Ryazan is a city and the administrative center of Ryazan Oblast
Ryazan Oblast
Ryazan Oblast is a federal subject of Russia . Its administrative center is the city of Ryazan, which is the oblast's largest city. Population: -Geography:...

, Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

. It is located on the Oka River
Oka River
Oka is a river in central Russia, the largest right tributary of the Volga. It flows through the regions of Oryol, Tula, Kaluga, Moscow, Ryazan, Vladimir, and Nizhny Novgorod and is navigable over a large part of its total length, as far upstream as to the town of Kaluga. Its length exceeds...

 196 kilometres (121.8 mi) southeast of Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

. Population:

The strategic bomber base Dyagilevo
Dyagilevo is an air base in Ryazan Oblast, Russia located 3 km west of Ryazan. It has served as a training center for Russia's strategic bomber force....

 is just west of the city, and the air base of Alexandrovo
Alexandrovo air base
Ryazan Alexandrovo is an air base in Ryazan Oblast, Russia located southeast of Ryazan. It was probably an attack aircraft base during the Cold War. During the 1990s, it housed Mi-8 and Mi-24 aircraft of the Russian Air Force...

 is to the southeast as is the Ryazan Turlatovo Airport. Major industries in the city include electronics and oil refining.


It is argued that the Ryazan kremlin
A kremlin , same root as in kremen is a major fortified central complex found in historic Russian cities. This word is often used to refer to the best-known one, the Moscow Kremlin, or metonymically to the government that is based there...

 was founded in 800, by Slavic settlers, as a part of their drive into territory previously populated by Finnic
Finnic peoples
The Finnic or Fennic peoples were historic ethnic groups who spoke various languages traditionally classified as Finno-Permic...

 peoples. Initially it was built of wood, gradually replaced by masonry. The oldest preserved part of the kremlin dates back to the 12th century.

However, the first written mention of the city, under the name of Pereslavl, dates to 1095. At that time the city was part of the independent Ryazan Principality
Ryazan Principality
The Grand Duchy of Ryazan existed from 1078 when it was separated from the Chernigov Principality as the provincial Murom Principality.-Prior to the invasion of Batu Khan:...

, which had existed since 1078 and which was centered on the old city of Ryazan. The first ruler of Ryazan was supposedly Yaroslav Sviatoslavich, Prince of Ryazan and Murom (cities of Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus'
Kievan Rus was a medieval polity in Eastern Europe, from the late 9th to the mid 13th century, when it disintegrated under the pressure of the Mongol invasion of 1237–1240....

The lands of Ryazan, situated on the border of forest and steppe
In physical geography, steppe is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes...

, suffered numerous invasions from the south as well as from the north, carried out by a variety of military forces including Cumans, but particularly the Principality was in a conflict with Vladimir-Suzdal
The Vladimir-Suzdal Principality or Vladimir-Suzdal Rus’ was one of the major principalities which succeeded Kievan Rus' in the late 12th century and lasted until the late 14th century. For a long time the Principality was a vassal of the Mongolian Golden Horde...

. By the end of XII the capital of Duchy was burnt couple of times by the armies of Suzdal
Suzdal is a town in Vladimir Oblast, Russia, situated northeast of Moscow, from the city of Vladimir, on the Kamenka River. Population: -History:...

. Ryazan was the first Russian city to be sacked by the Mongol
Mongols ) are a Central-East Asian ethnic group that lives mainly in the countries of Mongolia, China, and Russia. In China, ethnic Mongols can be found mainly in the central north region of China such as Inner Mongolia...

 horde of Batu Khan
Batu Khan
Batu Khan was a Mongol ruler and founder of the Ulus of Jochi , the sub-khanate of the Mongol Empire. Batu was a son of Jochi and grandson of Genghis Khan. His ulus was the chief state of the Golden Horde , which ruled Rus and the Caucasus for around 250 years, after also destroying the armies...

