Olomouc (ˈolomou̯ts; German
German language
German is a West Germanic language, related to and classified alongside English and Dutch. With an estimated 90 – 98 million native speakers, German is one of the world's major languages and is the most widely-spoken first language in the European Union....

 Olmütz, Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 Olomucium or Iuliomontium, Polish
Polish language
Polish is a language of the Lechitic subgroup of West Slavic languages, used throughout Poland and by Polish minorities in other countries...

 Ołomuniec) is a city in Moravia
Moravia is a historical region in Central Europe in the east of the Czech Republic, and one of the former Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Silesia. It takes its name from the Morava River which rises in the northwest of the region...

, in the east of the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

. The city is located on the Morava river and is the ecclesiastical metropolis and historical capital city of Moravia. Nowadays, it is an administrative centre of the Olomouc Region
Olomouc Region
Olomouc Region is an administrative unit of the Czech Republic, located in the north-western and central part of its historical region of Moravia and in a small part of the historical region of Silesia . It is named for its capital Olomouc.-External links:* *...

 and sixth largest city in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Poland to the northeast, Slovakia to the east, Austria to the south, and Germany to the west and northwest....

. The city has about 102,000 residents, but its larger urban zone has a population of about 480,000 people.


Olomouc is said to occupy the site of a Roman
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 fort founded in the imperial
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 period, the original name of which, Iuliomontium (Mount Julius), would have been gradually corrupted to the present form. Although this account is no more than a legend, archaeological excavations close to the city have revealed the remains of a Roman military camp
The Latin word castra, with its singular castrum, was used by the ancient Romans to mean buildings or plots of land reserved to or constructed for use as a military defensive position. The word appears in both Oscan and Umbrian as well as in Latin. It may have descended from Indo-European to Italic...

 dating from the time of the Marcoman
The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribe, probably related to the Buri, Suebi or Suevi.-Origin:Scholars believe their name derives possibly from Proto-Germanic forms of "march" and "men"....


During the 6th century the Slavs came to the area. As early as the 7th century, there was a centre of political power in the present-day quarter of Povel (situated in lowland, southerly from the city centre). Around 810 local Slavonic ruler was defeated by troops of Great Moravian rulers
House of Mojmír
The House of Mojmír is the modern name of the ruling dynasty of Great Moravia, the Moravian principality and the Principality of Nitra in the 9th and early 10th century....

 and settlement in Olomouc-Povel was destroyed. New centre, where the Great Moravian governor resided, was transferred to the gord at Předhradí, a quarter of the inner city (the eastern, smaller part of the medieval centre). This settlement thanks to its geographical location has survived extinction of the Great Moravia (c. 907) and later gradually became the capital of the province of Moravia
Moravia is a historical region in Central Europe in the east of the Czech Republic, and one of the former Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Silesia. It takes its name from the Morava River which rises in the northwest of the region...

. In 906 the first Jews settled in Olomouc. In 1060 they were forced into a ghetto
A ghetto is a section of a city predominantly occupied by a group who live there, especially because of social, economic, or legal issues.The term was originally used in Venice to describe the area where Jews were compelled to live. The term now refers to an overcrowded urban area often associated...

 and instructed to wear a yellow badge
Yellow badge
The yellow badge , also referred to as a Jewish badge, was a cloth patch that Jews were ordered to sew on their outer garments in order to mark them as Jews in public. It is intended to be a badge of shame associated with antisemitism...

. The bishopric of Olomouc was founded in 1063; centuries later raised to the rank of an archbishop
An archbishop is a bishop of higher rank, but not of higher sacramental order above that of the three orders of deacon, priest , and bishop...

ric in 1777. The bishopric was moved from the church of St. Peter (now non-existent) to the church of St Wenceslas in 1141 (the date is still disputed, other suggestions are 1131, 1134) under bishop Henry Zdík
Henry Zdík
Henry Zdík was bishop of Olomouc from 1126 to 1150.In 1141 Zdik with papal authorization undertook a mission against the Prussians....

 and the bishop's palace was built in the Romanesque
Romanesque architecture
Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterised by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque architecture, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style,...

 architectural style. The bishopric acquired large tracts of land, especially in northern Moravia, and was one of the richest in the area.

