The PT-91 Twardy is a Polish
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 main battle tank
Main battle tank
A main battle tank , also known as a battle tank or universal tank, is a tank that fills the heavy direct fire role of many modern armies. They were originally conceived to replace the light, medium, heavy and super-heavy tanks. Development was spurred onwards in the Cold War with the development...

. It is a development of the T-72
The T-72 is a Soviet-designed main battle tank that entered production in 1970. It is developed directly from Obyekt-172, and shares parallel features with the T-64A...

M1 and first entered service in 1995. The PT-91 was designed at the OBRUM (
OBRUM for Ośrodek Badawczo-Rozwojowy Urządzeń MechanicznychPolish
Polish language
Polish is a language of the Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages, used throughout Poland and by Polish minorities in other countries...

Research and Development Centre for Mechanical Appliances) and is produced by the Bumar Łabędy company - part of Polish military consortium - Bumar Group. Changes from the T-72 include a new dual-axis stabilized fire-control system
Fire-control system
A fire-control system is a number of components working together, usually a gun data computer, a director, and radar, which is designed to assist a weapon system in hitting its target. It performs the same task as a human gunner firing a weapon, but attempts to do so faster and more...

, reactive armour
Reactive armour
Reactive armour is a type of vehicle armour that reacts in some way to the impact of a weapon to reduce the damage done to the vehicle being protected. It is most effective in protecting against shaped charges and specially hardened long rod penetrators...

, a more powerful engine, transmission and new automatic loader
An autoloader or auto-loader is a mechanical aid or replacement for the personnel that load ordnance into crew-served weapons, such as tanks and artillery...

. Unlike many other T-72 upgrades the Polish Army PT-91s are upgraded using elements created almost exclusively by domestic companies (this includes new engine, fire control system and all communication system elements). Many of those elements were used to upgrade existing fleets of T-72 tanks in countries like in Czech Republic - T-72M4Cz, Georgia - T-72SIM-1 or India - T-72 Ajeya Mk2.


In the late 1980s the Polish Army modernized all of its obsolete T-55
The T-54 and T-55 tanks were a series of main battle tanks designed in the Soviet Union. The first T-54 prototype appeared in March 1945, just before the end of the Second World War. The T-54 entered full production in 1947 and became the main tank for armored units of the Soviet Army, armies of...

 tanks to the T-55AM Mérida standard. The successful conversion convinced the General Staff that similar modernization could also be applied to other Soviet-designed tanks made in Poland and used by the Polish Armed Forces. In late 1988 it was decided to prepare a project of modernization for the T-72M1 design - using the experience from production of licenced T-72M (obiekt 172M-E3 - Polish army designation T-72), T-72M1 (obiekt 172M-E5), T-72M1K (Polish army designation T-72M1D).
The Gliwice
Gliwice is a city in Upper Silesia in southern Poland, near Katowice. Gliwice is the west district of the Upper Silesian Metropolitan Union – a metropolis with a population of 2 million...

-based Research and Development Centre of Mechanical Systems OBRUM  was chosen as the main design bureau. However, initially the work progressed at a very slow pace, mainly because the Polish General Staff was also considering the purchase of a newer version of T-72 (T-72
The T-72 is a Soviet-designed main battle tank that entered production in 1970. It is developed directly from Obyekt-172, and shares parallel features with the T-64A...

S) or the modern T-80
The T-80 is a main battle tank designed and manufactured in the former Soviet Union. A development of the T-64, it entered service in 1976 and was the first production tank to be equipped with a gas turbine engine for main propulsion.the Swedish Stridsvagn 103 of 1971 used a gas turbine alongside...


After the political changes of 1989 and the dissolution of the Soviet bloc, Polish-Soviet talks on purchase of modern tanks came to a halt and the design of a new Polish tank gained momentum. The first design proposed by the bureau was code-named Wilk (Polish for wolf), but the project was cancelled. Instead, the priority was shifted to a different project named Twardy. The basic aim of the conversion of T-72 was to adapt it to the reality of modern warfare and fix its most visible deficiencies. Among those were low mobility, insufficient armour, lack of a fire control system and poor stabilisation of the main gun, which resulted in poor firing accuracy. An additional problem was lack of passive night vision aiming systems.


