Srinagar is the summer seasonal capital of Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir is the northernmost state of India. It is situated mostly in the Himalayan mountains. Jammu and Kashmir shares a border with the states of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab to the south and internationally with the People's Republic of China to the north and east and the...

. It is situated in Kashmir Valley and lies on the banks of the Jhelum River
Jhelum River
Jehlum River or Jhelum River , ) is a river that flows in India and Pakistan. It is the largest and most western of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Jhelum District...

, a tributary of the Indus. It is one of the largest cities in India not to have a Hindu majority. The city is famous for its gardens, lakes and houseboat
A houseboat is a boat that has been designed or modified to be used primarily as a human dwelling. Some houseboats are not motorized, because they are usually moored, kept stationary at a fixed point and often tethered to land to provide utilities...

s. It is also known for traditional Kashmiri handicraft
Handicraft, more precisely expressed as artisanic handicraft, sometimes also called artisanry, is a type of work where useful and decorative devices are made completely by hand or by using only simple tools. It is a traditional main sector of craft. Usually the term is applied to traditional means...

s and dry fruits
Dried fruit
Dried fruit is fruit where the majority of the original water content has been removed either naturally, through sun drying, or through the use of specialized dryers or dehydrators. Dried fruit has a long tradition of use dating back to the fourth millennium BC in Mesopotamia, and is prized...

. It is also the headquarters of Srinagar district
Srinagar District
For other uses, see Srinagar .Area141 km2Population900,000 Population density6383/km2 Situated at the center of the Kashmir valley, Srinagar is the most populous district in the state of Jammu and Kashmir,Indian Administered Kashmir and is home to the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir For...


Origin of name

Etymology is the study of the history of words, their origins, and how their form and meaning have changed over time.For languages with a long written history, etymologists make use of texts in these languages and texts about the languages to gather knowledge about how words were used during...

 Srinagar is composed of two Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

 words, namely, Sri (meaning abundance and wealth) and Nagar, which means a city
A city is a relatively large and permanent settlement. Although there is no agreement on how a city is distinguished from a town within general English language meanings, many cities have a particular administrative, legal, or historical status based on local law.For example, in the U.S...

. Thus, the word Srinagar signifies a place of wealth
Wealth is the abundance of valuable resources or material possessions. The word wealth is derived from the old English wela, which is from an Indo-European word stem...

 and abundance. Sri
Sri , also transliterated as Shri or Shree or shre is a word of Sanskrit origin, used in the Indian subcontinent as polite form of address equivalent to the English "Mr." in written and spoken language, or as a title of veneration for deities .-Etymology:Sri has the root meaning of radiance, or...

 is also the name of a goddess Lakshmi
Lakshmi or Lakumi is the Hindu goddess of wealth, prosperity , light, wisdom, fortune, fertility, generosity and courage; and the embodiment of beauty, grace and charm. Representations of Lakshmi are also found in Jain monuments...

 of Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

s. Sri is also used for sun, hence the word could mean city of the sun.

One theory of the origin of the name is that a Pandava King Ashoka (not to be confused with Maurya Ashoka) built the city of Srinagari (Srinagar). Another theory is that in Kashmir Mauryan Emperor Ashoka
Ashok Maurya or Ashoka , popularly known as Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from ca. 269 BC to 232 BC. One of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests...

 founded the original city of Srinagar, then situated on the site of the present village of Pandrathan, three miles to the north of the existing capital.


Srinagar has a long history, dating back at least to the 3rd century BC
300 BC
Year 300 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Corvus and Pansa...

, and has been known by different names. The city was founded by the King Pravarasena II over 2,000 years ago, named it Parvasenpur. The city was then a part of the Maurya Empire, one of the largest empires of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
The Indian subcontinent, also Indian Subcontinent, Indo-Pak Subcontinent or South Asian Subcontinent is a region of the Asian continent on the Indian tectonic plate from the Hindu Kush or Hindu Koh, Himalayas and including the Kuen Lun and Karakoram ranges, forming a land mass which extends...