. On December 21, 1237 it was thoroughly devastated and never fully recovered. As result of the sack, the seat of the principality was moved about 55 kilometres (34.2 mi) to the town of Pereslavl-Ryazansky, which subsequently took the name of the destroyed capital. The site of the old capital now carries the name of Staraya Ryazan (Old Ryazan), close to Spassk-Ryazansky
Spassk-Ryazansky is a town and the administrative center of Spassky District of Ryazan Oblast, Russia, located on the shores of the Lake Spasskoye southeast of Ryazan. Population:...


In the 1380 during the Battle of Kulikovo
Battle of Kulikovo
The Battle of Kulikovo was a battle between Tatar Mamai and Muscovy Dmitriy and portrayed by Russian historiography as a stand-off between Russians and the Golden Horde. However, the political situation at the time was much more complicated and concerned the politics of the Northeastern Rus'...

 the Grand Prince of Ryazan Oleg and his men came under a coalition of Mamai
Mamai of Borjigin kin, was a powerful military commander of the Blue Horde in the 1370s which is now the Southern Ukrainian Steppes and the Crimean Peninsula....

, a strongman of the Tartar Golden Horde
Golden Horde
The Golden Horde was a Mongol and later Turkicized khanate that formed the north-western sector of the Mongol Empire...

, and the Grand Duke of Lithuania
Lithuania , officially the Republic of Lithuania is a country in Northern Europe, the biggest of the three Baltic states. It is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, whereby to the west lie Sweden and Denmark...

, against the armies under the command of the Grand Prince of Vladimir
Vladimir is a city and the administrative center of Vladimir Oblast, Russia, located on the Klyazma River, to the east of Moscow along the M7 motorway. Population:...

, Dmitri Ivanovich of Moscow
Dmitri Donskoi
Saint Dmitry Ivanovich Donskoy , or Dmitry of the Don, sometimes referred to as Dmitry I , son of Ivan II the Meek of Moscow , reigned as the Prince of Moscow from 1359 and Grand Prince of Vladimir from 1363 to his death. He was the first prince of Moscow to openly challenge Mongol authority in...


Late in the 13th century the Princes of Ryazan moved their capital to Pereslavl, which is known as Ryazan from the 16th century (officially renamed in 1778). The principality was finally incorporated into that of Moscow in 1521.

In September 1999, Ryazan was one of the cities involved in the Russian apartment bombings
Russian apartment bombings
The Russian apartment bombings were a series of explosions that hit four apartment blocks in the Russian cities of Buynaksk, Moscow, and Volgodonsk in September 1999, killing 293 people and injuring 651. The explosions occurred in Buynaksk on 4 September, Moscow on 9 and 13 September, and...

 episode, though did not actually experience a successful bomb attack.

Administrative divisions

The city of Ryazan is divided into four administrative districts: Moskovsky, Oktyabrsky, Sovetsky, and Zheleznodorozhny.


An economically important educational institution in the city is the State Radiotechnical University. The Higher Paratrooper Command Academy used to be Russia's only military school training officers for the airborne forces, giving Ryazan the reputation as "paratroopers capital". However, in 2010 the institution discontinued enrollment to its paratrooper program, and now focuses on training professional sergeants for the armed forces.


Ryazan has a reputation of being one Russia's electronics hubs. Around a quarter of the city's population is affected by the electronics industry. The most notable company in this sector is Plazma (company), which produces plasma screens for products including tanks and locomotives. In 1994, the company created a 50-50 research and development joint-venture with the South Korean company Orion PDP. Plazma's expertise helped Orion PDP become one of the world's leading manufacturers of plasma television panels. In addition to plasma technology, Plazma produces LCD screens, industrial gas lasers and medical lasers. The company exports its products to foreign countries, including to the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, China
Chinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...

 and Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...


Another key industry in the city is oil refining. The Ryazan Oil Refinery, owned by TNK-BP
TNK-BP is a major vertically integrated Russian oil company. It is Russia's third largest oil producer and among the ten largest private oil companies in the world. TNK-BP is Russia's third largest oil company in terms of reserves and crude oil production...