Starting from July 1991 T-72
The T-72 is a Soviet-designed main battle tank that entered production in 1970. It is developed directly from Obyekt-172, and shares parallel features with the T-64A...

 modernization programs were implemented by the Bumarcombine which had been producing T-72
The T-72 is a Soviet-designed main battle tank that entered production in 1970. It is developed directly from Obyekt-172, and shares parallel features with the T-64A...

s under Soviet license. The modernized main battle tank was designated PT-91 Twardy. From base modification it differs in increased protection, fire control system and engine. In 1993 the Polish Defense Ministry ordered 20 PT-91 tanks to be used for field trials and Armed Forces tests.
The main battle tank's protection from high-explosive anti-tank (HEAT) projectiles and missiles is increased by the new Erawa dynamic armor developed by the Poland Military-Technical Institute. This protection consists of 394 tiles with explosives, detonating in case of a direct hit. The tiles cover 9m2 on the tank. 108 tiles are placed on the turret, 118 on the hull and 84 on each side's anti-HEAT screens. The Twardy uses steel anti-HEAT screens instead of the rubber used on the T-72. Erawa's main difference from the Soviet analogs is that Erawa's containers fit almost without gaps while on the Soviet modernised T-72 gaps reach 10 - 15 mm noticeably decreasing defense effectiveness. There are two Erawa modifications: Erawa-1 and -2, differing in weight of the explosives.

Experiments showed that the
Erawa dynamic defense decreases the high-explosive jet impact depth by 50 - 70% and penetrator (APFSDS) projectiles by 30 - 40%. Furthermore, explosive containers don't detonate when hit by shot of up to 30 mm calibre, shell or mine fragments, or when covered in burning napalm or petrol.

Twardy is armed with the same 125 mm smoothbore
A smoothbore weapon is one which has a barrel without rifling. Smoothbores range from handheld firearms to powerful tank guns and large artillery mortars.-History of firearms and rifling:...

 gun 2A46 used in the T-72, fitted with an automatic reloading mechanism which reduced the tank crew by one as it replaced the gun loader, and gave a rate of fire of 8 to 10 rounds per minute. Additional armament comprises the 7.62 mm PKT coaxial general purpose machine gun and 12.7 mm NSVT anti-aircraft heavy machine gun. The PT-91 has a thermosmoke device generating smoke screens from fuel and 24 grenade launchers fitted with smoke or anti-personnel frag grenades.

The modernization of the fire control system started by replacing the earlier used Soviet two plane stabilizer 2Є28M with a new stabilizer developed in Slovakia. It has an electronic information block showing the tank's technical condition. Furthermore it informs the commander when effective sighted fire becomes ineffective because of an excessively high cross-country speed or other reasons.
The Drawa fire control system, developed by Polish engineer
An engineer is a professional practitioner of engineering, concerned with applying scientific knowledge, mathematics and ingenuity to develop solutions for technical problems. Engineers design materials, structures, machines and systems while considering the limitations imposed by practicality,...

s, contains the gunner's day sight PCD and the TES thermovision night sight developed by the Israeli company ELOP, the commander's combined day-night passive observation and aiming sight POD-72, a ballistic computer, a laser rangefinder and a data system processing information for the ballistic computer. The sighting of the ballistic computer depends on the target's speed, weather conditions, projectile temperature and projectile type.

The driver uses the control and diagnostic complex US-DK-1 controlling the tank's main systems and displaying information on a monitor. The driver's night sight was replaced by the Radomka passive night sight.

The modernized tank's increased weight led the developers to add a more powerful engine. It is a 12 cylinder S-12U diesel engine, a modernized version of the Soviet V-46-6 produced in Warsaw by PZL-Wola (850 hp instead of 780). The main improvement is the modernized fuel and air injection system. This caused a noticeable decrease in the tank's road endurance. The latest
Twardy variants have the 1000hp S-1000 engine with a turbocharger.

