Ujjain
Overview
 
Ujjain (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri), is an ancient city of Malwa region in central India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River (Hindi: क्षिप्रा), today part of the state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh , often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal and Indore is the largest city....

. It is the administrative
Public administration
Public Administration houses the implementation of government policy and an academic discipline that studies this implementation and that prepares civil servants for this work. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" its "fundamental goal.....

 centre of Ujjain District
Ujjain District
Ujjain District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state in central India. The historic city of Ujjain is the district headquarters.The district has an area of 6,091 km², and a population of 1,709,885 , a 24% increase from its 1991 population of 1,386,465...

 and Ujjain Division
Ujjain Division
Ujjain Division is an administrative geographical unit of Madhya Pradesh state of India. Ujjain is the administrative headquarters of the division. Currently , the division consists of districts of Dewas, Mandsaur, Neemuch, Ratlam, Shajapur, and Ujjain....

.

In ancient times the city was called Ujjayini. As mentioned in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

 epic, Ujjayini was the capital of the Avanti Kingdom
Avanti Kingdom
The former Avanti kingdom was one among the many kingdoms ruled by the Yadava kings in the central and western India. Ujjayani was its capital along the river Kshipra, a tributary of river Charmanuati, which itself is a tributary of river Ganges. The Ujjayani of the past is currently known as...

, and has been the Prime Meridian
Prime Meridian
The Prime Meridian is the meridian at which the longitude is defined to be 0°.The Prime Meridian and its opposite the 180th meridian , which the International Date Line generally follows, form a great circle that divides the Earth into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.An international...

 for Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 geographers since the 4th century BCE.
Encyclopedia
Ujjain (also known as Ujain, Ujjayini, Avanti, Avantikapuri), is an ancient city of Malwa region in central India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, on the eastern bank of the Kshipra River (Hindi: क्षिप्रा), today part of the state
States and territories of India
India is a federal union of states comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. The states and territories are further subdivided into districts and so on.-List of states and territories:...

 of Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh , often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal and Indore is the largest city....

. It is the administrative
Public administration
Public Administration houses the implementation of government policy and an academic discipline that studies this implementation and that prepares civil servants for this work. As a "field of inquiry with a diverse scope" its "fundamental goal.....

 centre of Ujjain District
Ujjain District
Ujjain District is a district of Madhya Pradesh state in central India. The historic city of Ujjain is the district headquarters.The district has an area of 6,091 km², and a population of 1,709,885 , a 24% increase from its 1991 population of 1,386,465...

 and Ujjain Division
Ujjain Division
Ujjain Division is an administrative geographical unit of Madhya Pradesh state of India. Ujjain is the administrative headquarters of the division. Currently , the division consists of districts of Dewas, Mandsaur, Neemuch, Ratlam, Shajapur, and Ujjain....

.

In ancient times the city was called Ujjayini. As mentioned in the Mahabharata
Mahabharata
The Mahabharata is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India and Nepal, the other being the Ramayana. The epic is part of itihasa....

 epic, Ujjayini was the capital of the Avanti Kingdom
Avanti Kingdom
The former Avanti kingdom was one among the many kingdoms ruled by the Yadava kings in the central and western India. Ujjayani was its capital along the river Kshipra, a tributary of river Charmanuati, which itself is a tributary of river Ganges. The Ujjayani of the past is currently known as...

, and has been the Prime Meridian
Prime Meridian
The Prime Meridian is the meridian at which the longitude is defined to be 0°.The Prime Meridian and its opposite the 180th meridian , which the International Date Line generally follows, form a great circle that divides the Earth into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres.An international...

 for Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 geographers since the 4th century BCE. Ujjain is one of the seven sacred cities (Sapta Puri
Sapta Puri
Sapta Puri are seven holy pilgrimage centres in India where the word 'puri' means "town" or "city" suffixed to the word 'sapta' meaning "seven"...