Olomouc became one of the most important settlements in Moravia and a seat of the Přemyslid government, seat of one of the appanage princes. In 1306 King Wenceslas III stopped here on his way to Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

, where he wanted to fight Wladislaus I the Elbow-high to claim his rights to the Polish crown, and was assassinated. With his death the whole Přemyslid dynasty died out.

The city itself was founded in the mid-thirteenth century and became one of the most important trade and power centres in the region. In the Middle Ages it was the biggest town in Moravia and competed with Brno for the position of the capital. Olomouc lost finally after the Swedes
Swedish Empire
The Swedish Empire refers to the Kingdom of Sweden between 1561 and 1721 . During this time, Sweden was one of the great European powers. In Swedish, the period is called Stormaktstiden, literally meaning "the Great Power Era"...

 took the city for eight years (1642–1650).

In 1454 the Jews of Olomouc were expelled. Later in the second half of the fifteenth century is what can be viewed as the start of Olomouc's golden age. It hosted several royal meetings and Matthias Corvinus was elected here as King of Bohemia (in fact antiking) by the estates in 1469. In 1479 two kings of Bohemia (Vladislaus II and Matthias Corvinus) met here and concluded an agreement (Peace of Olomouc
Peace of Olomouc
The Peace of Olomouc was signed on April 2, 1479 between Matthias Corvinus of Hungary and King Vladislaus II of Bohemia . On July 21, 1479, the agreement was ratified during the course of festivities in Olomouc...

 of 1479) for splitting the country.
During the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most countries in Europe. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history....

, in 1640, Olomouc was occupied by the Swedes
Swedish Empire
The Swedish Empire refers to the Kingdom of Sweden between 1561 and 1721 . During this time, Sweden was one of the great European powers. In Swedish, the period is called Stormaktstiden, literally meaning "the Great Power Era"...

 for eight years. They left the city in ruins and so it ceded its position to Brno
Brno by population and area is the second largest city in the Czech Republic, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia. Brno is the administrative centre of the South Moravian Region where it forms a separate district Brno-City District...

. In 1740 the town was captured and briefly held by the Prussians
Prussian Army
The Royal Prussian Army was the army of the Kingdom of Prussia. It was vital to the development of Brandenburg-Prussia as a European power.The Prussian Army had its roots in the meager mercenary forces of Brandenburg during the Thirty Years' War...

. Olomouc was then fortified by Maria Theresa
Maria Theresa of Austria
Maria Theresa Walburga Amalia Christina was the only female ruler of the Habsburg dominions and the last of the House of Habsburg. She was the sovereign of Austria, Hungary, Croatia, Bohemia, Mantua, Milan, Lodomeria and Galicia, the Austrian Netherlands and Parma...

 during the wars with Frederick the Great, who besieged the city unsuccessfully
Siege of Olomouc
The Siege of Olomouc took place in 1758 when a Prussian army led by Frederick the Great besieged the Austrian city of Olomouc during the Prussian invasion of Moravia in the Seven Years' War. The attempt stalled as the besiegers faced stronger resistance than Frederick had expected...

 for seven weeks in 1758. In 1848 Olomouc was the scene of the emperor Ferdinand
Ferdinand I of Austria
Ferdinand I was Emperor of Austria, President of the German Confederation, King of Hungary and Bohemia , as well as associated dominions from the death of his father, Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, until his abdication after the Revolutions of 1848.He married Maria Anna of Savoy, the sixth child...

's abdication, and in 1850 an important conference between Austrian and German statesmen called the Punctation of Olmütz
Punctation of Olmütz
The Punctation of Olmütz , also called the Agreement of Olmütz, was a treaty between Prussia and Austria, dated 29 November 1850, by which Prussia abandoned the Erfurt Union and accepted the revival of the German Confederation under Austrian leadership....

 took place here. At the conference, the German Confederation
German Confederation
The German Confederation was the loose association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries. It acted as a buffer between the powerful states of Austria and Prussia...

 was restored and Prussia
Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia shaped the history...

 submitted its leadership to the Austrians.

In 1746 the first learned society
Learned society
A learned society is an organization that exists to promote an academic discipline/profession, as well a group of disciplines. Membership may be open to all, may require possession of some qualification, or may be an honor conferred by election, as is the case with the oldest learned societies,...

 in the lands under control of the Austrian Habsburgs
Habsburg Monarchy
The Habsburg Monarchy covered the territories ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg , and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine , between 1526 and 1867/1918. The Imperial capital was Vienna, except from 1583 to 1611, when it was moved to Prague...