. Ashoka
Ashok Maurya or Ashoka , popularly known as Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from ca. 269 BC to 232 BC. One of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests...

 introduced Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 to the Kashmir valley, and the adjoining regions around the city became a centre of Buddhism. In the 1st century, the region was under the control of Kushans and several rulers of this dynasty strengthened the Buddhist tradition. Vikramaditya
Vikramaditya was a legendary emperor of Ujjain, India, famed for his wisdom, valour and magnanimity. The title "Vikramaditya" was later assumed by many other kings in Indian history, notably the Gupta King Chandragupta II and Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya .The name King Vikramaditya is a...

 (of Ujjain
Ujjain , is an ancient city of Malwa region in central India, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River , today part of the state of Madhya Pradesh. It is the administrative centre of Ujjain District and Ujjain Division.In ancient times the city was called Ujjayini...

) and his successors probably ruled the regions just before the city fell to the control of the Huns
The Hephthalites or Hephthalite is a pre-Islamic Greek term for local Abdali Afghans, who's famous ruler was Nazak Abdali . Hephthalites were a Central Asian nomadic confederation of the AD 5th-6th centuries whose precise origins and composition remain obscure...

 in the 6th century, and Mihirkula was the most dreaded ruler
A tyrant was originally one who illegally seized and controlled a governmental power in a polis. Tyrants were a group of individuals who took over many Greek poleis during the uprising of the middle classes in the sixth and seventh centuries BC, ousting the aristocratic governments.Plato and...

 of the city and the valley.

The Independent Hindu and the Buddhist rule of Srinagar lasted until the 14th century,some of the notable independent rulers were Lalitaditya, Avantiverman and Sangrama Deva when the Kashmir valley, including the city, came under the control of the several Muslim
A Muslim, also spelled Moslem, is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. "Muslim" is the Arabic term for "submitter" .Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable...

 rulers, including the Mughals
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

. It was also the capital during the reign of Yusuf Shah Chak, an Independent Kashmiri ruler who was tricked by Akbar when he failed to conquer Kashmir
Kashmir is the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. Until the mid-19th century, the term Kashmir geographically denoted only the valley between the Great Himalayas and the Pir Panjal mountain range...

 by force. Yusuf Shah Chak remains buried in Bihar
Bihar is a state in eastern India. It is the 12th largest state in terms of geographical size at and 3rd largest by population. Almost 58% of Biharis are below the age of 25, which is the highest proportion in India....

 in India. Akbar established Mughal rule in Srinagar and Kashmir valley.

With the disintegration of the Mughal Empire after the death of Aurangzeb
Abul Muzaffar Muhy-ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir , more commonly known as Aurangzeb or by his chosen imperial title Alamgir , was the sixth Mughal Emperor of India, whose reign lasted from 1658 until his death in 1707.Badshah Aurangzeb, having ruled most of the Indian subcontinent for nearly...

 in 1707, infiltrations to the valley from the Pashtun
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

 tribes increased, and the Durrani Empire
Durrani Empire
The Durrani Empire was a Pashtun dynasty centered in Afghanistan and included northeastern Iran, the Kashmir region, the modern state of Pakistan, and northwestern India. It was established at Kandahar in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani, an Afghan military commander under Nader Shah of Persia and chief...

 ruled the city for several decades. Raja Ranjit Singh
Ranjit Singh
Maharaja Ranjit Singh Ji was the first Maharaja of the Sikh Empire.-Early life:...

 in the year 1814 annexed a major part of the Kashmir Valley, including Srinagar, to his kingdom, and the city came under the influence of the Sikh
A Sikh is a follower of Sikhism. It primarily originated in the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in Sanskrit term शिष्य , meaning "disciple, student" or शिक्ष , meaning "instruction"...

s. In 1846, the Treaty of Lahore
Treaty of Lahore
The Treaty of Lahore of March 9, 1846, was a peace treaty marking the end of the First Anglo-Sikh War. The Treaty was concluded, for the British, by the Governor-General Sir Henry Hardinge and two officers of the East India Company and, for the Sikhs, by the seven year old Maharaja Duleep Singh...

 was signed between the Sikh rulers and the British
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

 in Lahore
Lahore is the capital of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the second largest city in the country. With a rich and fabulous history dating back to over a thousand years ago, Lahore is no doubt Pakistan's cultural capital. One of the most densely populated cities in the world, Lahore remains a...