) of the Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

s, and the Kumbh Mela
Kumbh Mela
Kumbh Mela is a mass Hindu pilgrimage in which Hindus gather at the Ganges river.The normal Kumbh Mela is celebrated every 3 years, the Ardh Kumbh Mela is celebrated every six years at Haridwar and Prayag, the Purna Kumbh takes place every twelve years, at four places Prayag, Haridwar, Ujjain,...

 religious festival
Festival
A festival or gala is an event, usually and ordinarily staged by a local community, which centers on and celebrates some unique aspect of that community and the Festival....

 is held there every 12 years. It is also home to Mahakaleshwar Jyotirlinga, one of the twelve Jyotirlinga
Jyotirlinga
A Jyotirlinga or Jyotirling or Jyotirlingam is a shrine where Lord Shiva, an aspect of God in Hinduism is worshipped in the form of a Jyotirlingam or "Lingam of light." There are twelve traditional Jyotirlinga shrines in India....

 shrines to the god Shiva
Shiva
Shiva is a major Hindu deity, and is the destroyer god or transformer among the Trimurti, the Hindu Trinity of the primary aspects of the divine. God Shiva is a yogi who has notice of everything that happens in the world and is the main aspect of life. Yet one with great power lives a life of a...

 and is also the place where Lord Krishna got education with Balarama and Sudama from Maharshi Sandipani
Sandipani
Sandipani, which means "Sage of Gods", was a guru of Lord Krishna. Sandipani was a rishi/muni/saint of Ujjain, previously known as Avantipura....

.

History of Ujjain



The earliest references to the city, as Ujjaini, are from the time of the Buddha
Gautama Buddha
Siddhārtha Gautama was a spiritual teacher from the Indian subcontinent, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded. In most Buddhist traditions, he is regarded as the Supreme Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama (Sanskrit: सिद्धार्थ गौतम; Pali: Siddhattha Gotama) was a spiritual teacher from the Indian...

, when it was the capital of the Avanti Kingdom
Avanti Kingdom
The former Avanti kingdom was one among the many kingdoms ruled by the Yadava kings in the central and western India. Ujjayani was its capital along the river Kshipra, a tributary of river Charmanuati, which itself is a tributary of river Ganges. The Ujjayani of the past is currently known as...

. Since the 4th century B.C. the city has marked the first meridian of longitude in Hindu geography. It is also reputed to have been the residence of Ashoka
Ashoka
Ashok Maurya or Ashoka , popularly known as Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from ca. 269 BC to 232 BC. One of India's greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over most of present-day India after a number of military conquests...

 (who subsequently became the emperor), when he was the viceroy of the western provinces of the Mauryan empire.

In the Post-Mauryan period, the city was ruled by the Sungas and the Satavahanas consecutively. It was contested for a period between the Satavahanas and the Ror
Ror
The Ror is a Kshatriya community and numbers between 750,000 and 1,000,000. They hold nearly 270 villages in Haryana and 52 more in Western Uttar Pradesh and the Haridwar district of Uttarakhand....

 Sakas (devotees of Shakumbari), known as Western Satraps; however, following the end of the Satavahana dynasty, the city was retained by the Ror
Ror
The Ror is a Kshatriya community and numbers between 750,000 and 1,000,000. They hold nearly 270 villages in Haryana and 52 more in Western Uttar Pradesh and the Haridwar district of Uttarakhand....

s from the 2nd to the 4th century CE. Ujjain is mentioned as the city of Ozene in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea or Periplus of the Red Sea is a Greco-Roman periplus, written in Greek, describing navigation and trading opportunities from Roman Egyptian ports like Berenice along the coast of the Red Sea, and others along Northeast Africa and India...

, an antique Greek description of sea ports and trade centers in the western Indian Ocean
Indian Ocean
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface. It is bounded on the north by the Indian Subcontinent and Arabian Peninsula ; on the west by eastern Africa; on the east by Indochina, the Sunda Islands, and...

. Following the enthroning of the Gupta dynasty, the city soon became an important seat in the annals of that empire. Ujjain is considered to be the traditional capital of King Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II the Great, very often referred to as Vikramaditya or Chandragupta Vikramaditya in Sanskrit; was one of the most powerful emperors of the Gupta empire in northern India. His rule spanned c...