, the Societas eruditorum incognitorum in terris Austriacis
Societas eruditorum incognitorum in terris Austriacis
Societas eruditorum incognitorum in terris Austriacis was the first learned society in the lands under control of Austrian Habsburgs. It was established, formally, in 1746 at the university and episcopal town of Olomouc in order to spread Enlightenment ideas...

, was founded in Olomouc in order to spread Enlightenment ideas. Its monthly journal Monatliche Auszüge was the first scientific journal
Scientific journal
In academic publishing, a scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further the progress of science, usually by reporting new research. There are thousands of scientific journals in publication, and many more have been published at various points in the past...

 in the Habsburg Monarchy.

Largely because of its ecclesiastical links to Austria, Salzburg in particular, the city has had a German
The Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe. The English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages....

 influence since the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

. It is difficult assess the ethnic makeup of the town before an accurate census was taken. However, official documents from the second half of the 16th century and early 17th century reveal that the town's ecclesiastical constitution, the meetings of the Diet and the locally printed hymnal, were all in the Czech language. Also, the first treatise on music in the Czech language was published in Olomouc in the mid 16th century. The political and social changes that followed the Thirty Years War increased the influence of courtly Habsburg culture. The "Germanification" of the town was probably more a result of the cosmopolitan environment of the town than by design. As the cultural, administrative and religious centre of the region, it drew officials, musicians and traders from all over Europe. Despite these influences, the Czech language still persisted, particularly in ecclesiastical publications throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. When the Austrian-born composer and musician Philip J. Rittler accepted a post at the Wenceslas Cathedral in the second half of the seventeenth century, he still felt it necessary to learn Czech. However, the use of the Czech language in official matters went into decline and by the 19th century, the official statistics record that the number of Germans was three times higher than the number of Czechs. After the revolution in 1848, the Jewish expulsion order of 1454 was rescinded. In 1897 a synagogue
Olomouc Synagogue
Olomouc Synagogue, , located in Olomouc, Czech Republic, was built in 1897 and was destroyed during a Nazi attack in March 1939.-History:In the late 1850s, Olomouc's "Izraelitische Cultusverein", the religious society, was founded...

 was built and the Jewish population reached 1,676 in 1900. Olomouc was enclosed with city walls almost until the end of the 19th century. This suited the city council, because demolishing the walls would allow for extension of the city, which would result in the settlement of many Czechs from neighbouring villages. The city council preferred Olomouc smaller, but German. Expansion came after WWI and the establishment of Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia was a sovereign state in Central Europe which existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until 1992...

, when Olomouc integrated two neighbouring towns and 11 surrounding villages and thus gained new space for its growth.

There were serious tensions between the Czech and German-speaking inhabitants during both world wars (largely brought on by outside provocation). On Kristallnacht
Kristallnacht, also referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, and also Reichskristallnacht, Pogromnacht, and Novemberpogrome, was a pogrom or series of attacks against Jews throughout Nazi Germany and parts of Austria on 9–10 November 1938.Jewish homes were ransacked, as were shops, towns and...

 (10 November 1938), the synagogue was destroyed and in March 1939, 800 Jewish men were arrested, some being sent to Dachau concentration camp. During 1942–1943, the remaining Jews were sent to Theresienstadt
Theresienstadt concentration camp
Theresienstadt concentration camp was a Nazi German ghetto during World War II. It was established by the Gestapo in the fortress and garrison city of Terezín , located in what is now the Czech Republic.-History:The fortress of Terezín was constructed between the years 1780 and 1790 by the orders...

 and other German concentration camps in occupied Poland. 285 of the town's Jews survived the Holocaust. During the war
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 most of the town's German residents sided with the Nazis
Nazism, the common short form name of National Socialism was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany...

 and the German-run town council renamed the main square after Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

. The Czech residents changed the name again after the town was liberated. When the retreating German army passed through Olomouc in the final weeks of the war they opened fire on the town's old astronomical clock, leaving only a few pieces (that can now be seen in the local museum). The one that can be seen today is a 1950s reconstruction and features a procession of proletarians
Socialist realism
Socialist realism is a style of realistic art which was developed in the Soviet Union and became a dominant style in other communist countries. Socialist realism is a teleologically-oriented style having its purpose the furtherance of the goals of socialism and communism...

 rather than saints. Most of the German population was expelled after the war.