, is one of the city's largest employers. The plant can refine 17 million metric tons of oil per year.

The economy of Ryazan benefits from a large number of skilled engineers graduating from the State Radiotechnical University, and from the city's close proximity to Moscow
Moscow is the capital, the most populous city, and the most populous federal subject of Russia. The city is a major political, economic, cultural, scientific, religious, financial, educational, and transportation centre of Russia and the continent...

, which can be reached in 90 minutes by car.


  • Ryazan Kremlin
  • Pavlov
    Ivan Pavlov
    Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was a famous Russian physiologist. Although he made significant contributions to psychology, he was not in fact a psychologist himself but was a mathematician and actually had strong distaste for the field....

  • Architectural Museum
  • Art Museum
  • Art Gallery "At The Old Crossroad" are situated in the historical and cultural monument of the 18 century "Gostiny Dvor"
  • Drama Theater
  • Puppet Theater
  • Children's Circus
    A circus is commonly a travelling company of performers that may include clowns, acrobats, trained animals, trapeze acts, musicians, hoopers, tightrope walkers, jugglers, unicyclists and other stunt-oriented artists...

  • Pyany Park ("Drunk" Park)

Notable people

  • Alexander Vasilyevich Alexandrov
    Alexander Vasilyevich Alexandrov
    Alexander Vasilyevich Alexandrov was a Russian Soviet composer, the founder of the Alexandrov Ensemble, who wrote the music for the national anthem of the Soviet Union, which, in 2001, became the anthem of Russia . During his career, he also worked as a professor of the Moscow State Conservatory,...

    , Russian Soviet composer; wrote the music for the national anthem
    National anthem
    A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nation's government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people.- History :Anthems rose to prominence...

     of the Soviet Union
    Soviet Union
    The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

    , which, in 2001, became the anthem of Russia (with new lyrics)
  • Alexander Pirogov
    Alexander Pirogov
    Alexander Stepanovich Pirogov was a Russian bass opera singer.Pirogov was born in the village of Novosyolki, one of five sons of a musical father. Four of the five brothers became singers, most notably Grigory, also a bass....

    , a Russian bass opera singer
  • Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn, a Russian and Soviet novelist and dramatist
  • Andrey Markov
    Andrey Markov
    Andrey Andreyevich Markov was a Russian mathematician. He is best known for his work on theory of stochastic processes...

    , the mathematician who pioneered work on Markov chains
  • Erast Garin
    Erast Garin
    Erast Pavlovich Garin was, together with Igor Ilyinsky and Sergey Martinson, one of the leading comic actors of Vsevolod Meyerhold's company and of the Soviet cinema. He was named People's Artist of the USSR in 1977....

    , one of the leading comic actors of the Soviet cinema
  • Irina Meleshina, a Russian long jumper
  • Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin
    Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin
    Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin , was a Russian practitioner of selection, Honorable Member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences, and academician of the Lenin All-Union Academy of Agriculture....

    , a practitioner selection
    In the context of evolution, certain traits or alleles of genes segregating within a population may be subject to selection. Under selection, individuals with advantageous or "adaptive" traits tend to be more successful than their peers reproductively—meaning they contribute more offspring to the...

  • Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, the famous physiologist and founder of classical conditioning
    Classical conditioning
    Classical conditioning is a form of conditioning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov...

  • Kirill Sosunov
    Kirill Sosunov
    Kirill Sosunov is a Russian long jumper. He is the 1998 European champion, and that year he also set his personal best jump with 8.38 metres. The previous year he had won World Championships medals both indoor and outdoor....

    , a Russian long jumper
  • Konstantin Georgiyevich Paustovsky, the Russian Soviet writer
    A writer is a person who produces literature, such as novels, short stories, plays, screenplays, poetry, or other literary art. Skilled writers are able to use language to portray ideas and images....

     nominated for the Nobel Prize for literature in 1965
  • Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky, one of the inventors of the space
    Space is the boundless, three-dimensional extent in which objects and events occur and have relative position and direction. Physical space is often conceived in three linear dimensions, although modern physicists usually consider it, with time, to be part of a boundless four-dimensional continuum...