, also known as Vikramaditya, at whose court the nine poets known as the navaratna (nine jewels) of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

 literature are said to have flourished.

In the 10th and 11th centuries, Ujjain was a major centre of mathematical and astronomical research. The famous mathematicians who worked there included: Brahmagupta
Brahmagupta
Brahmagupta was an Indian mathematician and astronomer who wrote many important works on mathematics and astronomy. His best known work is the Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta , written in 628 in Bhinmal...

, whose book Brahmasphutasiddhanta
Brahmasphutasiddhanta
The main work of Brahmagupta, Brāhmasphuṭasiddhānta , written c.628, contains ideas including a good understanding of the mathematical role of zero, rules for manipulating both negative and positive numbers, a method for computing square roots, methods of solving linear and some quadratic...

was responsible for spreading the use of zero, negative numbers and the positional number system to Arabia and Cambodia
Cambodia
Cambodia , officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia...

; Varahamihira
Varahamihira
Varāhamihira , also called Varaha or Mihira, was an Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer who lived in Ujjain...

, who was the first to discover many trigonometric identities; and Bhaskaracharya, or Bhaskara II, whose book Lilavati
Lilavati
Lilavati was Indian mathematician Bhāskara II's treatise on mathematics. It is the first volume of his main work Siddhānta Shiromani, Sanskrit for "Crown of treatises," alongside Bijaganita, Grahaganita and Golādhyāya.- Name :The name comes from his daughter Līlāvatī...

broke new ground in many areas of mathematics.

Ujjain was invaded by the forces of the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
The Delhi Sultanate is a term used to cover five short-lived, Delhi based kingdoms or sultanates, of Turkic origin in medieval India. The sultanates ruled from Delhi between 1206 and 1526, when the last was replaced by the Mughal dynasty...

 led by Iltutmish
Iltutmish
Shams-ud-din Iltutmish was the third ruler of the Mamluk dynasty of Delhi of Turkic origin. He was a slave of Qutub-ud-din-Aybak and later became his son-in-law and close lieutenant. He was the Governor of Badaun when he deposed Qutub-ud-din's successor Aram Shah and acceeded to the throne of the...

 in 1235, suffering widespread destruction and systematic desecration of temples. Under the Mughal
Mughal Empire
The Mughal Empire ,‎ or Mogul Empire in traditional English usage, was an imperial power from the Indian Subcontinent. The Mughal emperors were descendants of the Timurids...

 emperor Akbar it became the capital of Malwa. During the last half of the 18th century Ujjain was the headquarters of the Maratha
Maratha
The Maratha are an Indian caste, predominantly in the state of Maharashtra. The term Marāthā has three related usages: within the Marathi speaking region it describes the dominant Maratha caste; outside Maharashtra it can refer to the entire regional population of Marathi-speaking people;...

 leader Scindia. The Scindias later established themselves at Gwalior, and Ujjain remained part of Gwalior state until Indian Independence in 1947. Gwalior state became a princely state
Princely state
A Princely State was a nominally sovereign entitity of British rule in India that was not directly governed by the British, but rather by an Indian ruler under a form of indirect rule such as suzerainty or paramountcy.-British relationship with the Princely States:India under the British Raj ...

 of the British Raj
British Raj
British Raj was the British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947; The term can also refer to the period of dominion...

 after the Maratha defeat in the Third Anglo-Maratha War
Third Anglo-Maratha War
The Third Anglo-Maratha War was the final and decisive conflict between the British East India Company and the Maratha Empire in India. The war left the Company in control of most of India. It began with an invasion of Maratha territory by 110,400 British East India Company troops, the largest...

, and Gwalior, Ujjain, and the neighboring princely states were made a part of the Central India Agency
Central India Agency
The Central India Agency was a political office of the British Indian Empire, which covered the northern half of present-day Madhya Pradesh state. The Central India Agency was made up entirely of princely states, which were under native rulers...