Despite its considerable charms, Olomouc has not been discovered by tourists in the same way that Prague
Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of over 2.3 million...

, Český Krumlov
Český Krumlov
Český Krumlov is a small city in the South Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic, best known for the fine architecture and art of the historic old town and Český Krumlov Castle...

 and Karlovy Vary
Karlovy Vary
Karlovy Vary is a spa city situated in western Bohemia, Czech Republic, on the confluence of the rivers Ohře and Teplá, approximately west of Prague . It is named after King of Bohemia and Holy Roman Emperor Charles IV, who founded the city in 1370...

 have. Its inner city is the second-largest historical monuments preserve in the country, after Prague
Prague is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. Situated in the north-west of the country on the Vltava river, the city is home to about 1.3 million people, while its metropolitan area is estimated to have a population of over 2.3 million...


One of Olomouc's famous sons was the film-maker Edgar G. Ulmer, who was born in Olomouc in 1904, but who always preferred to give Vienna as his birthplace, as this sounded less provincial. Another notable son of Olomouc is football coach Karel Brückner
Karel Brückner
Karel Brückner is a Czech retired football coach.- Coaching career :Brückner began his coaching career in 1973 in the Czech League and was the coach of his home club SK Sigma Olomouc. He later went on to coach Inter Bratislava with which he won the Slovakia Cup in 1985...

, formerly head coach of the Czech national team
Czech Republic national football team
The Czech Republic national football team represents the Czech Republic in association football and is controlled by the Football Association of the Czech Republic, the governing body for football in the Czech Republic. Their current head coach is Michal Bílek...

 and later head coach of Austria
Austria national football team
The Austria national football team is the association football team that represents the country of Austria in international competition and is controlled by the Austrian Football Association ....


City monuments

Olomouc contains several large squares, the chief of which is adorned with the Holy Trinity Column
Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc
The Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc is a Baroque monument in the Czech Republic, built in 1716–1754 in honour of God. The main purpose was a spectacular celebration of Catholic Church and faith, partly caused by feeling of gratitude for ending a plague, which struck Moravia between 1714 and...

, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The column
Marian and Holy Trinity columns
Marian columns are religious monuments built in honour of the Virgin Mary, often in thanksgiving for the ending of a plague or for some other help. The purpose of the Holy Trinity columns was usually simply to celebrate the church and the faith. However, the plague motif could sometimes play its...

 is 115 ft (35.1 m) high and was built between 1716 and 1754.
The city ​​is characterized by a large number of religious buildings. The most prominent church is Saint Wenceslas cathedral
Saint Wenceslas cathedral
Saint Wenceslas Cathedral is a neo-gothic cathedral at Wenceslas square in Olomouc, in the Czech Republic. The square was named after Saint Wenceslaus I, Duke of Bohemia on the thousandth anniversary of his death in 1935...

 founded before 1107 in the compound of the Olomouc Castle. At the end of the 19th century the Cathedral was rebuilt in the neo-Gothic style, but it kept many features of the original church, which had been rebuilt many times (Romanesque crypt, Gothic cloister, Baroque chapels). The highest of its three spires is 328 ft (100 m), which makes it the second highest spire in the country (after Cathedral of St. Bartholomew in Plzeň
Cathedral of St. Bartholomew (Plzen)
The Cathedral of Saint Bartholomew dominates the city center of Pilsen in the Czech Republic.The construction of the Gothic style building, located on the main square, started in 1295 and was finished by the beginning of 16th century.The building is 58m long, 30m wide and the spires are 25m high...

). The church is just next to the Bishop Zdík's Palace (also called the Přemyslid Palace), a Romanesque building built after 1141 by the bishop Henry Zdík. Remnants of it are one of the most precious monuments of Olomouc: a bishop's palace, a secular building of that early age is unique in Central Europe. The real Přemyslid Palace, i.e. the residence of Olomouc dukes from the governing Přemyslid dynasty
Premyslid dynasty
The Přemyslids , were a Czech royal dynasty which reigned in Bohemia and Moravia , and partly also in Hungary, Silesia, Austria and Poland.-Legendary rulers:...