. The treaty, inter alia, provided British de-facto suzerainty over the Kashmir Valley, and installed Gulab Singh
Maharaja Gulab Singh
Maharaja Gulab Singh was the founder and first Maharaja of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, the second largest princely state in British India...

 as an independent and sovereign ruler of the region. Srinagar became part of his kingdom and remained until 1947 as one of several princely states in British India. The maharadjas choose Sher Garhi Palace
Sher Garhi Palace
Sher Garhi Palace is a palace in Srinagar, India. The palace is the former residence of the maharadjas of Jammu and Kashmir from the Dogra Dynasty. The palace complex is located in the southern part of the city on the left bank of the Jhelum River. Sher Garhi means 'tiger fortress'. The complex was...

 as their main Srinagar residence.

After India and Pakistan's independence from Britain, certain tribes from mountainous region of west Kashmir, at the instigation of Pakistan and with the collusion allied Pushtun tribals, entered the Kashmir valley to capture it. India responded by sending in troops to the Kashmir valley. While the Pushtuns gained control of the majority of Srinagar they were not able to secure Srinagar Airport. This allowed India to air lift in supplies, including heavy weapons, and were able to control the city and its surroundings and pushed out the Pushtuns. In view of further attacks by armed forces and the possibility that his kingdom, including the city of Srinagar, might fall into the hand of Pakistan, Hari Singh signed an agreement in late 1947 with the Government of India
Government of India
The Government of India, officially known as the Union Government, and also known as the Central Government, was established by the Constitution of India, and is the governing authority of the union of 28 states and seven union territories, collectively called the Republic of India...

 partly in order to gain political refuge, which ensured legal and binding accession to India under certain preconditions.

The Government of India, immediately air-lifted Indian troops
Army of India
The Army of India consisted of both the Indian Army and the British Army in India between 1903 and 1947.Lord Kitchener was appointed Commander-in-Chief, India between 1902 and 1909...

 to Srinagar, and defence of the city was further strengthened against further attacks. Meanwhile, the matter was escalated to the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 and a cease fire was imposed under its authority. These events resulted in the division of the state into an Indian administered region and a Pakistani administered region.


  • Location: 34°5′23"N 74°47′24"E
  • Highest temperature: 37 °C (98.6 °F); lowest -14 °C

The city is located on both the sides of the Jhelum River
Jhelum River
Jehlum River or Jhelum River , ) is a river that flows in India and Pakistan. It is the largest and most western of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Jhelum District...

, which is called Vyath in Kashmir. The river passes through the city and meanders through the valley, moving onward and deepening in the Wular Lake
Wular Lake
Wular Lake , India's largest fresh water lake is located in Bandipore district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is also one of the largest freshwater lakes in Asia. The lake basin was formed as a result of tectonic activity and is fed by the Jhelum River...

. The city is famous for its nine old bridges, connecting the two parts of the city.

Hokersar is a wetland situated near Srinagar—the capital of Indian Kashmir. Thousands of migratory birds come to Hokersar from Siberia and other regions in the winter season. Migratory birds from Siberia and Central Asia use wetlands in Kashmir as their transitory camps between September and October and again around spring. These wetlands play a vital role in sustaining a large population of wintering, staging and breeding birds.