. After Indian independence, the Scindia ruler of Gwalior acceded to the Indian Union, and Ujjain became part of the Madhya Bharat
Madhya Bharat
Madhya Bharat , also known as Malwa Union was an Indian state in west-central India, created on 28 May 1948 from twenty-five princely states which until 1947 had been part of the Central India Agency, with Jivaji Rao Scindia as its Rajpramukh...

 state. In 1956 Madhya Bharat was merged into the Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh , often called the Heart of India, is a state in central India. Its capital is Bhopal and Indore is the largest city....

 state.

Ancient monuments and tourist sites in Ujjain

  • The Mahakal Temple, one of the twelve Jyotirlinga
    Jyotirlinga
    A Jyotirlinga or Jyotirling or Jyotirlingam is a shrine where Lord Shiva, an aspect of God in Hinduism is worshipped in the form of a Jyotirlingam or "Lingam of light." There are twelve traditional Jyotirlinga shrines in India....

    s, is a famous and venerated Shiva
    Shiva
    Shiva is a major Hindu deity, and is the destroyer god or transformer among the Trimurti, the Hindu Trinity of the primary aspects of the divine. God Shiva is a yogi who has notice of everything that happens in the world and is the main aspect of life. Yet one with great power lives a life of a...

     temple. The Shivling in this temple is supposed to be the only Jyotirling which faces south and hence it is known as Dakshinmukhi or the south-facing ling. It is the most popular and important temple of Ujjain. Every year on Shivratri (claimed to be the wedding day of Lord Shiva), there is a huge crowd of devotees for darshan. The same kind of public crowd can be seen in the month of Savaan, Nagpanchami. On every Monday of "Savan", there is a huge procession for the Lord Shiva idol in the city attended by large numbers of devotees from across the India.
Mahakal derives its name from "kaal" meaning end of life - death; the word Mahakaal means Lord of Death.

  • Sri Sri Radha Madan Mohan Temple, of the ISKCON (International Society for Krishna Consciousness) or Hare Krishna
    International Society for Krishna Consciousness
    The International Society for Krishna Consciousness , known colloquially as the Hare Krishna movement, is a Gaudiya Vaishnava religious organization. It was founded in 1966 in New York City by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada...

    Movement, also has a guest house and restaurant, and is a major attraction for tourists, though it is very new on the map of Ujjain.

  • The temple of Chintaman Ganesh
    Chintaman ganesh
    ChintaMan Ganesh or Chintamani ganesh is an ancient holy temple of Lord Ganesha in Ujjain. Chintaman Ganesh is the biggest Ganesh Mandir of Ujjain. It means 'reliving tensions'. As it is the temple of Ganesha, people take the blessings of Ganesh for starting every new venture. This temple is built...

     is the biggest ancient temple of Lord Ganesha in Ujjain.

  • The temple of Maa Wagheshvari is known for its tall idol of the goddess Wagheshwari and "Sinh (lion) - Dwar (gate)".

  • The Harsidhhi
    Harsidhhi
    Harsidhhi is considered one of the aspect of Amba and also Kalika, the Hindu Devi.Her temples are found in Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh.-Kuldevi:She is worshiped as Kuldevi by many Kshatriya and Rajput clans of India...

     Temple is one of the Shaktipeeth, situated at 52 places in India.

  • The Sandipani Ashram is where tradition says Shri Krishna
    Krishna
    Krishna is a central figure of Hinduism and is traditionally attributed the authorship of the Bhagavad Gita. He is the supreme Being and considered in some monotheistic traditions as an Avatar of Vishnu...

     was educated with Balarama
    Balarama
    Balarama , also known as Baladeva, Balabhadra and Halayudha, is the elder brother of the divine being, Krishna in Hinduism. Within Vaishnavism Hindu traditions Balarama is worshipped as an Avatar of Vishnu, and he is also listed as such in the Bhagavata Purana...

     and Sudama
    Sudama
    Sudama was a childhood friend of Hindu deity Krishna from Mathura, the story of whose visit to Dwaraka to meet Krishna, is mentioned in the Bhagavata Purana...

     from Maharshi Sandipani
    Sandipani
    Sandipani, which means "Sage of Gods", was a guru of Lord Krishna. Sandipani was a rishi/muni/saint of Ujjain, previously known as Avantipura....