PT-91 Twardy

Production variant for Polish Army, extensively modernized development of T-72M1. Most of the vehicles are equipped with SKO-1M Drawa-1T dual-axis stabilized fire control system (with TES - Thermal Elbow Sight - total number of delivered thermal sights is 202) though some early production vehicles have a SKO-1 Drawa (with NV sight), Erawa reactive armour, a PCO SSC-1 Obra-1 laser-warning system and 850hp PZL-Wola S-12U engine. The first 20 initial production vehicles were delivered to Polish Land Forces
Polish Land Forces
The Polish Land Forces are a branch of Poland's Armed Forces. They currently contain some 65,000 active personnel and form many components of EU and NATO deployments around the world.-History:...

 in 1993-1994 with another 78 full scale production vehicles delivered 1995-1997, 135 modernized T-72M1 tanks (made in late 80s) delivered 1998-2002. Both new and modernized tanks have the same combat capabilities. Depending exact configuration Polish Army uses PT-91s in 3 variants PT-91, PT-91M and PT-91MA1 (the M designation shouldn't be confused with the Malaysian variant).

PT-91A Twardy

Development variant with PZL-Wola S-1000 1,000-hp engine with mechanic transmission and number of other minor changes. Used for trials and as demonstrator on military exhibitions.

PT-91Z Hardy

(Z for Zmodernizowany – literally Modernized) Further development with SAGEM Savan-15 fire control system, according to life fire test Savan-15 has only minor advantage in accuracy over Drawa. The biggest advantage was a new gun stabilization system that gave the tank a significant increase in accuracy when the tank is on the move. Later it was used as a base to develop the PT-91M. This variant has won a number of stress tests in Malaysia over T-90
The T-90 is a Russian third-generation main battle tank that is a modernisation of the T-72 . It is currently the most modern tank in service with the Russian Ground Forces and Naval Infantry...

, T-84
The T-84 is a Ukrainian main battle tank, a development of the Soviet T-80 main battle tank. It was first built in 1994 and entered service in the Ukrainian Armed Forces in 1999. The T-84 is based on the diesel-engined T-80 version, the T-80UD...

 and K1
K1 Type 88
The K1 is a South Korean third-generation main battle tank in use with the Republic of Korea Armed Forces, developed by Hyundai Precision...

 tanks, and has won the competition for a new Malaysian MBT. Only one prototype was made.

PT-91M Pendekar

(M for Malaysia) — production export
The term export is derived from the conceptual meaning as to ship the goods and services out of the port of a country. The seller of such goods and services is referred to as an "exporter" who is based in the country of export whereas the overseas based buyer is referred to as an "importer"...

 variant for Malaysia with SAGEM Savan-15 fire control system, PZL-Wola S-1000R 1,000-hp powerpack with Renk
RENK AG is a German company, part of the MAN Group. It has its headquarters in Augsburg, and is producer of gears, other components of propulsion technology and test systems. It is currently the leading manufacturer of transmissions for tracked vehicles, worldwide and a major supplier for marine...

/SESM ESM-350M automatic transmission
Transmission (mechanics)
A machine consists of a power source and a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power. Merriam-Webster defines transmission as: an assembly of parts including the speed-changing gears and the propeller shaft by which the power is transmitted from an engine to a...

 bringing its top speed
In kinematics, the speed of an object is the magnitude of its velocity ; it is thus a scalar quantity. The average speed of an object in an interval of time is the distance traveled by the object divided by the duration of the interval; the instantaneous speed is the limit of the average speed as...

 to 70 km/h, and a new communications system
Communications system
In telecommunication, a communications system is a collection of individual communications networks, transmission systems, relay stations, tributary stations, and data terminal equipment usually capable of interconnection and interoperation to form an integrated whole...

. Weapon
A weapon, arm, or armament is a tool or instrument used with the aim of causing damage or harm to living beings or artificial structures or systems...

s have been changed to a "Konštrukta defence a.s." design 2A46MS 125 mm tank gun
Tank gun
A tank gun is the main armament of a tank. Modern tank guns are large-caliber high-velocity guns, capable of firing kinetic energy penetrators, high explosive anti-tank rounds, and in some cases guided missiles. Anti-aircraft guns can also be mounted to tanks.-Overview:Tank guns are a specific...

 made by ZTS - Špeciál a.s. , a 7.62 mm FN MAG
The FN MAG is a Belgian 7.62 mm general-purpose machine gun, designed in the early 1950s at Fabrique Nationale by Ernest Vervier. It has been used by more than 80 countries, and it has been made under licence in countries such as Argentina, Egypt, India, Singapore, the United Kingdom and the...