Hokersar is 14 kilometres (8.7 mi) north of Srinagar, and is a world class wetland spread over 13.75 square kilometres (5.3 sq mi) including lake
A lake is a body of relatively still fresh or salt water of considerable size, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land. Lakes are inland and not part of the ocean and therefore are distinct from lagoons, and are larger and deeper than ponds. Lakes can be contrasted with rivers or streams,...

 and marshy area
In geography, a marsh, or morass, is a type of wetland that is subject to frequent or continuous flood. Typically the water is shallow and features grasses, rushes, reeds, typhas, sedges, other herbaceous plants, and moss....

. It is the most accessible and well-known of Kashmir's wetlands which include Hygam and hygam is the best place of situation, Shalibug and Mirgund. A record number of migratory birds have visited Hokersar in recent years. An estimated quarter of a million birds have already been spotted at Hokersar in the current season.

Birds found in Hokersar—Migratory duck
Duck is the common name for a large number of species in the Anatidae family of birds, which also includes swans and geese. The ducks are divided among several subfamilies in the Anatidae family; they do not represent a monophyletic group but a form taxon, since swans and geese are not considered...

s and geese which include Brahminy Duck, Tufted Duck
Tufted Duck
The Tufted Duck, Aythya fuligula, is a medium-sized diving duck with a population of close to one million birds.- Description :The adult male is all black except for white flanks and a blue-grey bill. It has an obvious head tuft that gives the species its name.The adult female is brown with paler...

, Gadwall
The Gadwall is a common and widespread duck of the family Anatidae.- Description :The Gadwall is 46–56 cm long with a 78–90 cm wingspan. The male is slightly larger than the female, weighing on average 990 g against her 850 g...

, Garganey
The Garganey is a small dabbling duck. It breeds in much of Europe and western Asia, but is strictly migratory, with the entire population moving to southern Africa, India Santragachi and Australasia in winter, where large flocks can occur. This species was first described by Linnaeus in 1758...

, Greylag Goose
Greylag Goose
The Greylag Goose , Anser anser, is a bird with a wide range in the Old World. It is the type species of the genus Anser....

, Mallard
The Mallard , or Wild Duck , is a dabbling duck which breeds throughout the temperate and subtropical Americas, Europe, Asia, and North Africa, and has been introduced to New Zealand and Australia....

, Common Merganser
Common Merganser
The Common Merganser or Goosander Mergus merganser is a large duck, of rivers and lakes of forested areas of Europe, northern and central Asia, and North America. It eats fish and nests in holes in trees...

, Northern Pintail
Northern Pintail
The Pintail or Northern Pintail is a widely occurring duck which breeds in the northern areas of Europe, Asia and North America. It is strongly migratory and winters south of its breeding range to the equator...

, Common Pochard, Ferruginous Pochard, Red-crested Pochard
Red-crested Pochard
The Red-crested Pochard is a large diving duck.Their breeding habitat is lowland marshes and lakes in southern Europe and southern and central Asia. They are somewhat migratory, and northern birds winter further south and into north Africa.The adult male is unmistakable. It has a rounded orange...

, Ruddy Shelduck
Ruddy Shelduck
The Ruddy Shelduck, Tadorna ferruginea, is a member of the duck, goose and swan family Anatidae. It is in the shelduck subfamily Tadorninae...

, Northern Shoveler
Northern Shoveler
The Northern Shoveler , Northern Shoveller in British English, sometimes known simply as the Shoveler, is a common and widespread duck. It breeds in northern areas of Europe and Asia and across most of North America, and is a rare vagrant to Australia...

, Common Teal
Common Teal
The Eurasian Teal or Common Teal is a common and widespread duck which breeds in temperate Eurasia and migrates south in winter. The Eurasian Teal is often called simply the Teal due to being the only one of these small dabbling ducks in much of its range...

, and Eurasian Wigeon.


Srinagar has a humid subtropical climate
Humid subtropical climate
A humid subtropical climate is a climate zone characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters...

Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Cfa), with a climate much cooler than what is found in much of the rest of India, due to its moderately high elevation and northerly position.The valley is surrounded by Himalayas on all sides. Winters are cool, with a January daily mean of 2.5 °C (36.5 °F), and temperatures usually dip below freezing at night; Moderate to heavy snow fall is expected in winters and the only road that connects Srinagar with rest of India is cut off. Summers are warm, with a July daily mean of 24.1 °C (75.4 °F). The average annual rainfall is around 710 millimetres (28 in); spring is the wettest season while autumn is the driest.


The gross domestic product of Srinagar metro was estimated at US$2 billion in 2010. Srinagar is the pivotal centre of the economy of the Kashmir Valley, and it has remained a tourist destination for centuries. The valley has attracted rulers from the plains of India for a long time, and they traveled to the valley and the city to avoid the hot summers of the Indo-Gangetic plain
Indo-Gangetic plain
The northern Plains also known as the Indo - Gangetic Plain and The North Indian River Plain is a large and fertile plain encompassing most of northern and eastern India, the most populous parts of Pakistan, parts of southern Nepal and virtually all of Bangladesh...

s. The city remained on the itinerary of the Mughal ruling elite, and several Mughal emperors and their consorts had visited the city, and several Mughal gardens
Mughal Gardens
Mughal gardens are a group of gardens built by the Mughals in the Islamic style of architecture. This style was heavily influenced by the Persian gardens particularly the Charbagh structure. Significant use of rectilinear layouts are made within the walled enclosures...

 in and around the city indicate their close association with Srinagar.

The hinterland of Srinagar is the most populous part of the Kashmir valley, and crops like wheat and rice are cultivated for local consumption. Orchards produce a number of fruits, particularly apples. Another significant segment of the economy include handicrafts, weaving of woolen shawls and dress materials, and woodcarving. Srinagar and the surrounding areas serve as collecting points from where fruits and handicraft products are taken to several parts of the Indian subcontinent.

In November 2011, the City Mayors Foundation
City Mayors Foundation
The City Mayors Foundation , is an international think tank dedicated to urban affairs . It has been active since 2003 and runs the biennial World Mayor award, as well as providing pro bono consultancy services...

 - an advocacy think tank - announced that Srinagar was the 92nd fastest growing urban areas in the world in terms of economic growth, based on actual data from 2006 onwards and projections to 2020.


Tourism is the most significant segment of the city's economy. The city of Srinagar is a gateway to some of the most scenic and beautiful places of the Indian subcontinent. The hill station and skiing resort Gulmarg
Gulmarg is a town, a hill station and a notified area committee in Baramula district in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.-Geography:Gulmarg is located 52 km from Srinagar. It is located at . It has an average elevation of .-Demographics:...

 is 50 km from the city. For decades, tourism has been contributing massively to the economy of the city, but it has been adversely affected on account of insurgent activities by certain elements. The areas on the outskirts of Srinagar are also famous for their natural beauty. Also in this area lies the Muzaffarabad Cantonement, which is the main cantonement of the Indian Army in Srinagar District(the name of the Cantt. is often confused with Muzaffarabad city which is a separate city in Pakistan administered Kashmir)

Srinagar is well known for its lakes. Dal Lake
Dal Lake
Dal Lake is a lake in Srinagar, the summer capital of the northernmost Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. The urban lake, which is the second largest in the state, is integral to tourism and recreation in Kashmir and is nicknamed the "Jewel in the crown of Kashmir" or "Srinagar's Jewel"...

 is known for its houseboat
A houseboat is a boat that has been designed or modified to be used primarily as a human dwelling. Some houseboats are not motorized, because they are usually moored, kept stationary at a fixed point and often tethered to land to provide utilities...

s. Nagin Lake is another famous lake in the city.

Houseboats were introduced accidentally to Kashmir: members of the Indian Civil Service serving in the plains who vacationed in Kashmir were not permitted to build permanent homes because of the then Maharaja's suspicion of a British presence in Srinagar. They thus chose to live in houseboats. The first such, named Victory, was designed by Mr MT Kenhard in 1888. There are now about five hundred on the Lake.