    .

  • The Siddha Ashram, located between Ramghat and Narshinghat, is known for research in Ayurvedic medicine and Kundalini
    Kundalini
    Kundalini literally means coiled. In yoga, a "corporeal energy" - an unconscious, instinctive or libidinal force or Shakti, lies coiled at the base of the spine. It is envisioned either as a goddess or else as a sleeping serpent, hence a number of English renderings of the term such as 'serpent...

     Shaktipat.

  • The Kaliyadeh Palace, located on the north of the city, is one of the palaces belonging to royal Scindia family of Madhya Pradesh.

  • The Bharthari caves is an ancient site which has some interesting legends associated with it. It is said that it holds tunnels which lead directly to 4 ancient dhams (char dham). These ways were later shut down by Britishers.

  • Canopy (Chhatri or Dewali) of Veer Durgadas Rathore "the Great Warrior and protector of Marwar" at Chakratirth.

  • The Observatory (Vedha Shala)
    Yantra Mandir
    The Yantra Mantra is an equinoctial dial, consisting a gigantic triangular gnomon with the hypotenuse parallel to the Earth's axis. On either side of the gnomon is a quadrant of a circle, parallel to the plane of the equator...

     built by a Rajput king, Raja Jai Singh II, in the 1720s, is one of the five such observatories in India and features ancient astronomical devices.

  • The Prashanti Dham is a holy place, where Sai Baba's Ashram is situated.

  • Jain temples: Jai Singh Pura Atishay Kshetra, Tapobhoomi, Avanti Parshwanath, Hanumant Baag, Manibhadradham Bhairavgarh.

  • The Kothi Palace presents a sight worth watching in the evening.

  • The Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan museum, located near Chamunda tower, holds many ancient objects.

  • The throne of Maharaja Vikramaditya
    Vikramaditya
    Vikramaditya was a legendary emperor of Ujjain, India, famed for his wisdom, valour and magnanimity. The title "Vikramaditya" was later assumed by many other kings in Indian history, notably the Gupta King Chandragupta II and Samrat Hem Chandra Vikramaditya .The name King Vikramaditya is a...

    , known as the "seat of judgment (salabanjika throne)" may be located in the Rudra Sagar lake.

  • Other temples are Harsidhhi (Durga Temple), Gadh Kalika, Kaal Bhairav, Triveni (Nav Graha Shani Mandir), Mangalnaath, Siddhhanath and Shiv Shakti.

Among Seven Holy Cities of India

Moreover, Ujjain is one of seven most holy places for Hindus in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 where Varanasi
Varanasi
-Etymology:The name Varanasi has its origin possibly from the names of the two rivers Varuna and Assi, for the old city lies in the north shores of the Ganga bounded by its two tributaries, the Varuna and the Asi, with the Ganges being to its south...

 is considered as the holiest of the seven holy cities.
A Kṣetra is a sacred ground, a field of active power, a place where Moksha
Moksha
Within Indian religions, moksha or mukti , literally "release" , is the liberation from samsara and the concomitant suffering involved in being subject to the cycle of repeated death and reincarnation or rebirth.-Origins:It is highly probable that the concept of moksha was first developed in...

, final release can be obtained. The Garuda Purana
Garuda Purana
Garuda Purana is one of the Puranas which are part of the Hindu body of texts known as smriti. It is a Vaishnava Purana and its first part contains a dialog between Vishnu and Garuda, the King of Birds...

 enumerates seven cities as giver of Moksha. They are Ayodhya, Mathura, Māyā
Haridwar
Haridwar is an important pilgrimage city and municipality in the Haridwar district of Uttarakhand, India...

, Kāsi
Varanasi
-Etymology:The name Varanasi has its origin possibly from the names of the two rivers Varuna and Assi, for the old city lies in the north shores of the Ganga bounded by its two tributaries, the Varuna and the Asi, with the Ganges being to its south...

