Altenburg is a town in the German
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 federal state
States of Germany
Germany is made up of sixteen which are partly sovereign constituent states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Land literally translates as "country", and constitutionally speaking, they are constituent countries...

 (Bundesland) of Thuringia
The Free State of Thuringia is a state of Germany, located in the central part of the country.It has an area of and 2.29 million inhabitants, making it the sixth smallest by area and the fifth smallest by population of Germany's sixteen states....

, 45 km south of Leipzig
Leipzig Leipzig has always been a trade city, situated during the time of the Holy Roman Empire at the intersection of the Via Regia and Via Imperii, two important trade routes. At one time, Leipzig was one of the major European centres of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing...

. It is the capital of the Altenburger Land
Altenburger Land
Altenburger Land is a district in Thuringia, Germany. It is bounded by the district of Greiz, the Burgenlandkreis , and the districts Leipziger Land, Mittweida, Chemnitzer Land, Zwickauer Land in Saxony.- History :...



Altenburg is bounded by Windischleuba
Windischleuba is a municipality in the district Altenburger Land, in Thuringia, Germany....

, Nobitz
Nobitz is a municipality in the district Altenburger Land, in Thuringia, Germany....

, Saara
Saara is a German municipality in the Thuringian district of Altenburger Land.-History:The municipality of Saara was established on January 1, 1996, through the consolidation of Lehndorf, Mockern, Podelwitz, Taupadel, and Zehma.-References:...

, Altkirchen
Altkirchen is a German municipality in the Thuringian district of Altenburger Land and belongs to the Verwaltungsgemeinschaft of the same name.-Neighboring municipalities:...

, Göhren
Göhren may refer to the following places in Germany:*Göhren , a village in the municipality Tramm in the district Ludwigslust-Parchim, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern*Göhren, Rügen, a municipality in the district Vorpommern-Rügen, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern...

, Lödla
Lödla is a municipality in the district Altenburger Land, in Thuringia, Germany....

, Rositz
Rositz is a municipality in the district Altenburger Land, in Thuringia, Germany. An RAF raid bombed the oil refinery in Rositz on February 14/15, 1945 as part of Operation Thunderclap....

, Wintersdorf
Wintersdorf is a former municipality in the district Altenburger Land, in Thuringia, Germany. Since 1 December 2007, it is part of the town Meuselwitz....

 and Gerstenberg
Gerstenberg is a municipality in the district Altenburger Land, in Thuringia, Germany....



The town (civitas Altenburg) was first mentioned in a deed to the Bishop of Zeitz
Zeitz is a town in the Burgenlandkreis district, in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It is situated on the river Weiße Elster, in the middle of the triangle of the federal states Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia and Saxony.-History:...

 in 976. Remains of a Slavic
Slavic peoples
The Slavic people are an Indo-European panethnicity living in Eastern Europe, Southeast Europe, North Asia and Central Asia. The term Slavic represents a broad ethno-linguistic group of people, who speak languages belonging to the Slavic language family and share, to varying degrees, certain...

 castle on the Schloßberg ("Castle Hill") demonstrate that the town was probably a Slavic foundation, the capital of the shire of Plisni, taken over during the conquest of Meißen by Henry I. As shown by place names, the surrounding area (Osterland
Osterland is a historical region in Germany. It was situated between the Elbe and Saale rivers to the north of Pleissnerland which it later absorbed and it included the city of Leipzig...

) was mainly settled by Slavs.

The town's location on the imperial road between Halle
Halle, Saxony-Anhalt
Halle is the largest city in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt. It is also called Halle an der Saale in order to distinguish it from the town of Halle in North Rhine-Westphalia...

 and Cheb
Cheb is a city in the Karlovy Vary Region of the Czech Republic, with about 33,000 inhabitants. It is situated on the river Ohře , at the foot of one of the spurs of the Smrčiny and near the border with Germany...

 in Bohemia
Bohemia is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands. It is located in the contemporary Czech Republic with its capital in Prague...

 gave Altenburg economic importance in the salt trade.

The first castle, located under the present day church St. Bartholomäi, was destroyed after the Battle of Hohenmölsen between Henry IV
Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry IV was King of the Romans from 1056 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105. He was the third emperor of the Salian dynasty and one of the most powerful and important figures of the 11th century...

 and Rudolph of Swabia. It was rebuilt on the Schloßberg outside of the town. The 11th century Mantelturm tower is still preserved. The castle later became an imperial palatinate
Count palatine
Count palatine is a high noble title, used to render several comital styles, in some cases also shortened to Palatine, which can have other meanings as well.-Comes palatinus:...

 and played an important part in the German takeover and settlement of the area between the Harz
The Harz is the highest mountain range in northern Germany and its rugged terrain extends across parts of Lower Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia. The name Harz derives from the Middle High German word Hardt or Hart , latinized as Hercynia. The legendary Brocken is the highest summit in the Harz...