Srinagar has some Mughal gardens
Mughal Gardens
Mughal gardens are a group of gardens built by the Mughals in the Islamic style of architecture. This style was heavily influenced by the Persian gardens particularly the Charbagh structure. Significant use of rectilinear layouts are made within the walled enclosures...

, forming a part of those laid by the Mughal emperors across the Indian subcontinent. Those of Srinagar and its close vicinity include Chashma Shahi (the royal fountains); Pari Mahal (the palace of the fairies); Nishat Bagh
Nishat Bagh
Nishat Bagh , is a Mughal garden built on the eastern side of the Dal Lake, close to the Srinagar city in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. It is the second largest Mughal garden in the Kashmir Valley. The largest in size is the Shalimar Bagh, which is also located on the bank of the Dal Lake...

 (the garden of spring); Shalimar Bagh; and the Naseem Bagh. The Tulip Gardens have been recently opened to public bySonia Gandhi
Sonia Gandhi
Sonia Gandhi is an Italian-born Indian politician and the President of the Indian National Congress, one of the major political parties of India. She is the widow of former Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi...


It has been called the "Venice of the East" or the "Kasmiri Venice"

The Sher Garhi Palace
Sher Garhi Palace
Sher Garhi Palace is a palace in Srinagar, India. The palace is the former residence of the maharadjas of Jammu and Kashmir from the Dogra Dynasty. The palace complex is located in the southern part of the city on the left bank of the Jhelum River. Sher Garhi means 'tiger fortress'. The complex was...

 houses administrative buildings from the state government. Another palace of the Maharadjas, the Gulab Bhavan
Gulab Bhavan
Gulab Bhavan is a palace in Srinagar, India. The palace is a former residence of the maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir from the Dogra Dynasty. The palace lies in the eastern part of the city and overlooks the Dal lake...

, has now become the Lalit Grand Palace hotel.

Government and politics

The city is run by the Srinagar Municipal Committee
A municipality is essentially an urban administrative division having corporate status and usually powers of self-government. It can also be used to mean the governing body of a municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district...

 (SMC). The Srinagar district along with the adjoining Budgam district forms the Srinagar Parliamentary seat.

Stray dog controversy

Srinagar's city government attracted brief international attention in March 2008 when it announced a mass poisoning program aimed at eliminating the city's population of stray dogs. Officials estimate that 100,000 stray dogs roam the streets of the city, which has a human population of just under 900,000. In a survey conducted by an NGO, it was found that some residents welcomed this program, saying the city was overrun by dogs, while critics contended that more humane methods could have been used to deal with the animals.


As of 2001, Srinagar city had a population of 894,940. The population density
Population density
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is frequently applied to living organisms, and particularly to humans...

 in the city is 556 PD/km2 while the overall population density is 99 PD/km2. The languages spoken are mainly Kashmiri
Kashmiri language
Kashmiri is a language from the Dardic sub-group and it is spoken primarily in the Kashmir Valley, in Jammu and Kashmir. There are approximately 5,554,496 speakers in Jammu and Kashmir, according to the Census of 2001. Most of the 105,000 speakers or so in Pakistan are émigrés from the Kashmir...

, Urdu
Urdu is a register of the Hindustani language that is identified with Muslims in South Asia. It belongs to the Indo-European family. Urdu is the national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. It is also widely spoken in some regions of India, where it is one of the 22 scheduled languages and an...

 and English
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

. Muslims make up more than 97% of the population, Hindus 2% and Sikhs and others 1%.



The city is served by many national highways, including National Highway 1A
National Highway 1A (India)
National Highway 1A , is a National Highway in North India that connects the Kashmir valley to Jammu and the rest of India. The northern terminal is in Uri in Jammu & Kashmir and the southern terminal is in Jalandhar. Stretches of NH 1A run through some extremely treacherous terrain and shut-offs...

 and National Highway 1D
National Highway 1D (India)
National Highway 1D , also known as Srinagar-Leh Highway, is a National Highway entirely within the state of Jammu & Kashmir in North India that connects Srinagar to Leh in Ladakh. It is one of the only two roads that connect Ladakh with the rest of India, the other being Leh-Manali Highway...