In geometry, coaxial means that two or more forms share a common axis; it is the three-dimensional linear analogue of concentric.Coaxial cable, as a common example, has a wire conductor in the centre a circumferential outer conductor and an insulating medium called the dielectric separating...

 machine gun
Machine gun
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm, usually designed to fire rounds in quick succession from an ammunition belt or large-capacity magazine, typically at a rate of several hundred rounds per minute....

 and a 12.7 mm FN Browning M2 HB AA machine gun. This variant is also equipped with Sagem
SAGEM was a major French company involved in defence electronics, consumer electronics and communication systems.In 2005, Sagem merged with SNECMA to form SAFRAN...

 VIGY 15 gyro
A gyroscope is a device for measuring or maintaining orientation, based on the principles of angular momentum. In essence, a mechanical gyroscope is a spinning wheel or disk whose axle is free to take any orientation...

-stabilised panoramic sight optronics, a SIGMA 30 laser
A laser is a device that emits light through a process of optical amplification based on the stimulated emission of photons. The term "laser" originated as an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation...

 gyro inertial navigation system
Inertial navigation system
An inertial navigation system is a navigation aid that uses a computer, motion sensors and rotation sensors to continuously calculate via dead reckoning the position, orientation, and velocity of a moving object without the need for external references...

The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company N.V. is a global pan-European aerospace and defence corporation and a leading defence and military contractor worldwide...

 EPS72 turret stabilisation system, a PCO SSP-1 Obra-3 laser-warning system, communication systems: Thales
Thales of Miletus was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher from Miletus in Asia Minor, and one of the Seven Sages of Greece. Many, most notably Aristotle, regard him as the first philosopher in the Greek tradition...

 TRC9310-3 F@stnet, Thales TRC3630-3, Thales SOTAS, ERAWA 3 Explosive Reactive Armour, ZM Dezamet 902A 81mm grenade launcher
Grenade launcher
A grenade launcher or grenade discharger is a weapon that launches a grenade with more accuracy, higher velocity, and to greater distances than a soldier could throw it by hand....

s and Type 570P Diehl Remscheid GmbH tank tracks. Two prototype
A prototype is an early sample or model built to test a concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from.The word prototype derives from the Greek πρωτότυπον , "primitive form", neutral of πρωτότυπος , "original, primitive", from πρῶτος , "first" and τύπος ,...

s made (renamed PT-91E and PT-91Ex), 48 serial PT-91M vehicle
A vehicle is a device that is designed or used to transport people or cargo. Most often vehicles are manufactured, such as bicycles, cars, motorcycles, trains, ships, boats, and aircraft....

s produced 2007 - 2009.


E for Export) - renamed prototypes of PT-91M used as demonstrators of export variant showed on military exhibitions. PT-91E is a first prototype named SP1 (it is same vehicle as shown on military parade in Kuala Lumpur in 2005), PT-91Ex is a second prototype named SP2. Both vehicles faced number of tests in Malaysia SP1 was used for traction tests and has made 7000 km offroad in Malaysia, SP2 2000 km and 500 shoots from main cannon. Very similar to PT-91M, offered for export to other countries.


(P for Peru
Peru , officially the Republic of Peru , is a country in western South America. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador and Colombia, on the east by Brazil, on the southeast by Bolivia, on the south by Chile, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean....

) - Demonstrator for SITDEF Peru'2009 military exhibition. A cheaper alternative to PT-91Ex. This variant is equipped with newest PCO Drawa-TG fire control system with a thermal sight and modern communication system (Radmor RRC9310 radio, WB Electronics Fonet-IP communication system and Teldat battlefield management system). The vehicle was be shown on number of South American events including SITDEF Peru'2009 Expo.