-mountains and the Elbe
The Elbe is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. It rises in the Krkonoše Mountains of the northwestern Czech Republic before traversing much of Bohemia , then Germany and flowing into the North Sea at Cuxhaven, 110 km northwest of Hamburg...


In the middle of the 12th century, the Hohenstaufen
The House of Hohenstaufen was a dynasty of German kings in the High Middle Ages, lasting from 1138 to 1254. Three of these kings were also crowned Holy Roman Emperor. In 1194 the Hohenstaufens also became Kings of Sicily...

 emperors patronized Altenburg, allowing the town to become a market and a mint. Together with the Royal forests Leina, Pahna, Kammerforst and Luckauer Forst, lands of the Groitzsch family bought by Frederick Barbarossa, Altenburg, Colditz
Colditz is a town in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, near Leipzig, located on the banks of the river Mulde. The town has a population of 5,188 ....

, Zwickau
Zwickau in Germany, former seat of the government of the south-western region of the Free State of Saxony, belongs to an industrial and economical core region. Nowadays it is the capital city of the district of Zwickau...

 and Chemnitz
Chemnitz is the third-largest city of the Free State of Saxony, Germany. Chemnitz is an independent city which is not part of any county and seat of the government region Direktionsbezirk Chemnitz. Located in the northern foothills of the Ore Mountains, it is a part of the Saxon triangle...

 were turned into the Terra Plisnensis. Altenburg and Chemnitz as Imperial towns were intended to reduce the importance of Leipzig held by the Margrave of Meißen. Under Frederick Barbarossa much building took place, especially in the market area, and the town grew rapidly. An Augustine
The term Augustinians, named after Saint Augustine of Hippo , applies to two separate and unrelated types of Catholic religious orders:...

 priory was founded and the church was finished in 1172. The twin towers (Rote Spitzen) are still preserved. A town wall was constructed at the end of the 12th century.

During the Interregnum
An interregnum is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order...

, the Terra Plisnensis was impounded, but bought back by Rudolph I of Germany
Rudolph I of Germany
Rudolph I was King of the Romans from 1273 until his death. He played a vital role in raising the Habsburg dynasty to a leading position among the Imperial feudal dynasties...

, who desired the crown of Thuringia. Together with Zwickau and Chemnitz, Altenburg was part of the anti-Meißen Pleiße-city Union of 1290. After the Battle of Lucka
Battle of Lucka
The Battle of Lucka occurred on 31 May 1307 near the village of Lucka. The settlement was first mentioned in 1320, but had already existed for around 700 years before that...

 in 1307 against Frederick the Brave of Meißen and his brother Diezmann, King Albert I lost Altenburg and the Pleiße-lands to the margraves of Meißen.

In 1455 Altenburg saw the division (Altenburger Teilung) of the Meißen lands between Elector Frederick II
Frederick II, Elector of Saxony
Frederick II was Elector of Saxony and was Landgrave of Thuringia .-Biography:...

 (the Gentle) and Duke William that led, after a failed attempt at reconciliation (Hallescher Machtspruch) to a war (1446–1451) between the two brothers (Bruderkrieg).
In the second division of the Wettin lands between Ernest
Ernest, Elector of Saxony
Ernst, Elector of Saxony was Elector of Saxony from 1464 to 1486.-Biography:Ernst was founder of the Ernestine line of Saxon princes, ancestor of George I of Great Britain, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, as well as his wife and cousin Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, and their...

 and Albert
Albert, Duke of Saxony
Albert III was a Duke of Saxony. He was nicknamed Albert the Bold or Albert the Courageous and founded the Albertine line of the House of Wettin....

 at Leipzig in 1485, Altenburg fell to Ernest, together with the Electorate (Kurland), Grimma
Grimma is a town in the Free State of Saxony, Germany on the left bank of the Mulde, southeast of Leipzig. Founded in c. 1170, it is part of the Leipzig district.- Location :...

, the Mutschener Pflege, Leisnig
Leisnig is a small town in the district of Mittelsachsen, federal Free State of Saxony in Germany.-History:A settlement in this location was first mentioned in 1046. The town features Mildenstein Castle which is over 1000 years old. The house Markt 13 shows the coat of arms of the family...

