. It is bordered on the north by Ecuador
, on the east by Brazil
, on the southeast by Bolivia
, on the south by Chile
, and on the west by the Pacific Ocean
Peruvian territory was home to the Norte Chico civilization
, one of the oldest in the world, and to the Inca Empire
, the largest state in Pre-Columbian America
. The Spanish Empire
conquered the region in the 16th century and established a Viceroyalty
, which included most of its South American colonies.
1535 Spanish conquistador Francisco Pizarro founded Lima, the capital of Peru.
1540 Arequipa, Peru, is founded.
1551 National University of San Marcos, the oldest university in the Americas, is founded in Lima, Peru.
1817 An army of 5,423 soldiers, led by General José de San Martín, crosses the Andes from Argentina to liberate Chile and then Peru.
1821 José de San Martín declares the independence of Peru from Spain.
1839 In the Battle of Yungay, Chile defeats an alliance between Peru and Bolivia.
1865 Chincha Islands War: Peru allies with Chile against Spain.
1866 Peruvian defenders fight off Spanish fleet at the Battle of Callao.
1879 War of the Pacific is fought between Chile and the joint forces of Bolivia and Peru. Chile takes over Arica and Tarapacá, leaving Bolivia as a landlocked country.
1879 Chile declares war on Bolivia and Peru, starting the War of the Pacific.