WZT was a Polish post-World War II armoured recovery vehicle series. It consists of five versions....

for Wóz Zabezpieczenia Technicznego – literally Technical Support Vehicle) – family of armoured recovery vehicle
Armoured recovery vehicle
An armoured recovery vehicle is a type of armoured fighting vehicle used to repair battle- or mine-damaged as well as broken-down armoured vehicles during combat, or to tow them out of the danger zone for more extensive repairs...

s based on the PT-91/T-72 tank hull. Probably most popular T-72 based ARV on the world with over 400 vehicles delivered to the clients. It is armed with a 12.7 mm (½ in) machine-gun fitted to the commander’s hatch. Standard equipment includes: crane with telescopic jib that can lift a maximum load of fifteen tonnes, front-mounted stabilizing dozer blade, main and secondary winches.
  • WZT-3 - A T-72 based variant for Polish Army - 20 vehicles.
  • WZT-3M - A PT-91 based variant for Polish Army - 9 new vehicles and 20 WZT-3 upgraded to this standard.
  • M-84AI - A M-84A based variant, made on licence in Yugoslavia - 15 vehicles for Kuwait
  • ARV-3 - A T-72 based variant for Indian Army - 352 vehicles made
  • WZT-4 - A PT-91M based variant for Malaysian Army (technically this vehicle is closely related to MID-M) - 6 vehicles

MID Bizon-S

(MID for Maszyna Inżynieryjno-Drogowa – lit. Engineering-Roading Machine; Bizon is Polish
Polish language
Polish is a language of the Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages, used throughout Poland and by Polish minorities in other countries...

Members of the genus Bison are large, even-toed ungulates within the subfamily Bovinae. Two extant and four extinct species are recognized...

) – Polish engineering tank based on the PT-91 tank hull.
  • MID - A PT-91 based variant for Polish Army - 8 vehicles
  • MID-M - A PT-91M based variant for Malaysian Army - 3 vehicles


PMC for Pomocniczy Most Czołgowy – lit. Auxiliary Tank Bridge) – Polish Armoured Vehicle Launched Bridge is a close support bridge layer. The PMC-90, developed on the basis of PT-91
The PT-91 Twardy is a Polish main battle tank. It is a development of the T-72M1 and first entered service in 1995...

, is able to carry out missions required to operations of combat forces.
  • PMC-90 - PT-91 based prototype vehicle with MLC-60 bridge. Not adopted.
  • PMC-Leguan - PT-91M based variant for Malaysia equipped with the 26 m (87 ft) long MLC 60 Leguan bridge system. 5 vehicles for Malaysia.
  • MG-20 Daglezja-G (MG for Most Gąsienicowy – lit. Tracked Bridge) - a tracked bridge system, based on a lengthened T-72 chassis with one additional road wheel, equipped with a MLC-70 bridge system. Closely related to a truck based MS-20 Daglezja. Currently in development phase, it is expected to replace a T-55 based BLG-67M bridges in Polish Army.

PZA Loara

(PZA for Przeciwlotniczy Zestaw Artyleryjski – lit. AA Artillery System; “Loara” means “Loire (river)
Loire (river)
The Loire is the longest river in France. With a length of , it drains an area of , which represents more than a fifth of France's land area. It is the 170th longest river in the world...

” in Polish) – antiaircraft artillery system is a Polish armoured radar directed Self Propelled Anti-Aircraft Gun system developed in the late 1990s. Based around the Twardy chassis, this system mounts an armoured turret holding two Oerlikon
Oerlikon Contraves
Rheinmetall Air Defence AG is a division of German armament manufacturer Rheinmetall, created when the company's Oerlikon Contraves unit was renamed on 1 January 2009 and integrated with Rheinmetall's other air-defence products...

 KDA 35 mm cannons
Oerlikon 35 mm twin cannon
The Oerlikon 35 mm twin cannon is a towed anti-aircraft gun made by Oerlikon Contraves . The system was originally designated as 2 ZLA/353 ML but this was later changed to GDF-001...

 linked to a radar
Radar is an object-detection system which uses radio waves to determine the range, altitude, direction, or speed of objects. It can be used to detect aircraft, ships, spacecraft, guided missiles, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. The radar dish or antenna transmits pulses of radio...