, used to stand nearby.

Saint Maurice Church
Church of Saint Maurice (Olomouc)
Church of Saint Maurice is a Roman Catholic church in Olomouc, Czech Republic. It is located in the city centre, near the Upper Square and remains one of the most important landmarks of the city....

, a fine Gothic building of the 15th century with the 6th largest church organ in Central Europe inside and Saint Michael's Church are also worth mentioning. The Neo-baroque
The Baroque Revival or Neo-baroque was an architectural style of the late 19th century. The term is used to describe architecture which displays important aspects of Baroque style, but is not of the Baroque period proper—i.e., the 17th and 18th centuries.Some examples of Neo-baroque architecture:*...

 chapel of Saint John Sarkander stands on the site of a former town prison. Catholic priest John Sarkander
John Sarkander
Saint John Sarkander was a Polish and Moravian priest.Sarkander studied since 1597 at the University of Olomouc and then since 1600 at the Charles University, where he became doctor of philosophy. Later, he studied theology at University of Graz. He was ordained in 1609 and worked in Holešov from...

 was imprisoned here at the beginning of the Thirty Years' War
Thirty Years' War
The Thirty Years' War was fought primarily in what is now Germany, and at various points involved most countries in Europe. It was one of the most destructive conflicts in European history....

. He was accused of collaboration with the enemy and tortured here, but did not reveal anything because of the Seal of Confession, and died. The torture rack
Rack (torture)
The rack is a torture device consisting of a rectangular, usually wooden frame, slightly raised from the ground, with a roller at one, or both, ends, having at one end a fixed bar to which the legs were fastened, and at the other a movable bar to which the hands were tied...

 and Sarkander’s gravestone are preserved here. He was canonized by Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II
Blessed Pope John Paul II , born Karol Józef Wojtyła , reigned as Pope of the Catholic Church and Sovereign of Vatican City from 16 October 1978 until his death on 2 April 2005, at of age. His was the second-longest documented pontificate, which lasted ; only Pope Pius IX ...

 during his visit in Olomouc in 1995. Another place that John Paul II visited here was Svatý Kopeček ("The Holy Hillock"), a part of Olomouc lying on a hill, with the magnificent Baroque
The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

 church of the Visitation of the Virgin Mary looking down on the city. The Pope promoted the church to Minor Basilica
Minor basilica
Minor basilica is a title given to some Roman Catholic churches. By canon law no Catholic church can be honoured with the title of basilica unless by apostolic grant or from immemorial custom....

. There are a number of monasteries in Olomouc, including Hradisko Monastery
Hradisko Monastery
Hradisko Monastery is a premonstratensian monastery in Olomouc in the Czech Republic. It was established in 1078 and it serves as an military hospital since 1802.-Architecture:...

, Convent of Dominican Sisters in Olomouc
Convent of Dominican Sisters in Olomouc
The Convent of Dominican Sisters in Olomouc was founded in 1287 and functioned as a convent for the Dominican Sisters until 1782, when it passed over to the Order of Ursulines...

 and others.

Remarkable sights are also the Olomouc Orthodox Church
Olomouc Orthodox Church
Olomouc Orthodox Church is an orthodox church in the city of Olomouc in Moravia, in the Czech Republic....

 consecrated to St. Gorazd or Mausoleum of Yugoslav Soldiers, a monument, commemorating the death of 1,188 Yugoslav soldiers which were wounded on battlefields of the World War I and died in local military hospitals.

The principal secular building is the town hall, completed in the 15th century, flanked on one side by a gothic chapel, transformed now into a museum. It possesses a tower 250 ft (76.2 m) high, adorned with an astronomical clock
Astronomical clock
An astronomical clock is a clock with special mechanisms and dials to display astronomical information, such as the relative positions of the sun, moon, zodiacal constellations, and sometimes major planets.-Definition:...

 in an uncommon Socialist Realist style (the original look from 15th century was destroyed at the end of the World War II and reconstructed in 1947–1955 by Karel Svolinský).