, Thuringia and the Vogtland
The term Vogtland refers to a region reaching across the German free states of Bavaria, Saxony and Thuringia and into the Czech Republic . The name of the region contains a reference to the former leadership by the Vögte of Weida, Gera and Plauen, which translates approximately to advocates or lord...

. From this time on, Altenburg was historically connected with Thuringia.
During the German Peasants' War
German Peasants' War
The German Peasants' War or Great Peasants' Revolt was a widespread popular revolt in the German-speaking areas of Central Europe, 1524–1526. At its height in the spring and summer of 1525, the conflict involved an estimated 300,000 peasants: contemporary estimates put the dead at 100,000...

 of 1525, the Altenburg Augustinian monastery was attacked. In the summer, four peasant rebels were executed at the marketplace.

From 1603-1672 Altenburg was the residence of the Ernestine line, after that, it fell to Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg
Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg was a duchy ruled by the Ernestine branch of the House of Wettin in today's Thuringia, Germany.It was nominally created in 1672 when Frederick William III, the last duke of Saxe-Altenburg, died and Ernest I, Duke of Saxe-Gotha , inherited the major part of his possessions...

. During the Napoleonic wars
Napoleonic Wars
The Napoleonic Wars were a series of wars declared against Napoleon's French Empire by opposing coalitions that ran from 1803 to 1815. As a continuation of the wars sparked by the French Revolution of 1789, they revolutionised European armies and played out on an unprecedented scale, mainly due to...

 it was a scene of a brief Allied raid
Raid at Altenburg
The raid at Altenburg on 28 September 1813 took place during the War of the Sixth Coalition's Allied autumn campaign in Saxony. The raid was carried out by the Streifkorp under the command of Saxon General Johann von Thielmann commanding seven regiments of Cossacks, a squadron each of Saxon Hussars...

 by the Saxon General Johann von Thielmann
Johann von Thielmann
Johann Adolf Freiherr von Thielmann was a Saxon soldier who served with Saxony, Prussia and France during the Napoleonic Wars.-Biography:...

. When the Ernestine lands were re-divided in 1826, Altenburg became the capital of Saxe-Altenburg
Saxe-Altenburg was one of the Saxon duchies held by the Ernestine branch of the Wettin dynasty in present-day Thuringia.-History:The duchy originated from the medieval Burgraviate of Altenburg in the Imperial Pleissnerland , a possession of the Wettin Margraves of Meissen since 1243...

. The last duke abdicated on 13 November 1918 after being promised 12 million Marks and the ownership of numerous castles. The free-state Saxe-Altenburg was merged with Thuringia in 1920.

During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, several subcamps of the Buchenwald concentration camp
Buchenwald concentration camp
Buchenwald concentration camp was a German Nazi concentration camp established on the Ettersberg near Weimar, Germany, in July 1937, one of the first and the largest of the concentration camps on German soil.Camp prisoners from all over Europe and Russia—Jews, non-Jewish Poles and Slovenes,...

 were located here. They provided forced labour for HASAG, the third largest Germany company to use concentration camp labour.

In 1952, Altenburg fell to the Leipzig District, but became part of Thuringia again in 1990.

Historical population

1831 - 1939 1946 - 1996 1997 - 2004
  • 1831 - 12,629
  • 1880 - 26,241
  • 1885 - 29,110
  • 1890 - 31,439
  • 1900 - 37,110
  • 1925 - 42,570
  • 1933 - 43,736
  • 1939 - 45,851
  • 1946 - 51,805 29 October
  • 1950 - 49,413 31 August
  • 1960 - 46,791
  • 1981 - 55,827
  • 1984 - 54,755
  • 1994 - 46,291
  • 1995 - 45,472
  • 1996 - 44,854
  • 1997 - 44,060
  • 1998 - 43,032
  • 1999 - 42,005
  • 2000 - 41,290
  • 2001 - 40,559
  • 2002 - 39,810
  • 2003 - 39,189
  • 2004 - 38,417
  • Source (since 1994): Thüringer Landesamt für Statistik

    Main sights

    Altenburg's town hall is one of the most important Renaissance
    The Renaissance was a cultural movement that spanned roughly the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. The term is also used more loosely to refer to the historical era, but since the changes of the Renaissance were not...

     buildings in Germany. It was built between 1562 and 1564 by the architect Nikolaus Grohmann. The Schenkendorffsches Palais (1724) and the Alte Amtshaus (1725) are remarkable Baroque
    The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

     structures. There is also a castle
    A castle is a type of fortified structure built in Europe and the Middle East during the Middle Ages by European nobility. Scholars debate the scope of the word castle, but usually consider it to be the private fortified residence of a lord or noble...