 fire control system. It was planned that it would work closely together with PZR “Loara” (anti-aircraft rocket system) vehicles built on the basis of the PZA Loara but that project is currently on hold. The Loara is an autonomous fire unit capable of performing its tasks independently or acting as a component of a wider air defense system. The system has two radars, 3D search radar and engagement radar. The search radar has a range of 26 km (16.2 mi) and is capable of tracking and identifying up to 64 targets at once. The radar system can also be operated on the move, refreshing its data every second. The system also has a laser range-finder, TV and FLIR cameras giving the system both all-weather day/night capabilities and the ability to operate entirely passively in a heavy ECM
Electronic countermeasures
An electronic countermeasure is an electrical or electronic device designed to trick or deceive radar, sonar or other detection systems, like infrared or lasers. It may be used both offensively and defensively to deny targeting information to an enemy...

 environment. The system also has a reaction time less than 10 seconds. The system can engage aircraft flying at altitudes from very low altitudes up to 5000 m (16,500 ft), and flying at speeds up to 500 m/s (1,125 mph). It is also effective against lightly armored ground and naval targets.

PT-94 Goryl

(Goryl is Polish
Polish language
Polish is a language of the Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages, used throughout Poland and by Polish minorities in other countries...

 for Gorilla
Gorillas are the largest extant species of primates. They are ground-dwelling, predominantly herbivorous apes that inhabit the forests of central Africa. Gorillas are divided into two species and either four or five subspecies...

) – project of a Polish main battle tank designed using experience gained on PT-91 project. The tank would be similar in its design to Merkava
The Merkava is a main battle tank used by the Israel Defense Forces. The tank began development in 1974 and was first introduced in 1978. Four main versions of the tank have been deployed. It was first used extensively in the 1982 Lebanon War...

 (engine at front), and it would feature redesigned engine, transmission and fire control system. Armor: composite + ERA, main armament: 120/125 mm gun, 60 mm mortar, secondary armament: 7.62 mm PKT coaxial machine gun, 12.7 mm NSWT AA machine gun, crew: 3. This program was also known under the name Anders. The program was cancelled at early stage.

PT-97 Gepard

(Gepard is Polish
Polish language
Polish is a language of the Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages, used throughout Poland and by Polish minorities in other countries...

 for Cheetah
The cheetah is a large-sized feline inhabiting most of Africa and parts of the Middle East. The cheetah is the only extant member of the genus Acinonyx, most notable for modifications in the species' paws...

) sometimes known as PT-2001 – another modification project of a Polish main battle tank prepared as future modernisation programme for T-72 family, the programme was called for, as first PT-91 proposition fell below requirements. Two propositions were submitted, one by Bumar who provided a project with modified frontal armor, different mortar and sporting Leclerc
The AMX-56 Leclerc, commonly known as the Leclerc, is a main battle tank built by Nexter of France. It was named in honour of General Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque who led the French element of the drive towards Paris while in command of the Free French 2nd Armoured Division in World War...

 - like turret with 2A46 main gun. OBRUM's competing project had new front and sides reactive armor and L-44 main gun.

Despite considerable improvements, neither was approved for financial reasons, and no prototypes were built, however design experience helped with new PT-91 versions.


(Krab is Polish
Polish language
Polish is a language of the Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages, used throughout Poland and by Polish minorities in other countries...

 for Crab
True crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" , or where the reduced abdomen is entirely hidden under the thorax...

) - 155 mm NATO-compatible howitzer designed by HSW S.A.
Huta Stalowa Wola
Huta Stalowa Wola is a steel mill and manufacturing company in Stalowa Wola, Poland.It was established in 1938-1939 in Second Polish Republic. It was a major part of a series of investments made by the Polish government in the years 1936–1939 to create the Central Industrial Region...

 combining OBRUMs UPG chassis, licensed AS-90M Braveheart
The AS-90 is a lightly armoured self-propelled artillery piece used by the British Army. It was first delivered in 1993...

 turret with 52-calibre gun and WB Electronics Artillery Fire Control System Topaz. The Howitzer is equipped with S-12U engine and other elements (like road wheels) from PT-91.