Srinagar Airport
Srinagar Airport
Sheikh ul Alam Airport commonly known as Srinagar Airport , is an international airport in Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir, India .It has been named after one of the greatest saints of Kashmir, Sheikh Noor-ud-din Noorani, popularly known to Kashmiris as Sheikh-ul-Alam.Currently the airport has...

 connects the city with other destinations in India, as well as occasional international flights.


The city is part of the Kashmir Railway
Kashmir Railway
The Kashmir Railway is a railway line being built in India to connect the state of Jammu and Kashmir with the rest of the country. Officially termed the Jammu Udhampur Srinagar Baramulla Railway Link , the railway starts from Jammu and, when completed, will travel for to the city of Baramulla on...

, which once completed, will connect the city to the Rail network of India.


Like the state of Jammu and Kashmir, Srinagar too has a distinctive blend of cultural heritage. Holy places in and around the city depict the historical cultural and religious diversity of the city as well as the Kashmir valley.

Places of worship

There are many religious holy places in Srinagar. They include:
  • Hazratbal Shrine
    Hazratbal Shrine
    The Hazratbal Shrine , is a Muslim shrine in Srinagar, Indian Administered Kashmir. It contains a relic believed by many Muslims of Kashmir to be a hair of the Islamic prophet Muhammad...

  • Jama Masjid, Srinagar
    Jama Masjid, Srinagar
    Jamia Masjid is a mosque in Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, Indian Administered Kashmir. The Jamia Masjid of Srinagar is situated at Nowhatta, in the middle of the old city. An important mosque in Srinagar, it was built by Sultan Sikandar in 1400 AD. Later, the son of Sultan Sikandar, Zain-ul-Abidin...

    , one of the oldest mosques in Kashmir
  • Kheer bhawani
    Kheer Bhawani
    Kheer Bhawani is a temple dedicated to the Goddess Kheer Bhawani constructed over a sacred spring .The worship of Kheer Bhawani is universal among the Hindus of Kashmir. The temple is situated at a distance of 14 miles east of Srinagar near the village of Tula Mula...

     in Ganderbal
  • Hari Parbat
    Hari Parbat
    Hari Parbat is a hill overlooking Srinagar, the largest city and summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir, India. It is the site of a Durrani fort, built in 1808. It has the famous Shakti Temple on the western Slope and Muslim shrines of Khwaja Makhdoom Sahib and Akhund Mullah Shah on the southern slope...

    hill hosts shrine of Sarika Mata temple
  • Shankaracharya temple

Performing arts

Performing arts of the city include:
  • Bhand Pather, a form of traditional folk theatre art form of play and dance, is performed by a group of about ten to fifteen artists. They depict in a satirical style social evils. Performance is accompanied by light music.
  • Chakri is a major and popular form of Kashmiri folk music.
  • Another form of Kashmiri genre of music called Sufiana music is also practiced in the city. It was introduced in the valley in the 15th century from Iran. Over centuries, it has assimilated a number of Indian Ragas, and has established itself as a classical music of the region. The instruments used in the music include Santoor, Sitar, Kashmiri Saz, Tabla, and Wasool.
  • Hafiz Nagma, a form of dance, is performed to the accompaniment of Sufiana music. The dancer is a female while males play different instruments used in Sufiana music.
  • Rouf is also an important foulk dance kashmiri women do in marriages or on the eve of IDD/EID. All women's hands on another women's shoulders moving to and fro.


  • National Institute of Technology, Srinagar
    National Institute of Technology, Srinagar
    The National Institute of Technology, Srinagar , formerly Regional Engineering College, Srinagar, commonly known as NIT-Srinagar or NIT-SRI, is an Institute of National Importance in Northern India...