    , which is the scene of the famous Prinzenraub, related by Carlyle
    Thomas Carlyle
    Thomas Carlyle was a Scottish satirical writer, essayist, historian and teacher during the Victorian era.He called economics "the dismal science", wrote articles for the Edinburgh Encyclopedia, and became a controversial social commentator.Coming from a strict Calvinist family, Carlyle was...

     in his "Miscellanies". The Western main wing (1706–1732) contains an exhibition on the history of playing cards and card games and an historical museum.
    The Lindenau-Museum
    The Lindenau-Museum is an art museum in Altenburg, Thuringia, Germany.The museum originated as the house-museum of baron and collector Bernhard August von Lindenau. The building was completed in 1876....

     in the palace of Bernhard August von Lindenau, was built in 1875 and houses Italian paintings of the 13th-15th centuries, a collection of classical antiquities and cast and modern art.
    The scientific museum Mauritianum shows the largest well-known mummified rat king, which was found in 1828 in a miller's fireplace at Buchheim.
    Other points of interest include the Botanischer Erlebnisgarten Altenburg
    Botanischer Erlebnisgarten Altenburg
    The Botanischer Erlebnisgarten Altenburg is a botanical garden located at Heinrich-Zille-Straße 12, Altenburg, Thuringia, Germany. It is open daily....

    , a small botanical garden
    Botanical garden
    A botanical garden The terms botanic and botanical, and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is a well-tended area displaying a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names...



    Altenburg is called the playing cards town. The game of skat is said to have originated here, based on the Bavarian tarock. Because of the influence Emperor Frederick Barbarossa
    Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
    Frederick I Barbarossa was a German Holy Roman Emperor. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March, crowned King of Italy in Pavia in 1155, and finally crowned Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV, on 18 June 1155, and two years later in 1157 the term...

     had on the town, it is nicknamed a "Barbarossa town".


    Altenburg is noted for produced playing cards. The Altenburger Spielkartenfabrik was founded in the year 1831. Today it is a subsidiary company of Cartamundi
    Cartamundi, also called Carta Mundi, is a Belgian company, based in Turnhout, that produces and sells board games, card games, collectible card games, packages and playing cards through its manufacturing and sales subsidiaries...

     and market leader in Germany.

    In Altenburg is the headquarters of the Gumpert Sportwagenmanufaktur
    Gumpert Sportwagenmanufaktur GmbH is a German, Altenburg-based company manufacturing supercars. The first model produced was the Gumpert Apollo, followed by the Apollo Sport in 2007. Gumpert also offer the Apollo Race. The founder and owner of Gumpert is Roland Gumpert, former Director of Audi Sport...

    . The Gumpert Apollo
    Gumpert Apollo
    The Gumpert Apollo is a sports car produced by German automaker Gumpert Sportwagenmanufaktur GmbH in Altenburg.-History:In 2000 Roland Gumpert proposed a new generation sports car. One of the first concerns of this car was that it would be a street-legal car, ready for the race track. Gumpert...

     supercar has been produced by Gumpert Sportwagenmanufaktur since 2005.

    Altenburg is also known for its mustard, which is produced by Altenburger Senf und Feinkost.

    Local transport

    Local transport within Altenburg relies exclusively on buses. 6 lines connect the outlying quarters to the downtown.


    In the vicinity of the town are two airports.

    The Leipzig-Altenburg Airport, a former Russia
    Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

    n military airport, is used for cheap commercial flights to London Stansted
    London Stansted Airport
    -Cargo:-Statistics:-Infrastructure:-Terminal and satellite buildings:Stansted is the newest passenger airport of all the main London airports. The terminal is an oblong glass building, and is separated in to three areas: Check-in concourse, arrivals and departures...

    , Barcelona-Girona
    Girona is a city in the northeast of Catalonia, Spain at the confluence of the rivers Ter, Onyar, Galligants and Güell, with an official population of 96,236 in January 2009. It is the capital of the province of the same name and of the comarca of the Gironès...

     and Edinburgh
    Edinburgh is the capital city of Scotland, the second largest city in Scotland, and the eighth most populous in the United Kingdom. The City of Edinburgh Council governs one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas. The council area includes urban Edinburgh and a rural area...


    Leipzig/Halle Airport
    Leipzig/Halle Airport, sometimes called Schkeuditz Airport , is located in Schkeuditz, Saxony and serves both Leipzig, Saxony and Halle, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.It has more than two million passengers per year....

     is an international airport 50 km northwest of Altenburg.

    International relations

    Altenburg is twinned
    Town twinning
    Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

    Offenburg is a city located in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. With about 60,000 inhabitants, it is the largest city and the capital of the Ortenaukreis.Offenburg also houses University of Applied Sciences Offenburg...