233 PT-91s were delivered between 1995-2002 (232 vehicles remain in service) and 38 support vehicles based on the T-72/PT-91 hull (29 WZT-3M armoured recovery vehicle, 8 MID engineering tank and 1 prototype PZA Loara self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon).
Number of PT-91s delivered to Polish Land Forces each year
1995-1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
58 58 7 33 50 20 7

Units equipped with PT-91 Twardy:
  • 1 Warszawska Brygada Pancerna
    1st Armoured Brigade (Poland)
    Polish 1st Armoured Brigade of the defenders of Westerplatte or Polish 1st Warsaw Armoured Brigade was a military unit in the Ludowe Wojsko Polskie...

    (1st Armored Brigade) – Warsaw district - Wesoła
  • 2 Brygada Zmechanizowana Legionów (2nd Legions
    Polish Legions
    Polish Legions may refer to, in chronological order:* Polish Legion in Turkey, formed around 1770s, as part of the Confederation of Bar* Polish Legions , created by Henryk Dąbrowski during the Napoleonic Wars...

     Mechanized Brigade
    ) – Złocieniec
  • 34 Brygada Kawalerii Pancernej (34th Armored Cavalry Brigade) – Żagań
    Zagan may refer to:*Zagan - a demon in the Ars Goetia*Żagań - a town in west Poland...

  • Centrum Szkolenia Wojsk Lądowych (Land Forces Training Center) - Poznań
    Poznań is a city on the Warta river in west-central Poland, with a population of 556,022 in June 2009. It is among the oldest cities in Poland, and was one of the most important centres in the early Polish state, whose first rulers were buried at Poznań's cathedral. It is sometimes claimed to be...

Former units equipped with PT-91 Twardy:
  • 10 Brygada Kawalerii Pancernej (10th Armored Cavalry Brigade) – Świętoszów
    Świętoszów is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Osiecznica, within Bolesławiec County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland. Prior to 1945 it was in Germany....

     (replaced with Leopard 2
    Leopard 2
    The Leopard 2 is a main battle tank developed by Krauss-Maffei in the early 1970s for the West German Army. The tank first entered service in 1979 and succeeded the earlier Leopard 1 as the main battle tank of the German Army. Various versions have served in the armed forces of Germany and twelve...

  • 15 Wielkopolska Brygada Kawalerii Pancernej (15th Armored Cavalry Brigade) - Wędrzyn
    Wędrzyn is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Sulęcin, within Sulęcin County, Lubusz Voivodeship, in western Poland. It lies approximately east of Sulęcin, south of Gorzów Wielkopolski, and north of Zielona Góra....

     (unit disbanded)
  • 17 Wielkopolska Brygada Zmechanizowana (17th Mechanized Brigade) - Międzyrzecz
    Międzyrzecz is a town in western Poland with 18,584 inhabitants . The capital of Międzyrzecz County, it was part of the Gorzów Wielkopolski Voivodeship from 1975–1998. Since the Local Government Reorganization Act of 1998, Międzyrzecz has been situated in the Lubusz Voivodeship...

     (replaced with KTO Rosomak
    KTO Rosomak
    The KTO Rosomak is 8x8 multi-role military vehicle produced by...


At the introduction of PT-91 the intention of Polish General Staff was to equip all brigades of 11th Armored Cavalry Division with PT-91, at the time the division had 4 brigades: 10th Armored Cavalry, 15th Armored Cavalry, 17th Mechanized and 34th Armored Cavalry. In 2002, 10th Armored Cavalry received Leopard 2 A4 tanks donated to Poland by Germany, in 2007 the 15th Armored Cavalry was disbanded and the 17th Mechanized received the first KTO Rosomak. All these changes allowed the reallocation of PT-91s to other divisions, replacing the oldest T-72s.

A typical Polish PT-91 tank battalion equipped with 53 tanks is composed of 4 frontline companies with 13 vehicles in each and 1 tank for the battalion commander. Every company of 13 tanks is composed of three platoons with 4 tanks in each and 1 tank for the company commander.


In March 2002, Malaysia declared an intention to purchase tanks. In 2003 Polish enterprise
A business is an organization engaged in the trade of goods, services, or both to consumers. Businesses are predominant in capitalist economies, where most of them are privately owned and administered to earn profit to increase the wealth of their owners. Businesses may also be not-for-profit...

 wins an auction. Bumar Łabędy build 48 PT-91M and 15 support vehicle
A vehicle is a device that is designed or used to transport people or cargo. Most often vehicles are manufactured, such as bicycles, cars, motorcycles, trains, ships, boats, and aircraft....

s (6 WZT-4 {WZT-91M} armoured recovery vehicle
Armoured recovery vehicle
An armoured recovery vehicle is a type of armoured fighting vehicle used to repair battle- or mine-damaged as well as broken-down armoured vehicles during combat, or to tow them out of the danger zone for more extensive repairs...