  • University of Kashmir
    University of Kashmir
    -Faculties/Departments:* Arts** Department of Arabic** Department of Urdu** Department of English** Department of Kashmiri** Department of Foreign Languages** Department of Library and Information Science** Department of Linguistics...

    , Srinagar
  • Islamic University of Science & Technology
    Islamic University of Science & Technology
    The Islamic University of Science & Technology is a public university located at Awantipora, Pulwama, Jammu and Kashmir, India. The university has been set up as a centre for higher learning for the people of the Jammu and Kashmir State and its neighbouring regions. The University aspires to be the...

  • Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir
    Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Kashmir
    Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences & Technology of Kashmir is an agricultural university located in Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India...

  • Sri Pratap College
    Sri Pratap College
    Sri Pratap College, Srinagar is a professional college in Kashmir. It is the oldest college in Srinagar locally known as SP College. Established in year 1905 by then Ruler of Jammu and Kashmir Shri Maharaja Pratap Singh....

  • Tyndale Biscoe School
    Tyndale Biscoe School
    Tyndale Biscoe School is an 'all boys school' in Jammu and Kashmir, India, in the heart of the summer capital Srinagar. The school was founded in 1880 and is the oldest school in Srinagar. The school was started by Christian missionaries and was named after Canon Cecil Tyndale-Biscoe...

  • Tiny Harts School
    Tiny Harts School
    Tiny Harts School is a prominent school situated in the valley of Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir. It is a coeducational school recognized by the J&K State Board of School Education. The School was established in the early 1990s by Mrs. Hart who is also the Principal of the school.Tiny Harts School was...

    , Tangpora, Srinagar.
  • Presentation Convent High School
    Presentation Convent High School
    Presentation Convent High School is a girls' primary and secondary school in the Rajbagh neighborhood of Srinagar, Jammu and Kashmir, India.Located on the banks of the Jehlum River, the school is an English-medium institution run by Christian missionaries. It enjoys a reputation for being the...

    , Rajbagh, Srinagar.
  • Burn Hall School
    Burn Hall School
    Burn Hall School is a missionary school for boys situated in Srinagar, India, the summer capital of Jammu and Kashmir. The school was established by the Mill Hill fathers/missionaries of Ireland....

    , Sonawar, Srinagar.
  • Iqbal Memorial Institute
    Iqbal Memorial Institute
    Iqbal Memorial Institute is an educational institution located in the Bemina area of Srinagar, the capital city of Jammu and Kashmir, India. Named after the poet Allama Iqbal, Iqbal Memorial Institute was founded under the aegis of the Iqbal Memorial Trust in 1981.-Background:In 1998, the...

    ,Bemina, Srinagar.
  • S.M.D. High School
    SMD high school
    S.M.D. School is a school located in the heart of Srinagar city at Munawar-abad, India. SMD is a K-12, co-educational school. It has expanded to include a higher secondary wing.-Background:...

     – Munawar-abad
    Munawar Abad locally known as Muniwar , is a town located in heart of Srinagar. It is barely 2 km from Lal Chowk. Munawar-abad is the main link between downtown Srinagar and central Srinagar. It is famous for Ikhwan Hotel, Ikhwan Chowk, S.M.D. High School, Munawar-abad Jamia Masjid, Shrine of...

    , Khayam Road, Srinagar
  • Lal Ded Memorial School
    Lal Ded Memorial School
    Lal Ded Memorial School is one of the oldest high schools in Srinagar, Kashmir, India. it is located on the bank of Jehlum River near 2nd Bridge Habba Kadal...

    , Ganpatyar, Habba Kadal, Srinagar.


Four FM frequencies are available in the city. However, only two bids were received by the government. Adlabs is the only FM radio operator in Srinagar (its bid was Rs. 61 lakh). The second bidder South Asia FM did not qualify because its bid was less than 25 per cent of the highest bidder, the minimum amount to be eligible for bidding.
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