, Kāñchī, Avantikā and Dvārāvatī.

Various Names of Ujjain

Since Ujjain is one of the oldest cities in India
India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

, it has been known by many names:
  • Avantika
  • Padmavati
    Padmavati
    -Mythology:* Alamelu, aka Padmāvatī, Hindu goddess and consort of Sri Venkateshwara of Tirupati* Another name for the Hindu serpent goddess Manasa* Padmavati , Jain goddess-Given name:...

  • Kushasthali
  • Bhagavati
  • Haranyavati
  • Kandakatringa
  • Kumudvati
  • Pratikalpa
  • Ujjayani
  • Udeni
  • Vishala

It is said that to the Western astronomers it was known as "Arin".

Geography

Ujjain is situated on the Malwa Plateau in Central India. The soil
Soil
Soil is a natural body consisting of layers of mineral constituents of variable thicknesses, which differ from the parent materials in their morphological, physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics...

 is black and stony. The vegetation is typical of arid
Arid
A region is said to be arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or even preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life...

 regions with thorny trees like babul
Babul
Babul or is a 1950 Bollywood film directed by S.U. Sunny produced and with music direction by Naushad. The film stars Dilip Kumar, Munawar Sultana and Nargis. A box-office success, the film became the second highest earning film of 1950, earning an approximate gross of Rs. 1,25,00,000 and a nett...

 and acacia
Acacia
Acacia is a genus of shrubs and trees belonging to the subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, first described in Africa by the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus in 1773. Many non-Australian species tend to be thorny, whereas the majority of Australian acacias are not...

 dominating the landscape. Soybean
Soybean
The soybean or soya bean is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean which has numerous uses...

, wheat
Wheat
Wheat is a cereal grain, originally from the Levant region of the Near East, but now cultivated worldwide. In 2007 world production of wheat was 607 million tons, making it the third most-produced cereal after maize and rice...

, jowar and bajra
Pearl millet
Pearl millet is the most widely grown type of millet. Grown in Africa and the Indian subcontinent since prehistoric times, it is generally accepted that pearl millet originated in Africa and was subsequently introduced into India. The center of diversity, and suggested area of domestication, for...

 are the main crops
Crop (agriculture)
A crop is a non-animal species or variety that is grown to be harvested as food, livestock fodder, fuel or for any other economic purpose. Major world crops include maize , wheat, rice, soybeans, hay, potatoes and cotton. While the term "crop" most commonly refers to plants, it can also include...

 grown.

Ujjain is located at 23.182778°N 75.777222°E. It has an average elevation of 491 metres (1610 ft).

Demographics

India census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

, Ujjain had a population of 429,933. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Ujjain has an average literacy rate of 72%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 79%, and female literacy is 66%. In Ujjain, 13% of the population is under 7 years.Ujjain city is spread on the area of 93 km2 and is 78th largest city in India and 5th in M.P.

Climate

Ujjain experiences a warm sub-tropical climate, typical of the interior Indian subcontinent. Summer starts in late March with temperatures rising to 45°C at its peak in May. In addition, hot winds (called loo) may blow in the afternoons, adding to the discomfort. The monsoon arrives in the middle of June and continues till early October. About 870mm (35 inches) of precipitation is received during those months.

The rest of October generally is very warm and with high humidity. Winter starts in the middle of November and is pleasant and cool with daytime temperatures typically 20°C, though temperatures can drop significantly in the night.

Administrative

Ujjain city has two legislative assembly zones, known as Ujjain North and Ujjain South.
For Parliamentary purposes it is treated as one seat. There are 54 wards; ward members are elected directly by the people.

Economy

The economy of Ujjain is mainly dependent on the agricultural activities of the nearby villages. Two main crops are grown each year: wheat as the major Rabi crop, soybean as the major Kharif crop. Ujjain agriculture is sensitive to changes in rainfall and failure of monsoon cycles can lay a devastating toll on agriculture and the local economy.