    A rocket is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle which obtains thrust from a rocket engine. In all rockets, the exhaust is formed entirely from propellants carried within the rocket before use. Rocket engines work by action and reaction...

  • Mikhail Yevgrafovich Saltykov-Shchedrin, a major Russian satirist of the 19th century (Deputy Governor of Ryazan in 1858-1860)
  • Sergei Yesenin
    Sergei Yesenin
    Sergei Alexandrovich Yesenin was a Russian lyrical poet. He was one of the most popular and well-known Russian poets of the 20th century but committed suicide at the age of 30...

    , a poet
    A poet is a person who writes poetry. A poet's work can be literal, meaning that his work is derived from a specific event, or metaphorical, meaning that his work can take on many meanings and forms. Poets have existed since antiquity, in nearly all languages, and have produced works that vary...

    , for whom the Ryazan State University
    Ryazan State University
    The Ryazan State University named for S. A. Yesenin is a university in Ryazan, Ryazan Oblast, Russia. It was founded in 1915. It bears the name of Russian poet Sergei Yesenin, who grew up in the region.-History:...

     is named
  • Yakov Petrovich Polonsky, a Russian poet and writer

Twin towns/sister cities

Ryazan is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with: Bressuire
Bressuire is a commune in the Deux-Sèvres department in France. The town is situated on an eminence overlooking the Dolo, a tributary of the Argenton.-Notable buildings:...

, France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

Kruševac is a city and municipality, and the administrative center of the Rasina District, in central Serbia. According to the 2011 census, the municipality has a population of 127,429, while the town has 57,627....

, Serbia
Serbia , officially the Republic of Serbia , is a landlocked country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Carpathian basin and the central part of the Balkans...

Lovech is a town in north-central Bulgaria with a population of 36,296 as of February 2011. It is the administrative centre of the Lovech Province and of the subordinate Lovech Municipality. The town is located about 150 km northeast from the capital city of Sofia...

, Bulgaria
Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

Münster is an independent city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in the northern part of the state and is considered to be the cultural centre of the Westphalia region. It is also capital of the local government region Münsterland...

, Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

 New Athos
New Athos
New Athos is a town in the Gudauta raion of Abkhazia, situated some 22 km from Sukhumi by the shores of the Black Sea. The town was previously known under the names Nikopol, Acheisos, Anakopia, Nikopia, Nikofia, Nikopsis, Absara, Psyrtskha...

, Abkhazia
Abkhazia is a disputed political entity on the eastern coast of the Black Sea and the south-western flank of the Caucasus.Abkhazia considers itself an independent state, called the Republic of Abkhazia or Apsny...

Omiš is a town and port in the Dalmatia region of Croatia, and is a municipality in the Split-Dalmatia County. The town is situated approximately south-east of Croatia's second largest city, Split. Its location is where the emerald-green Cetina River meets the Adriatic Sea...

, Croatia
Croatia , officially the Republic of Croatia , is a unitary democratic parliamentary republic in Europe at the crossroads of the Mitteleuropa, the Balkans, and the Mediterranean. Its capital and largest city is Zagreb. The country is divided into 20 counties and the city of Zagreb. Croatia covers ...

 Ostrów Mazowiecka
Ostrów Mazowiecka
Ostrów Mazowiecka is a town in northeastern Poland with 23,486 inhabitants . Situated in the Masovian Voivodeship , previously in Ostroleka Voivodeship . It is the capital of Ostrów Mazowiecka County....

, Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

Xuzhou , otherwise known as Pengcheng in ancient times, is a major city in and the fourth largest prefecture-level city of Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China...

, China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

External links

Ryazan Portal Photos of Ryazan Photos of Ryazan
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