, 3 MID-M {MID-91M} engineering tank
Combat engineering vehicle
Military engineering vehicles are vehicles built for the construction work or for the transportation of combat engineers on the battlefield. These vehicles can range from civilian equipment to purpose built military vehicles....

, 5 PMC Leguan {PMC-91M} - armoured vehicle-launched bridge
Armoured vehicle-launched bridge
An armoured vehicle-launched bridge is a combat support vehicle, sometimes regarded as a subtype of combat engineering vehicle, designed to assist militaries in rapidly deploying tanks and other armoured fighting vehicles across rivers. The AVLB is usually a tracked vehicle converted from a tank...

 and one SJ-09 driver training tank), ammo
AMMO may refer to:* The AMMO Munitions Systems Specialist career field, as part of the United States Air Force* Ammunition as fired from projectile weapons, typically guns* Ammo * Ammo...

, spares and support for $370 million USD. The tanks were delivered to Malaysia in 2007-2009. Operational readiness since 1.9.2010.
Number of PT-91M delivered to Malaysian Land Forces each year
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
SP1 prototype for trials SP2 prototype for trials 6 24 18 + 15 support vehicles

Units equipped with PT-91M:
  • Rejimen ke-11 Kor Armor DiRaja - (11th Regiment of Royal Armoured Corps) - Gemas
    Gemas is a small town in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, just near the Negeri Sembilan-Johor state border. The town is located approximately 165 km from the Malaysian capital Kuala Lumpur. It is the meeting place of Malaysian west and east coast rail lines operated by Malayan Railways. For this...

Rejimen ke-11 KAD is the sole user of PT-91M in Malaysian Army, PT-91M has replaced FV101 Scorpion
FV101 Scorpion
The FV101 Scorpion is a British armoured reconnaissance vehicle. It was the lead vehicle and the fire support type in the Combat Vehicle Reconnaissance , CVR, family of seven armoured vehicles...

 light tank.


In April 1999, India
India , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by geographical area, the second-most populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...

 ordered 44 WZT-3  armored recovery vehicles, which was followed by another two orders in April 2002 ( 80 vehicles), and in July 2005 (228 vehicles) – for a total of 352 WZT-3 armored recovery vehicles ordered. These vehicles are used to support the T-72
The T-72 is a Soviet-designed main battle tank that entered production in 1970. It is developed directly from Obyekt-172, and shares parallel features with the T-64A...

 and T-90
The T-90 is a Russian third-generation main battle tank that is a modernisation of the T-72 . It is currently the most modern tank in service with the Russian Ground Forces and Naval Infantry...

 MBT. Deliveries began in 2001, and India is planning to upgrade its Ajeya Mk1 tanks (local name for T-72
The T-72 is a Soviet-designed main battle tank that entered production in 1970. It is developed directly from Obyekt-172, and shares parallel features with the T-64A...

M1) to Ajeya Mk2 standard, with some elements from PT-91, such as the SKO-1T Drawa-T fire control system and the PZL-Wola S-1000 engine.
In October 2011, Indian Defense Ministry announced that the state owned BEML will produce an additional 204 WZT-3 armored recovery vehicles - taking the total till 2011 to 556 vehicles. The Ministry also clarified that no Global Tender was floated since it was a repeat order.

 Georgia (country)

Georgian army upgraded T-72SIM-1 tanks are using Drawa-T fire control system, a development of the fire control system on PT-91. The FCS is equipped with laser range finder and thermal imaging sensor. The system is slightly different from the one used on polish PT-91s, commander is using and LCD screen instead of the eyepiece (the gunner eyepiece is exactly same as on PT-91). The Thermal Elbow Sight thermal imaging sensor used in Georgian tanks is of the same (Israeli) origin as the one used on PT-91 but the external housing is different.

External links

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