Ujjain was previously a major industrial area having steel plant,soyabeen oil plant,shree synthetics ltd.and a dalda mill and was a great centre of the textile industry with a number of textile mills in the city. Almost all the mills have since closed. Religious tourism is also a contributor to the economy, especially during the Simhasta Mela.

A number of new infrastructure projects are under construction. SAIL
Steel Authority of India Limited
Steel Authority of India Limited from 116950 The company's current chairman is C.S Verma. With an annual production of 13.5 million metric tons, SAIL is the 14th largest steel producer in the world....

 has plans to operate a Special Processing Unit from Ujjain to cater to regional supply. With cheaper land & labour costs Ujjain is creating enough attention for new investments.

Ujjain also generates huge revenue from the boost given to the economy by the holy fair of Kumbh Mela
Kumbh Mela
Kumbh Mela is a mass Hindu pilgrimage in which Hindus gather at the Ganges river.The normal Kumbh Mela is celebrated every 3 years, the Ardh Kumbh Mela is celebrated every six years at Haridwar and Prayag, the Purna Kumbh takes place every twelve years, at four places Prayag, Haridwar, Ujjain,...

 locally known as Simhastha.

Transport

Ujjain is well-connected by rail, air and road. It is on the Western Railway and is connected by direct train to most major Indian cities.Ujjain has an air strip. The nearest airport is Indore Airport.The road network is developed with other parts of Madhya Pradesh.Ujjain is connected to Indore through SH-27 and SH-18 Dewas
Dewas
Dewas is an ancient town situated on the Malwa plateau in the West-central part of Indian state called Madhya Pradesh, about 160 km south west from state capital, Bhopal. It is the administrative center of the Dewas District, and was formerly the seat of two princely states during the British...

-Badnawar passes through it.
Unfortunately Ujjain is the largest city which has no national highway.

Railway Stations

There are four railway stations:
  1. Ujjain Junction
    Ujjain Junction
    Ujjain Junction is the main railway station of Ujjain City in the western part of Madhya Pradesh.- Location and Structure :The station is located 12 km to the east of Ujjain. The former name of this station was Avantikapuri....

     main
  2. Vikram Nagar
  3. Chintaman (Metre Gauge)
  4. Pingleshwar

Bus Stations

  1. Dewas Gate(Shaheed Raja Bhau Mahakal bus stand)
  2. Nanakheda(Pt. Deendayal Upadhyay bus stand)

Major Roads

Kota - Indore Road, Dewas Road, Agar Road, Badnagar Road, Maksi Road, Nagda Road , Tarana Road Via Undasa Dam , Chintaman Road Connected to fourlane from Badnagar to Sanwer

Education

Primary and secondary education in Ujjain is offered by various schools which are affiliated to either Madhya Pradesh Board of Secondary Education or CBSE.

Ujjain is well known for its university, Vikram University
Vikram University
Vikram University is a university in the city of Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh, India.Ujjain is known for its antiquity and its rich cultural and religious traditions.The university, which is named after the ruler Vikramaditya, was established in 1957...

 which is the second oldest university in Madhya Pradesh, established in 1957. The city has one Government aided Engineering College, Ujjain Engineering College
Ujjain Engineering College
Ujjain Engineering College formerly known as Government Engineering College established in 1966. This college is declared autonomous by government of Madhya Pradesh. This is in top five colleges in this state. Colleges have their own syllabus, act, and regulation...

 (UEC), which is the 5th best ranked college in Madhya Pradesh among all colleges and numerous privately run Engineering and Management institutes. Medical Colleges include Government aided Govt. Autonomous Dhanvantri Ayurveda College & privately held R.D. Gardi Medical College.Presently city has seven engineering ,one ayurved,one medical,one nursing college and two govt. organised universities.

84 Mahadeva (Shiva) of Ujjain

There are 84 Gods of Ujjain, Chaurasi Mahadev (Shiva), out of them four are the dwarapalas of Mahakala Ujjain. The four dwarapalas are Pingaleshwara (East), Kayavarohaneshwara (South), Vilveshwara (West) and Dardareshwara (North). The Chaurasi Ishwaras are:

External links

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