víctor M, 1994
  • Author, text, and reader in the novels of Carlos Fuentes. Ibsen, Kristine, 1993
  • Carlos Fuentes : life, work, and criticism. González, Alfonso, 1987
  • Carlos Fuentes. Faris, Wendy B, 1983
  • Carlos Fuentes, a critical view. Brody, Robert, 1982
  • The archetypes of Carlos Fuentes: from witch to androgyne. Durán, Gloria, 1980
  • Carlos Fuentes (Twayne World Authors Series). Guzmán, Daniel de, 1972

Spanish

  • El mito en la obra narrativa de Carlos Fuentes, Francisco Javier Ordiz, 2005
  • Los signos del laberinto : Terra nostra de Carlos Fuentes, Carmen V Vidaurre Arenas, 2004
  • Países de la memoria y el deseo : Jorge Luis Borges y Carlos Fuentes, Carmen Perilli, 2004
  • Carlos Fuentes : perspectivas críticas, Edith Negrín, 2002
  • Carlos Fuentes desde la crítica, Georgina García-Gutiérrez, 2001
  • El lenguaje que somos : Carlos Fuentes y el pensamiento de lo hispanoamericano, Estela Marta Saint-André, 2001
  • Los escritos de Carlos Fuentes, Raymond L Williams, 1998
  • Carlos Fuentes : 40 años de escritor, José Francisco Conde, 1993
  • Interpretaciones a la obra de Carlos Fuentes, Ana Maria Hernández de López, 1990
  • Fabulación de la fe : Carlos Fuentes, Fernando García Núñez, 1989
  • La obra de Carlos Fuentes : una visión múltiple, Ana María Hernández de López, 1988
  • Lo fantástico en los relatos de Carlos Fuentes : aproximación teórica, Gladys Feijoo, 1985
  • El cuento mexicano contemporáneo : Rulfo, Arreola y Fuentes, Bertie Acker, 1984
  • La narrativa de Carlos Fuentes, Aida Elsa Ramírez Mattei, 1983
  • Los disfraces : la obra mestiza de Carlos Fuentes, Georgina García-Gutiérrez, 1981
  • Nostalgia del futuro en la obra de Carlos Fuentes, Liliana Befumo Boschi, 1974
  • Aproximación a la literatura del mexicano Carlos Fuentes, Luján Carranza, 1974
  • Carlos Fuentes y la realidad de México, Fidel Ortega Martínez, 1969
  • Constancia: Y Otras Novelas Para Virgenes, 1990

External links


Interviews
Articles
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