Olomouc is also proud of its six Baroque fountains. The fountains survived in such number thanks to the cautious policy of the city council. While most European cities were removing old fountains after they had built their water supply piping, Olomouc decided to keep them as water reservoirs in case of fire. For their decoration, ancient Roman
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 motifs were used. Five of them depict the Roman
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

 gods Jupiter (image), Mercury
Mercury (mythology)
Mercury was a messenger who wore winged sandals, and a god of trade, the son of Maia Maiestas and Jupiter in Roman mythology. His name is related to the Latin word merx , mercari , and merces...

 (image), Triton
Triton (mythology)
Triton is a mythological Greek god, the messenger of the big sea. He is the son of Poseidon, god of the sea, and Amphitrite, goddess of the sea, whose herald he is...

 (image), Neptune
Poseidon was the god of the sea, and, as "Earth-Shaker," of the earthquakes in Greek mythology. The name of the sea-god Nethuns in Etruscan was adopted in Latin for Neptune in Roman mythology: both were sea gods analogous to Poseidon...

 and Hercules
Hercules is the Roman name for Greek demigod Heracles, son of Zeus , and the mortal Alcmene...

 (image), and one depicts Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general and statesman and a distinguished writer of Latin prose. He played a critical role in the gradual transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire....

, the legendary founder of the city (image).
In the 21st century, an Arion
Arion was a kitharode in ancient Greece, a Dionysiac poet credited with inventing the dithyramb: "As a literary composition for chorus dithyramb was the creation of Arion of Corinth," The islanders of Lesbos claimed him as their native son, but Arion found a patron in Periander, tyrant of Corinth...

 fountain was added to the main square, inspired by the older project.

In the largest square in Olomouc (Horní náměstí - Upper Square), in front of the astronomical clock, is a scale model of the entire old town in bronze.


The university, the oldest in Moravia and second oldest in the Czech Republic, was founded in 1573 as part of effort to reestablish Roman Catholicism in the country: roughly nine out of ten inhabitants of the Czech Crown lands were Protestants at the time. Most of its faculties were suppressed in 1850s by the Habsburg régime in retaliation for the professors' and students' support for the 1848 revolution
Revolutions of 1848 in the Habsburg areas
From March 1848 through July 1849, the Habsburg Austrian Empire was threatened by revolutionary movements. Much of the revolutionary activity was of a nationalist character: the empire, ruled from Vienna, included Austrian Germans, Hungarians, Slovenes, Poles, Czechs, Slovaks, Ruthenians,...

 and the Czech National Revival
Czech National Revival
Czech National Revival was a cultural movement, which took part in the Czech lands during the 18th and 19th century. The purpose of this movement was to revive Czech language, culture and national identity...

. The university was fully restored in 1946 with its name extended to Palacký University of Olomouc.

The Palacký University of Olomouc plays a very important role in the life of the town: with over 25,200 students (including those at Moravian College Olomouc) Olomouc has the highest density of university students in Central Europe. Many of the town's services are student-oriented and close not only during holidays, but also during the university exam periods. During the summer holiday even the trams run solo (apart from rush-hours), while during the rest of the year the lines are served by two coupled trams. The University buildings comprise about a third of the town's heritage centre; notable ones include the University Art Centre and the so-called Armoury (now Central Library).


List of Olomouc mayors:
  • 1851–1865 Franz Kreilm
  • 1865–1866 Franz Hein
    Franz Hein
    Franz Hein was a German scientist. One of his notable contributions is in the discovery of π- complexes of chromium.-History:...

  • 1866–1872 Dr. Karl Borom. Johann Nep. Alois Schrötter
  • 1872–1896 Josef von Engel
  • 1896–1918 Karl Brandhuber
  • 1918–1919 government commissioner
  • 1919–1923 Dr. Karel Mareš
  • 1923–1939 Dr. Richard Fischer
  • 1939–1941 Dr. Fritz Czermak
  • 1942–1945 Dr. Julius Schreitter
  • 1945–1947 Václav Stibor-Kladenský
  • 1947–1949 Jan Kučera
  • 1949–1950 Ladislav Bernatský
  • 1950–1956 Antonín Eliáš
  • 1957–1960 Josef Drmola
  • 1960–1970 František Řeháček
  • 1970–1986 Dr. Jan Tencian
  • 1986–1989 Ing. Josef Votoček
  • 1989–1990 Břetislav Baran
  • 1990–1994 Milan Hořínek PhD.
  • 1994–1998 RNDr. Ivan Kosatík
  • 1998–2006 Ing. Martin Tesařík
  • 2006– Martin Novotný

  • Sport

    • SK Sigma Olomouc
      SK Sigma Olomouc
      SK Sigma Olomouc is a Czech football club from the city of Olomouc. They reached the quarterfinals of the 1991-1992 UEFA Cup.Since 2011, Olomouc have had an agreement where FK SAN-JV Šumperk is acting as their farm team.- Historical names :...