    , Germany
    Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

    Olten is a town in the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland and capital of the district of the same name.Olten's railway station is within 30 minutes of Zurich, Bern, Basel, and Lucerne by train, and is a rail hub of Switzerland.-History:...

    , Switzerland
    Switzerland name of one of the Swiss cantons. ; ; ; or ), in its full name the Swiss Confederation , is a federal republic consisting of 26 cantons, with Bern as the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in Western Europe,Or Central Europe depending on the definition....

    Zlín , from 1949 to 1989 Gottwaldov , is a city in the Zlín Region, southeastern Moravia, Czech Republic, on the Dřevnice River. The development of the modern city is closely connected to the Bata Shoes company...

    , Czech Republic
    Czech Republic
    The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

    Hickory, North Carolina
    Hickory is a city in Catawba County, North Carolina. Hickory has the 162nd largest urban area in the United States. As of the 2000 census, the Metropolitan Statistical Area had a population of 341,851, making it the 4th largest metropolitan area in North Carolina. The city's population was 37,222...

    , United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

    Notable natives

    • Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus
      Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus
      Friedrich Arnold Brockhaus was a German encyclopedia publisher and editor, famed for publishing the Conversations-Lexikon, which is now published as the Brockhaus encyclopedia.-Biography:...

    • Joachim Büchner
      Joachim Büchner
      Joachim Büchner was a German athlete who competed mainly in the 400 metres.Born in Altenburg, he competed for Germany in the 1928 Summer Olympics held in Amsterdam, Netherlands in the 400 metres where he won the Bronze medal. He died in Leverkusen....

    • Carl Adolph Douai
      Carl Adolph Douai
      Karl Daniel Adolph Douai , known to his peers as "Adolph," was a German Texan teacher as well as a socialist and abolitionist newspaper editor...

    • Frederick I
      Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor
      Frederick I Barbarossa was a German Holy Roman Emperor. He was elected King of Germany at Frankfurt on 4 March 1152 and crowned in Aachen on 9 March, crowned King of Italy in Pavia in 1155, and finally crowned Roman Emperor by Pope Adrian IV, on 18 June 1155, and two years later in 1157 the term...

    • Hans Conon von der Gabelentz
      Hans Conon von der Gabelentz
      Hans Conon von der Gabelentz was a German linguistic researcher and authority on the Manchu language. He was prime minister of the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Altenburg from 1848 to 1849.- Life :...

    • Georg von der Gabelentz
    • Johann Georg August Galletti
      Johann Georg August Galletti
      Johann Georg August Galletti was an German historian and geographer. Galletti's fame is not based on his merits as an academic, but on his reputation as the creator of a few hundreds of stylistic howlers, becoming a legend as Kathederblüten originated during his time as a grammar school professor...

    • Ralf Haber
      Ralf Haber
      Ralf Haber is a retired East German hammer thrower.His personal best throw was 83.40 metres, achieved in May 1988 in Athens. This is the current German record. -Achievements:-References:*...

    • Johann Ludwig Krebs
      Johann Ludwig Krebs
      Johann Ludwig Krebs was a Rococo musician and composer primarily for the pipe organ.-Life:Krebs was born in 1713 in Buttelstedt, Germany to Johann Tobias Krebs, a well-known organist. J. Tobias had at least three sons who were considered musically talented, and J...

    • Bernhard von Lindenau
      Bernhard von Lindenau
      Baron Bernhard August von Lindenau was a German lawyer, astronomer, politician, and art collector.Lindenau was born in Altenburg, where he also died. In 1830 he was the Minister of the Interior during a turbulent period in the history of Saxony...

    • Uwe Rösler
      Uwe Rösler
      Uwe Rösler is a German football manager and former player. He is currently the manager of Brentford.Rösler was previously a successful player who played for several clubs, most notably Manchester City , where he was the leading goalscorer for three consecutive seasons from 1995–96 to 1997–98, and 1...

    • Hermann Schlegel
      Hermann Schlegel
      Hermann Schlegel was a German ornithologist and herpetologist.-Early life and education:Schlegel was born at Altenburg, the son of a brassfounder. His father collected butterflies, which stimulated Schlegel's interest in natural history...

    • Ingo Schulze
      Ingo Schulze
      Ingo Schulze is a German writer born in Dresden in former East Germany. He studied classical philology at the University of Jena for five years, and, until the German reunification, was an assistant director at the State Theatre in Altenburg 45 km south of Leipzig for two years...

    • George Spalatin
      George Spalatin
      Georg Spalatin was the pseudonym taken by Georg Burkhardt , an important German figure in the history of the Reformation....

    External links

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