       – football club
    • HC Olomouc
      HC Olomouc
      HC Olomouc is an ice hockey team in the First National Hockey League from Olomouc. They won the Extraliga championship in the 1993/1994 season...

       – hockey club
    • Skokani Olomouc – baseball club
    • 1. HFK Olomouc
      1. HFK Olomouc
      1. HFK Olomouc is a football club in the Czech Republic, based in Olomouc. The club is currently playing in the Moravian-Silesian Football League....

       – football club
    • DHK Olomouc – women's handball club
    • AK Olomouc – athletics club
    • RC Olomouc
      RC Olomouc
      RC Olomouc is a Czech rugby club based in Olomouc. They currently play in the KB První Liga.-History:The club was founded in 1953. It started when Milos Dobrý, a former Czechoslovak international and the last president of the Czechoslovak union, moved to Olomouc from Prague in 1951...

       – rugby club

    Twin towns – Sister cities

    Olomouc is twinned
    Town twinning
    Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

    Antony, Hauts-de-Seine
    Antony, Hauts-de-Seine
    -Personalities:Antony was the birthplace of:* Nicola Sirkis singer with the French band Indochine* Agnès Jaoui screenwriter, film director and actress* Laurent Lafforgue , mathematician-International relations:...

    , France Lucerne
    Lucerne is a city in north-central Switzerland, in the German-speaking portion of that country. Lucerne is the capital of the Canton of Lucerne and the capital of the district of the same name. With a population of about 76,200 people, Lucerne is the most populous city in Central Switzerland, and...

    , Switzerland Nördlingen
    Nördlingen is a town in the Donau-Ries district, in Bavaria, Germany, with a population of 20,000. It is located in the middle of a complex meteorite crater, called the Nördlinger Ries. The town was also the place of two battles during the Thirty Years' War...

    , Germany
    Pécs is the fifth largest city of Hungary, located on the slopes of the Mecsek mountains in the south-west of the country, close to its border with Croatia. It is the administrative and economical centre of Baranya county...

    , Hungary Owensboro
    Owensboro, Kentucky
    Owensboro is the fourth largest city by population in the U.S. state of Kentucky. It is the county seat of Daviess County. It is located on U.S. Route 60 about southeast of Evansville, Indiana, and is the principal city of the Owensboro, Kentucky, Metropolitan Statistical Area. The city's...

    , Kentucky, USA Subotica
    Subotica is a city and municipality in northern Serbia, in the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina...

    , Serbia
    Tampere is a city in southern Finland. It is the most populous inland city in any of the Nordic countries. The city has a population of , growing to approximately 300,000 people in the conurbation and over 340,000 in the metropolitan area. Tampere is the third most-populous municipality in...

    , Finland Veenendaal, Netherlands Volzhskiy, Russia

    In popular culture

    • Asteroid 30564 Olomouc
      30564 Olomouc
      30564 Olomouc is a main belt asteroid. It was discovered by Petr Pravec on July 28, 2001 at Ondřejov Observatory and was named after Olomouc, a city in central Moravia, the Czech Republic, where the discoverer lived....

       was named after this city.
    • Scenes from the 2002 television serial Doctor Zhivago
      Doctor Zhivago (TV serial)
      Doctor Zhivago is a 2002 British television serial directed by Giacomo Campiotti and starring Keira Knightley and Sam Neill. The teleplay by Andrew Davies is based on the 1957 novel of the same title by Boris Pasternak....

      were filmed in Olomouc.

    See also

    • Academia Film Olomouc
      Academia Film Olomouc
      Academia Film Olomouc is the international festival of science documentary films held annually in April under the patronage of the Palacký University, Olomouc, Czech Republic...

    • List of bishops and archbishops of Olomouc
    • Olomouc Appanage

    External links



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